बादल सरकार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

badal sarakar
badal sarakar
poora nam sudhindr sarakar
any nam badal sarakar
janm 15 julaee sanh 1925 ee.
janm bhoomi kolakata
mrityu 13 mee , 2011
mrityu sthan kolakata
abhibhavak pita- mahendralal sarakar, mata- saralamana sarakar
karm-kshetr kala aur sahity
mukhy rachanaen indrajit (1963), pagala ghoda (1967), ram shyam jodoo (1961), kavi kahani (1964), baqi itihas (1965), tisari shatabdi (1966) adi.
shiksha baichalar aauph injini‍yaring' tatha 'taun ph‍laning' men diph‍loma
vidyalay shivapur injiniyaring kaaulej, kolakata
prasiddhi abhineta, natakakar, nirdeshak
vishesh yogadan nukkad natakon ko lokapriy banane, use rngamnch ki samakalin bahas ke bich lane men sabase bada yogadan badal sarakar ka hi hai.
nagarikata bharatiy
pahala natak saaulyooshan eks (1956)

badal sarakar (angrezi: Badal Sarakar, janm: 15 julaee, 1925 - mrity: 13 mee , 2011) abhineta, natakakar, nirdeshak aur in sabake atirikt rngamnch ke siddhantakar the. unhonne tisara rngamnch ka saiddhantik pratipadan kiya, aur use mnch par bhi utara. badal sarakar ne 'baichalar aauph injini‍yaring' tatha 'taun ph‍laning' men diph‍loma ki shiksha bharat aur videshon men li thi. vah bharat ke bahucharchit natakakaron men ek the. sataven dashak men poore desh men unaki dhoom machi thi. mohan rakesh, vijay tendulakar aur girish karnad ke sath badal sarakar ko milane ke bad hi us daur ka rngaparivesh snpoorn hota tha. unake natak bhari snkhya men hindi men aur anh‍y bharatiy bhashaon men mnchit hue aur ve bangh‍la ki paridhi se bahar nikal samagrata men bharat ke natakakar aur bharatiy rngamnch ke agua bane. unh‍honne rngamnch ko prekshagrih ki paridhi se bahar nikala. angan mnch ka siddhant racha. kam se kam kharch men natak mnchit karana aur amajan ke lie natak ko ni:shulh‍k upalabh‍dh karana unaka lakshh‍y bana. sanh 1956 men badal sarakar ne apana pahala natak 'saaulh‍yooshan ekh‍s' likha.[1]

jivan parichay

15 julaee, 1925 ko kolakata ke ek eesaee parivar men badal urph sudhindr sarakar ka janm hua. pita mahendralal sarakar 'skaautish charch kaaulej' men padhate the aur videshiyon dvara snchalit is snstha ke ve pahale bharatiy pradhanachary bane the. man, saralamana sarakar se badal sarakar ko sahity ki prerana mili. 1941 men pratham shreni men maitrik pas karane ke bad ve 'shivapur injiniyaring kaaulej' men bharti hue aur 1946 men ve sivil injiniyar bane. injiniyaring kaaulej men padhate samay ve markh‍savadi vicharadhara aur rajaniti se saghan roop se jud ge. kamyunist parti men sakriy roop se kee varshon tak jude rahane ke bavajood, bad men ve parti rajaniti se alag hat ge.

naukari

badal sarakar ne 1947 men nagapur ke pas ek nirman snsh‍tha men pahali naukari ki. bad men ve phir kolakata laut ae jahan unhonne jadavapur aur kolakata vishvavidyalay men injiniyar ki naukari ki. ve un dinon naukari ke sath-sath shivapur injiniyaring kaaulej men saynkalin kakshaon men 'taun ph‍laning' diph‍loma ke lie padhaee karate rahe. 1953 men domadar vaili karaporeshan ki naukari lekar maithan ge. maithan men badal sarakar 1956 tak the. isi dauran natak ke prati unaka rujhan dikhane laga. daftar ke sahakarmiyon ke sath milakar ek abhinav riharsal kh‍lab ki shuruat ki jahan, badal sarakar ke shabh‍don men 'riharsal hoga par natak ka mnchan kabhi nahin hoga.' jaisa abhinav niyam lagoo kiya gaya tha, par bad men sadasyon ke utsah se is niyam men todakar natakon ke mnchan ki shuruat huee.

