बरगद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

baragad
Banyan-Tree.jpg
jagat padap
sngh maignoliyophaita (Magnoliophyta)
varg maignoliyopsida (Magnoliopsida)
gan rosels (Rosales)
kul moresi (Moraceae)
jati faikas (Ficus)
prajati venagailensis (benghalensis)
dvipad nam faikas venagailensis (Ficus benghalensis)
any janakari baragad, bharat ka rashh‍triy vriksh hai.

baragad (angrezi:Banyan Tree) bharat ka rashh‍triy vriksh hai. ise 'bar', 'bat' ya 'vat' bhi kahate hain. baragad 'moresi' ya 'shahatoot' kul ka ped hai. isaka vaigyanik nam 'faikas venagailensis (Ficus bengalensis) aur angrezi nam 'baniyan tri' hai. hindoo log is vriksh ko poojaniy manate hain. isake darshan sparsh tatha seva karane se pap door hota hai tatha du:kh aur vyadhi nasht hoti hai. at: is vriksh ke ropan aur grishm kal men isaki jad men pani dene se puny snchay hota hai, aisa mana jata hai. uttar se dakshin tak samast bharat men vat vriksh utpann hote dekha jata hai. isaki shakhaon se baroh nikalakar zamin par pahunchakar stnbh ka roop le leti hain. isase ped ka vistar bahut zald badh jata hai.[1] baragad ke ped ko magha nakshatr ka pratik mana jata hai. magha nakshatr men janm lene vale vyakti baragad ki pooja karate hai. is nakshatr men janm lene vale vyakti apane ghar men baragad ke ped ko lagate hai.[2]

pauranik manyata

bharat men baragad ke vriksh ko ek mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hai. is vriksh ko 'vat' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah ek sadabahar ped hai, jo apane prarohon ke lie vishvavikhyat hai. isaki jaden zamin men kshaitij roop men door-door tak phailakar pasar jati hai. isake patton se doodh jaisa padarth nikalata hai. yah ped 'trimoorti' ka pratik hai. isaki chhal men vishnu, jadon men brahma aur shakhaon men shiv virajate hain. agnipuran ke anusar baragad utsarjan ko darshata hai. isilie sntan ke lie ichchhit log isaki pooja karate hain. is karan se baragad kata nahin jata hai. akal men isake patte janavaron ko khilae jate hain. apani visheshataon aur lnbe jivan ke karan is vriksh ko anashh‍var mana jata hai. isilie is vriksh ko akshayavat bhi kaha jata hai. lok manyata hai ki baragad ke ek ped ko kate jane par prayashchit ke taur par ek bakare ki bali deni padati hai. vamanapuran men vanaspatiyon ki vyutpatti ko lekar ek katha bhi ati hai. ashvin mas men vishnu ki nabhi se jab kamal prakat hua, tab any devon se bhi vibhinn vriksh utpann hue. usi samay yakshon ke raja 'manibhadr' se vat ka vriksh utpann hua.

yakshanamadhisyapi manibhadrasy narad.
vatavriksh: samabhav tasmistasy rati: sada..

skandapuran ka ullekh
baragad ke vriksh, kolakata

yaksh se nikat sambandh ke karan hi vat vriksh ko 'yakshavas', 'yakshataru', 'yakshavarook' adi namon se bhi pukara jata hai. puranon men aisi anek pratikatmak kathaen, prakriti, vanaspati v devataon ko lekar milati hain. jis prakar ashvatth arthath pipal ko vishnu ka pratik kaha gaya, usi prakar is jatadhari vat vriksh ko sakshat jatadhari pashupati shnkar ka roop man liya gaya hai. skandapuran men kaha gaya hai-

ashvattharoopi vishnu: syadvaroopi shivo yat:

arthath pipalaroopi vishnu v jataroopi shiv hain.

