बादरायण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

badarayan vedant ke nyay-prasthan ke pravartak granth brahmasootr ke rachayita the. jitane brahmasootr upalabdh hain, unaka rachayita ek hi vyakti tha aur ve badarayan the. vachaspatimishr ke samay se badarayan ko 'vyas' bhi kaha jane laga tha, kintu brahmasootrakar badarayan vedavyas ya mahabharat ke rachayita 'krishn dvaipayan' se bhinn vyakti the. bharatiy darshan men brahmasootr ka mahattv anekavidh hai. sabase pahale usaka mahattv is bat men hai ki usane upanishadon ko ek darshan ka roop pradan kiya. vah vedant ka snsthapak ban gaya. brahmasootron ka adhyayan karane se pata chalata hai ki badarayan pratyaksh, anuman, upaman tatha shabd ya shruti ko praman manate the.

brahmasootr ke rachayita

'brahmasootr' grnth ki rachana badarayan dvara ki gee thi. is brahmasootr ko vedantasootr ya sharirik mimansasootr bhi kaha jata hai. is samay jo brahmasootr upalabdh hai, usamen shnkarachary ke anusar kul 555 sootr hain. any acharyon ke anusar brahmasootron ki snkhya isase bhinn hai, parantu choonki brahmasootron ke upalabdh bhashyon men sab se prachin shnkarachary ka 'sharirikabhashy' hi hai, at: brahmasootron ke path tatha snkhya ke vishay men vah any bhashyon se adhik pramanik hai. adhunik yug men daauktar shri krishnapad belavalakar ne dikhalaya hai ki brahmasootron ka lekhak ek vyakti nahin tha. kintu vedant darshanon ki paramparaen unake mat ka khndan karati hain. jitane brahmasootr upalabdh hain, unaka rachayita ek hi vyakti tha aur ve badarayan the.

samay kal

badarayan ka samay nishchit karane ke lie nimnalikhit tathyon ka upayog kiya jata hai-

  1. badarayan ne apane brahmasootr men jaimini, badari, kashakritsn, karshnajini, audulomi, ashmarathy tatha atrey ka ullekh kiya hai. ye sabhi brahmasootron ke rachayita the. kintu inake brahmasootr ab anupalabdh hain. inamen se kashakritsn ka ullekh patnjali ke mahabhashy men bhi milata hai. ashvalayan tatha katyayan ke shrautasootron men tatha bodhayan aur bharadvaj ke grihyasootron men bhi inamen se kuchh acharyon ke nam ullikhit hain.
  2. jaimini ne mimansasootr men tatha shandily ne bhaktisootr men badarayan ka namollekh kiya hai.
  3. badarayan ne sankhyamat, mimansamat, yogamat, vaisheshikamat, bauddhasarvastivad, bauddh vigyanavad ya shoonyavad, jainamat, pashupat mat tatha pancharatr mat ka khndan kiya hai. isase nishchit hai ki ve buddh ke paravarti hain. is adhar par daauktar heraman yakobi ne unhen nagarjun ke bad ka mana hai. kintu vigyanavad ya shoonyavad ka udbhav nagarjun ke poorv bauddh granthon men bhi milata hai. at: badarayan nishchith roop se nagarjun se poorvavarti the. kintu unake poorv mahayan dharm ki utpatti ho gee thi, kyonki unhonne sarvastivad ko vigyanavad se bhinn karake rakha hai.
  4. badarayan ke brahmasootr par upavarsh ne jo panini ke guru the tatha baudhayan ne jinaki parampara ka uddhar ramanuj ne kiya tha, vrittiyan likhi thin, kintu ye vrittiyan ab upalabdh nahin hai. unake kuchh ansh paravarti vedant aur mimansa ke sahity men upalabdh hain.
  5. garudapuran, padmapuran, manusmriti tatha harivnshapuran men bhi vedantasootr ka ullekh tatha sndarbh hai.