bachapan se hi badal sarakar natakon ke prati akarshit the. unhen natakon men hasy ras sabase zyada pasnd tha, lihaza yah svabhavik hi tha ki unake prarnbhik natakon men hamen yah tatv zyada mukhar dikhata hai. ve ise 'sichueshan kaaumedi' kahate hain. unaka 1956 men likha gaya pahala natak 'saaulyooshan eks' tha. yah natak ek videshi film, 'Monkey Business' ki kahani par adharit ek sichueshan kaaumedi ke roop men prasiddh hua.

videshon men

1957 se 1958, in do varshon ke dauran unhonne inglaind men ‘taun-ph‍laning’ ka kors karane ke sath-sath naukari ki. isi samay unh‍hen prasiddh abhinetaon ka abhinay dekhane ka mauqa mila. vivayan li, charls laitan, maikal raaudareth, margaret kaaulinh‍s adi ke abhinay aur vahan ke rngakarm se ve behad prabhavit hue. par shayad unake ‘tisare rngamnch’ ki ninv ki pahali eent ke roop men phrench kavi raausin ki kriti ‘phridre’ natak ko dekhane ka anubhav tha. 21 faravari, 1958 ko dekhe ge 'thietar-in-raunh‍d' men is prastuti ke bare men apane anubhavon ko dayari ke pannon men darj karate hue unhonne likha tha, 'aj jo dekha use kabhi bhula n paoonga.' mukt mnch ke is anubhav ko ham varshon bad unake tisare rngamnch ki avadharanaon men vikasit hote dekh pate hain.

inglaind pravas ke dinon men hi unhonne 'bodo pishi man' (badi booaji) likha. isi samay unh‍honne ek chhota natak 'shanivar' likha. yah natak ji.bi. prish‍tale ke natak 'en inspektar kaauls' par adharit tha. 1959 men ve inglaind se kolakata laut ae aur ate hi apane utsahi mitron ke sath 'chakragoshthi' nam se ek 'naty snstha' ki ninv rakhi. har shanivar ko is goshthi men natak ke sath-sath sngit, sahith‍y, vigyan adi vibhinn vishayon par charcha hoti thi. isi 'chakragoshthi' ke prayas se unake kee arnbhik natakon se darshak parichit hue. 'bodo pishiman', 'shonibar', 'samavrit', 'ramashyamajadu' adi jinamen pramukh hain.

isake bad badal sarakar phrans sarakar ke arthik anudan par vahan ge aur phir tin varshon tak naijiriya men naukari ki. is videsh pravas ke dauran unhonne 'ebon indrajit', 'sara rattir', 'ballabhapurer roopakatha', 'jodi ar ekabar', 'trinsh shatabdi', 'pagala ghoda', 'pralap', 'pore konodin' jaise mahattvapoorn natak likhe.

bharat lautane par

desh men lautane ke pahale hi 'ebon indrajit' bahuroopi naty patrika men (ank: 22 julaee, 1965) prakashit hua. isake prakashan ke sath hi badal sarakar ki khyati charon or phail gee. isaka pahala mnchan 'shaubhanik' natyasnstha ne 16 disnbar, 1965 ko kiya. natak ke prakashan aur mnchan ne naty jagath men manon dhoom macha di. 1968 ko unhen is natak ke lie sngit natak akadami puraskar mila. naiziriya se bharat lautane ke turnt bad unhonne 'baki itihas' likha. un dinon shnbhu mitr rngamnch ke shirshasth vyaktiyon men the. unaki naty snstha 'bahuroopi' ne 'baki itihas' ka saphal mnchan kiya. ye donon natak unake 'sichueshanal kaaumedi' vale natakon se bilkul bhinn the, jo bharatiy rngamnch men ek ne yug ka snket tha.

'shatabdi' naty snstha

1967 men unhonne apane sathiyon ke sath 'shatabdi' naty snstha ki sthapana ki. 18 march, 1967 ko 'ravindr sarovar mnch' se 'shatabdi' ne apani rngayatra shuroo ki. 1956 se lekar 1967 tak ke sabhi natak badal sarakar ne 'proseniyam mnch' ke lie likhe the. lihaza 'shatabdi' ki arnbhik prastutiyan 'proseniyam' hi thin. 1971 se rngamnch ko lekar badal sarakar ki avadharanaen teji se badalane lagi thin aur ve nirntar prayog kar rahe the. prayogon ke is daur se gujarate hue ve 'tisare rngamnch' tak jald hi pahunch sake. ve manane lage the ki 'natak ek jivnt kala madhyam hai- Live show ! logon ka do samooh - ek hi vakh‍t, ek hi sh‍than par ikatthe hokar ek kala madhh‍yam ke sath jud rahe hain - abhinetaon aur darshakon ke do samooh ke roop men. yah ek manaviy kriya hai - manushh‍y ka manushh‍y ke sath judav. sinema hamen aise prath‍yaksh judav ka mauqa nahin deta.' aise hi vicharon se rngamnch par prayog karate hue, unh‍honne anh‍tat: rngamnch ko sarthak kala madhh‍yam ke roop men sh‍thapit karane ke uddeshh‍y se, proseniyam rngamnch ko tyag, tisare rngamnch ko am janata tak ek 'phri-thietar' ke roop men le jane men kamayabi hasil ki.