harivnsh puran ka ullekh

harivnsh puran men ek vishal vriksh ka varnan ata hai, jisaka nam 'bhndiravat' tha aur usaki bhavyata se mugdh ho svayn bhagavan ne usaki chhaya men vishram kiya.

nyagrodharvatagramn bhandirnnam namat:.
drishtva tatr matin chakre nivasay tat: prabhu:..

ramayan ka ullekh
  • 'subhadravat' nam se ek aur vat vriksh ka bhi varnan milata hai, jisaki dali garud ne tod di thi. ramayan ke akshayavat ki katha to lok prachalit hai hi. parantu valmiki ramayan men ise 'shyamanyagrodh' kaha gaya hai. yamuna ke tat par vah vat atyant vishal tha. usaki chhaya itani thandi thi ki use 'shyamanyogradh' nam diya gaya. shyam shabd kadachit vriksh ki vishal chhaya ke niche ke ghane athah andhakar ki or snket karata hai aur gahare rng ki patravali ki or. ramayan ke paravarti sahity men isaka akshayavat ke nam se ullekh milata hai. ram, lakshman aur sita apane van pravas ke samay jab yamuna par kar doosare tat par utarate hain, to tat par sthit is vishal vat vriksh ko sita pranam karati hain.

kivadnti

baragad ke vriksh

baragad mool roop se maidani bhagon ka vriksh hai. dharmik mahattv ka vriksh hone ke karan isake sambandh men anek kinvadntiyan prachalit ho gee hain. ek kinvadnti ke anusar mahapralay hone par sampoorn dharati jalamagn ho gee thi. charon or pani hi pani dikhaee de raha tha. mahapralayay ki bhayanak laharon ne sab kuchh samapt kar diya tha. dhire dhire laharen shant hueen. isi samay baragad ke patte par shishu roop men narayan prakat hue. vah apane pair ka angootha choos rahe the. narayan ki nabhi se ek kamal ke phool ka janm hua. is kamal par brahma virajaman the. isake bad brahma ne manav sahit vishv ke samast jivon ki srishti ki. narayan ka vas hone ke karan is vriksh ko hindoo dharm ke anuyayi ek pavitr vriksh manate hain.

bharat men baragad prachin kal se ek mahattvapoorn vriksh mana gaya hai. yajurved, atharvaved, ramayan, mahabharat, shatapath brahman, aitarey brahman, mahopanishad, subhashitavali, manusmriti, raghuvnsh aur ramacharitamanas adi grnthon men isaka ullekh kiya gaya hai. hinduon men baragad ke sambandh men anek dharmik vishvas aur kinvadntiyan prachalit hain. jeth mas ki amavasya ko ki jane vali 'vat savitri' ki pooja isaka praman hai. baragad ko pavitr vriksh manane ke karan ise katana pap samajha jata hai.

vibhinn nam

baragad 'moresi' parivar ka vriksh hai, jise angrezi men 'faikas venagailensis' kaha jata hai. hindi men ise vat, bar, bad adi namon se jana jata hai. vishv tatha bharat men alag-alag sthanon par baragad ke vibhinn nam hain. ise arabi men katirool ashjar aur jatujj vanib, farasi men darakhte rish aur darakhte resha, indoneshiya men sard, purtagali men di raiz aur alabero di rai­z tatha roosi men derevo aur phigovoe kahate hain. bharatiy bhashaon men ise kannad men godiyar, gujarati men bad, tamil men alamaram, telugoo men peddamarri, pnjabi men boohad aur bohad, bngali men badagachh, marathi men vad, var, malayalam men alamaram aur sindhi men nug kaha jata hai.

snskrit men yah vriksh nyagroth, vat adi namon se pukara jata hai. vanaspati nighntuon men isake 29 namon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. avarohi, kshiri, jatal, dant, dhruv, nil, nyagroth, padarohi, padarohin, padarohi, bahupad, mndali, mahachchhay, yakshataru, yakshavasak, yakshavas, raktapada, raktaphal, rohin, vat, vanaspati, vas, vitapi, vaishravan, shrringi, vaishnavanavas, shipharooh, skndhaj evn skndharooha, ye sabhi nam baragad ki snrachana sambandhi visheshataon aur isake gunon par adharit hain.