vyas ki upadhi

in sab adharon par badarayan ke brahmasootr ka rachana kal lagabhag 200 ee.poo. thaharata hai. vachaspatimishr ke samay se badarayan ko vyas kaha jane laga tha. kintu brahmasootrakar badarayan vedavyas ya mahabharat ke rachayita krishn dvaipayan se bhinn vyakti the. karan, shnkarachary ne un donon men bhed kiya hai. vedantadeshik ne bhi yah mana hai ki sabase pahale vachaspatimishr ne hi badarayan aur vyas ka abhed kiya tha. vastav men vyas ek upadhi hai. snbhav hai, vachaspatimishr ne badarayan ko vyas ki upadhi pradan ki ho, kyonki unake brahmasootr men upanishadon ke vakyon ka ek darshanik vargikaran kiya gaya hai, arthath ved ke antim bhag upanishadon ka vibhajanapoorvak vyakhyan kiya gaya hai. kuchh bhi ho, yah nirvivad hai ki brahmasootr ke rachayita vyas se bhinn hain. badarayan nam se spasht hai ki ve badar gotr men utpann hue the. badar ke hi gotr men badari bhi utpann hue the. at: kuchh log badari tatha badarayan ko abhinn samajhate hain. kintu svayn brahmasootr men hi badarayan ne apana namollekh badari se bhinn karake kiya hai. at: ye donon do vyakti hain. jo log badarayan aur vyas (parashary) ko abhinn karate hain, ve manate hain ki jahan vyas rahate the, vahan badar (ber) ke vriksh bahut the, is karan unhen badarayan kaha jata hai. kintu yah vyakhya uchit nahin hai, kyonki brahmasootrakar parashary se bhinn the. phir vyaktivachak nam ka gunavachak arth nahin hota hai.

brahmasootr ka parichay

brahmasootr men char adhyay hain, jinake nam hain-

  1. samanvay
  2. avirodh
  3. sadhan
  4. phal

samanvay adhyay men upanishad ke vakyon ka samanvay brahmavad men kiya gaya hai. avirodh adhyay men dikhaya gaya hai ki brahmavad ka virodh kisi bhi shastr ya shastravaky se nahin hai. sadhan adhyay men brahmaprapti ke upay batae gaye hain aur phal adhyay men brahmgyan ka phal arthath svarg aur moksh ka vivechan hai. pratyek adhyay men char pad hain. is prakar brahmasootr men solah pad hain. phir pratyek pad men kee adhikaran hain. adhikaran ka tatpary ek vishesh samasya ya vishay ka vivechan hai. ye vastut: avantar prakaran hain. adhikaran ke panch avayav hote hain- vishay, snshay, poorvapaksh, uttarapaksh aur nirnay. adhikaran ke is svaroop se spasht hai ki brahmasootrakar apane vishay ka pratipadan karane ke anantar us par snshay karate hain aur us snshay ko utpann karane ke lie poorvapaksh prastut karate hain. ant men ve uttarapaksh men poorvapaksh ka khndan karate hain aur phir apane nirnay ko rakhate hain. spashtat: yah pranali vishuddh alochanatmak hai. isase siddh hai ki brahmasootr ki darshanik pranali tarkik hai. pratyek adhikaran ka vivechan ek ya anek sootron men kiya gaya hai. kuchh adhikaranon ke vivechan ek hi sootr men hain aur kuchhek ke vivechan ath-ath, nav-nav ya das-das sootron men hain. sootr atyant snkshipt prakarthan hain.

brahmasootr ka mahattv

bharatiy darshan men brahmasootr ka mahattv anekavidh hai. sabase pahale usaka mahattv is bat men hai ki usane upanishadon ko ek darshan ka roop pradan kiya. vah vedant ka snsthapak ban gaya. usake mahattv ke hi anuroop use ab vedant ka nyay prasthan kaha jata hai. vah vedant ki prasthan-trayi men anyatam hai. doosare, usaka mahattv is bat men hai ki vah sarvashastriy brahmasootr siddh hua hai. kashakritsn adi ke brahmasootr ekashakhiy the, is karan ve badarayan ke samane tik n sake aur kuchh samay pashchath kal-kavalit ho gaye. tisare, usaka mahattv is bat men hai ki usane bauddh dharm aur darshan ke akramanon se vaidik darshan ki raksha ki. chauthe, usaka mahattv is bat men hai ki vah hindoo dharm ka sarvamany aur sarv-pramanik granth ban gaya hai. yahi karan hai ki shnkarachary (630 ee.), bhaskar (8vin shati), yadav prakash (11vin shati), shripati (14vin shati), vallabh (14vin shati), vigyanabhikshu (16vin shati) tatha baladev (18vin shati) ne brahmasootr par bhashy likhe.