snrachana

baragad ke vriksh ki pattiyan

baragad ek vishal, ooncha aur bahut bade kshetr men phailane vala vriksh hai. isaki oonchaee 20 mitar se 30 mitar tak ho sakati hai. pray: yah dekha gaya hai ki jngal men svat: vikasit baragad ke tane adhik mote nahin hote. isake viparit khule evn sookhe sthanon par paye jane vale baragad ke tane adhik mote hote hain. isaka tana oopar uthakar anek shakhaon aur upashakhaon men vibhakt ho jata hai. isaki shakhaon aur upashakhaon ki ek visheshata yah hai ki ye charon or phaili hoti hain. tane aur shakhaon ki motaee evn svaroop par isaki ayu ka prabhav padata hai. chhote aur naye baragad ke vrikshon ka tana gol aur shakhaen chikani hoti hain tatha purane vrikshon ke tane aur shakhaen khuradare evn papadi vale hote hain. is prakar ke vrikshon ke tanon ke lambe, chaude ghere gol n hokar anek taron jaisi jataon ka samooh sa lagate hain.

jataen

baragad ki shakhaon se jataen nikalati hain. arambh men ye patali hoti hain aur niche ki or jhoolati rahati hain. kuchh samay ke bad ye jamin tak pahunch jati hain aur jamin ke bhitar se khady ras lene lagati hain. dhire dhire inaka vikas hota hai aur ek lambe samay ke bad ye tane ke saman moti, kathor aur majaboot ho jati hain tatha vriksh ka bojh uthane ke layak ho jati hain. bahut purane baragad ke vriksh jataon se apani kaya ka bahut adhik vistar kar lete hain aur ek lambe chaude kshetr men phail jate hain. inake tanon aur jataon men gupha si ban jati hai, jinamen vyakti baith sakate hain ya phir so sakate hain. baragad ko isaki lambi lambi jataon ke karan hi jatajootadhari mahatma kaha jata hai.

pattiyan

baragad ki patali daliyon par sabhi taraph bade aur golaee lie hue andakar pattiyan nikalati hain. kintu ek sthan se keval ek patti hi nikalati hai. patton ki lnbaee 10 sentimitar se 20 sentimitar tatha chaudaee 5 sentimitar se 13 sentimitar tak hoti hai. baragad ke patte kafi mote hote hain evn ek chhote se majaboot dnthal dvara dal se jude rahate hain. patte ek taraph se chikane hote hain aur inaka rng gahara hara hota hai. patton ke doosari or ka bhag chikana nahin hota aur rng halka hara hota hai. naye patte pray: faravari-march men nikalate hain. kabhi kabhi sitambar-aktoobar men bhi naye patte nikal ate hain. naye patte lali liye hue aur bahut hi sundar hote hain.

phal

vriksh par garmiyon ke mausam men phal ate hain. samanyat: faravari se mee ke madhy men phal ate hain aur pakate hain. kabhi kabhi sitambar tak ye phal dekhe ja sakate hain. kuchh sthanon par baragad men vilamb se phal nikalate hain aur disambar tak bane rahate hain. isake phal chhote, gol aur dnthal vihin hote hain. ye shakhaon par unhin sthanon par nikalate hain, jahan patte nikalate hain. isake phal jode men nikalate hain evn pas-pas aur ghane hote hain. vastav men baragad ka phal ek vishesh prakar ka pushp samooh hota hai, jo gol akar lekar phal ban jata hai. baragad ke phal ke bhitar bahut chhote chhote kide hote hain, inhen anjir kit kahate hain. in kidon ke abhav men baragad ka vriksh bij utpann nahin kar sakata. ye kide ek phool se doosare phool men ghusate hain, jisase phool ke nar mada kshetr ek doosare ke sampark men ate hain aur paragan ki kriya poori hoti hai.