11vin shati se atharahavin shati tak brahmasootr ka mahattv vaidik ya aupacharik darshan ki kasauti ke roop men ho gaya. jo darshan is kasauti par khara utare vah vaidik darshan mana jane laga. is kasauti ka tatpary hai ki brahmasootr ke anusar hona hi kisi darshan ki pramanikata hai. unnisavin shati men ramanand sampraday ke anusar bhi brahmasootr par bhashy likhe ge, jinamen anand bhashy, janaki bhashy tatha vaidik bhashy mukhy hain. vaidik bhashy ki visheshata yah hai ki isamen brahmasootr ko ved mntron ka snyojan ya samanvay karane vala siddh kiya gaya hai, n ki upanishad vakyon ka. inake atirikt aryamuni (20vin shati), haraprasad (20vin shati), radhakrishnan (20 vin shati) adi ne bhi brahmasootr par bhashy likhe. brahmasootr ke rachana kal se lekar aj tak lagabhag pratyek shatabdi men is par vritti ya bhashy likhe jate rahe aur in granthon se hindoo dharm ka snvardhan hota raha. yadyapi in bhashyon se brahmasootr ka mahattv badh gaya hai, tathapi ek samasya bhi khadi ho gayi hai. akhirakar badarayan ka apana darshan kya tha? in bhashyon men se kisako praman mana jae.

badarayan ka darshan

is samay badarayan ke brahmasootr par advaitamat, vaishnavamat, shaivamat, shaktamat, tatha ary samaj mat ke bhashy upalabdh hain. shaktamat tatha ary samaj ke bhasharoo to atyant arvachin hain aur spashtat: badarayan ke mat nahin hain. inaki rachana keval yah dikhalane ke lie ki gee ki shaktamat tatha ary samaj ke mat poornataya vaidik hai aur brahmasootr ki vyakhya se bhi siddh hote hain. yahi bat shaivamat ke bhashyon ke bare men bhi nishchayapoorvak kahi ja sakati hai. kintu kya yahi bat vaishnavamat ke bhashyon ke bare men bhi kahi ja sakati hai. advait vedantiyon ka kahana hai ki vaishnavamat ke bhashy badarayan ke mat ke anusar nahin hain, kyonki badarayan brahmavadi the, n ki eeshvaravadi. kuchh bhi ho, vaishnavamat ne vishishtadvait, shuddhadvaitavad, dvaitavad ya bhedabhedavad aur achity bhedabhedavad ke darshanon ka vikas kiya hai aur in sabako badarayan ke matthe madh diya hai. kintu inake bhashyon men pray: shnkarachary ke bhashy ke khndan ki pravritti hi adhik dikh padati hai (nimbark ke bhashy ko chhodakar). yadav prakash ka bhashy aur shukabhashy anupalabdh hai. bhaskar ka bhashy bhi bhedabhedavadi hai. at: brahmasootr ke sabhi bhashyon ki aitihasik tatha darshanik pariksha karane se yahi siddh hota hai ki badarayan ka darshan advaitavad, bhedabhedavad aur vishishtadvaitavad men se hi koee ek hai. par in tinon men bhi itana antar hai ki badarayan ke darshan ka pata nahin sakata.

pratham panch sootr

punashch, yadi prachinata, tarkikata tatha upanishadanukoolata ki kasauti mana jae to shnkarachary ka bhashy hi badarayan ke abhimaton ke sarvadhik nikat hai. unaka darshan upanishadon ke 'ekamevadvitiy' sath ya brahm ka hi pratipadan karata hai. shnkarachary ke is kathan ko sabhi bhashyakar manate hain ki brahmasootron ka mukhy prayojan upanishad ke vakyon ko sngrathit karana hai. at: badarayan advaitavadi the. unake pratham panch sootr unake darshan ka sar prastut karate hain. ye nimnalikhit hain-

  1. athato brahmajigyasa- ab, is prakar brahmajigyasa karana hai.
  2. janmadyasy yat:- brahm vah hai, jisase is jagath ka janm hota hai, jisamen isaki sthiti hoti hai tatha jisamen isaka lay hota hai.
  3. shastrayonitvath- brahm ka gyan shastr se hota hai.
  4. tattu samanvayath- vah brahmgyan shastr ke samanvay se hota hai. shastr ka samanvay dharm gyan men nahin hai.
  5. eekshatenashibdamh- brahm chetan hai. at: vedabahy praman arthath pratyaksh tatha anuman se jagath ke adi karan ki jo mimansa ki jati hai, vah saty nahin hai.

isamen se pratham char sootron ko chatu:sootri kaha jata hai. pray: inamen hi panchaven sootr ka bhi abhipray a jata hai. isalie chatu:sootri ko hi badarayan ka mukhy mantavy mana jata hai.

darshanik pranali

brahmasootron ka adhyayan karane se pata chalata hai ki badarayan pratyaksh, anuman, upaman tatha shabd ya shruti ko praman manate the. kintu ve shruti virodhi pratyaksh, anuman aur upaman ko galat samajhate the. at: ve mukhyat: shrutivadi ya vedavadi the. unake anusar shruti anugrihit tark hi mukhy praman hain, jisake dvara brahm ki jigyasa ki jani chahie. darshan ka svaroop mimansa hai. shrutiyon ki tark sngat mimansa karana hi darshan hai. is mimansa se siddh hota hai ki darshan brahmavidya hai, kyonki shrutiyon ki mimansa ka samanvay usi men hai. pahale guru se brahm ka shravan karana hai, phir us shravan par manan karana hai. manan se brahmavidya ka nishchay ho jata hai aur any darshanon ka khndan ho jata hai. ant men is manan par nididhyasan karana hai. nididhyasan atmasakshatkararoop hota hai. usaka ant atm tyag men hota hai. yahi atm tyag brahm prapti hai. atma hi brahm hai. jo brahm ko janata hai, vah brahm hi ho jata hai.

vedant darshan ki sthapana

badarayan ki is pranali men tark ka mahattv itana adhik hai ki unaka brahmasootr mukhyat: ek khndan vala granth pratit hota hai. oopar chauthe sootr men poorv mimansa shastr ka khndan hai aur panchaven sootr men sankhy shastr ka khndan hai. lagata hai badarayan ke samay men hindoo dharm ke andar inhin donon darshanon ka adhik prachar tha. is karan inaka khndan karake badarayan ne vedant darshan ki sthapana ki. punashch, brahmasootr ke dvitiy adhyay men, visheshat: pratham do pakshon men, to khndan hi mukhy hain. dvitiy adhyay ka prathamapad smritipad kaha jata hai aur dvitiy adhyay ka dvitiyapad tarkapad. smritipad men vedant virodhi smritiyon ka khndan hai aur tarkavad men vedant virodhi darshanon ka. in darshanon men sankhy, vaisheshik, jainamat, bauddh sarvastivad, bauddh vigyanavad, pashupat aur pancharatr hain. is prakar paramat nirakaran ke dvara svamat sthapan ki pravritti badarayan men vishesh roop se dekhi jati hai. 'tu', 'n', 'cheth' adi shabdon ke dvara badarayan pakshapati the, n ki roodhivadi darshan ke. unaka vedant poorn alochanatmak darshan hai. yagyvalky aur kashakritsn ke pashchath ve hi sabase adhik mahattvapoorn vedanti hue hain.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: pro. sngamalal pandey |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 334 |


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