krishnavat

bharat ke kuchh bhagon men ek vishesh prakar ka baragad paya jata hai. ise 'krishnavat' kahate hain. krishnavat ke patte mude hue hote hain. ye dekhane men done ke akar ke hote hain. is vriksh ke sambandh men yah manyata hai ki bhagavan krishn balyavastha se hi gayon ko charane ke lie van men jaya karate the. jab gay char rahi hoti thin, tab krishn kisi vriksh par baithakar madhur bansuri bajaya karate the. bansuri ki avaj sunate hi gopiyan sabhi kary chhod kar unake pas daudi chali ati thin. ve apane sath dahi-makhkhan adi bhi le ati thin. krishn ko baragad ke patton se done banane men bahut samay lagata tha aur gopiyan bhi bechaini anubhav karane lagati thin. krishn gopiyon ke man ki bat sach samajh gaye. unhonne turnt hi apani maya se vriksh ke sabhi patton ko donon ke akar vale patton men badal diya. is prakar baragad ki ek nee prajati ka janm hua.

visheshata

bharat men baragad ke do sabase bade ped kolakata ke rajakiy upavan men aur maharashtr ke satara upavan men hain. shivapur ke vatavriksh ki mool jad ka ghera 42 phut aur any chhote chhote 230 stnbh hain. inaki shakha prashakhaon ki chhaya lagabhag 1000 phut ki paridhi men phaili huee hai. satara ke vat vriksh, 'kabir vat', ki paridhi 1,587 phut aur uttar-dakshin 565 phut aur poorab-pashchim 442 phut hai. lnka men ek vat vriksh hai, jisamen 340 bade aur 3000 chhote - chhote stnbh hain. baragad ki chhaya ghani, badi, shital aur grishm kal men anndaprad hoti hai. isaki chhaya men saikadon, hazaron vyakti ek sath baith sakate hain. baragad ke phal pipal ke phal sadrish chhote chhote hote hain. sadharanataya ye phal khae nahin jate par durbhiksh ke samay isake phalan par log nirvah kar sakate hain. isaki lakadi komal aur sarndhr hoti hai. at: keval jalavan ke kam men ati hai. isake ped se saphed ras nikalata hai jisase ek prakar ka chipachipa padarth taiyar hota hai jisaka upayog bahelie chidiyon ke phnsane men karate hain. isake ras (akshir), chhal, aur patton ka upayog ayurvediy oshadhiyon men anek rogon ke nivaran men hota hai. isake patton ko janavar, visheshat: bakariyan, badi ruchi se khati hain. vriksh par lakh ke kide baithae ja sakate hain jisase lakh prapt ho sakati hai.[1]

mahattvapoorn tathy

baragad ka vriksh
  • baragad bharat ka 'rashh‍triy vriksh' (faikas venagailensis) hai.
  • baragad ke vriksh ki shakhaen door-door tak phaili tatha jaden gahari hoti hain. itani gahari jaden kisi aur vriksh ki nahin hoti hain.
  • jadon aur adhik tane se shakhaen banati hain aur is visheshata aur lnbe jivan ke karan is vriksh ko anashh‍var mana jata hai.
  • vat, yani baragad ko 'akshay vat' bhi kaha jata hai, kyonki yah ped kabhi nasht nahin hota hai.
  • ab bhi baragad ke vriksh ko gramin jivan ka kendr binh‍du mana jata hai aur aj bhi ganv ki parishad isi ped ki chhaya men pnchayat karati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 baragad (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 25 joon, 2012.
  2. magha nakshatr (hindi) bharatakosh. abhigaman tithi: 29 agast, 2013.

snbndhit lekh