1970 se 1993

1970 se 1993 tak badal sarakar ke sabhi natak tisare ya vikalp ke rngamnch ko dhyan men rakhakar likhe ge. 'shatabdi' ke alava poore desh men in natakon ko vibhinn bhashaon men, chhote-bade़ shaharon - kash‍bon men vibhinh‍n naty snsh‍thaon dvara khela gaya. badal sarakar ke tisare rngamnch ne bharat ki bhashaee, prantiy aur sanskritik dooriyon ko khatm kar pahali bar ek sarthak bharatiy rngamnch vikasit karane ki disha men ek saphal prayas kiya. marathi, hindi, pnjabi, gujarati, malayali, kannad, odiy़a adi bharatiy bhashaon men unake natak mnchit hue aur kisi n kisi roop men desh ke sabhi pranton ke rngakarmiyon ko tisare rngamnch ne apani or akarshit kiya.

sahity samikshak chinmay guha ka kathan

prasiddh kala aur sahity samikshak chinmay guha ne badal sarakar ke jivan aur krititv par charcha karate hue 'annd bazar patrika' [2] men likha hai, jo behad gauratalab hai - 'aj se sau varsh bad shayad is bat par bahas ho ki kya bisavin aur ikkisavin sadi ke sndhi kal men, ek hi sath tin-tin badal sarakar hue the jinamen se ek ne saras par bauddhak roop se prakhar snvadon se bhare, kaaumik sthitiyon ki barikiyon par apani paini nazar sadhe, behad prabhavashali hasy natak likhe the. doosare, jinhonne samaj men hinsa ke, vishv rajanitik khinchatani ke chalate yuddh ki kali parachhaee ke, paramanu astron ke, atnk ke aur samaj men badhati arthik asamanata ke khilaf apani avaz ko apane natakon men darj kiya tha aur tisare, jinhonne prekshagrihon ke andar kaid manornjan pradhan rngamnch ko ek muktakash ke niche am janata tak pahunchane ka sapana dekha tha.'

bharatiy rngamnch ka vikas

aj se sau varsh bad ke pathakon ko shayad in tinon badal sarakar ko ek hi vyaktitv ke roop men chihnit karane men kathinaee hogi. lekin rahat ki bat ki bharatiy janata ke sukh-dukh, unaki chintaon, unaki samasyaon aur satta dvara unake shoshan ki samanata ke chalate unaki jo ek vishisht pahachan bani thi- bhasha, prant aur snskriti ke bich ki divaron ko tode kar bani thi. isi vishisht pahachan ko adhar manakar bharatiy rngamnch ka vikas snbhav hua tha. sinema-telivijan aur tamam any manornjan ke sadhanon ke jarie jahan satta ki snskriti jan snsh‍kriti ke khilaf vyapak roop se sakriy ho rahi thi aur janata ke sarokaron aur savalon se unhen bhramit karane men lagi thi, tab samaj parivartan ke uddeshy se n sahi, mahaj ek deshavyapi pratirodh ki snskriti ko zinda rakhane ke lie, tisare rngamnch ne ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee thi. badal sarakar aur unake tisare rngamnch ko ane vale kal ke pathak usi tarah tarah se apane qarib paenge- jitane qarib aur ath‍miy sarakar aj hamare hain.[3]

rachanaen

Badal Sarkar-book.jpg
  1. ram shyam jodoo(1961)
  2. kavi kahani (1964),
  3. baqi itihas (1965),
  4. tisari shatabdi (1966),
  5. yadi phir ek bar (1966),
  6. pagala ghoda (1967),
  7. ant nahin (1970),
  8. sagina mehata (1970),
  9. aboo hasan (1971),
  10. michhil-juloos (1974) adi.
pustaken

badal sarakar batate hain- 'mainne apana kam kavitaon se shuroo kiya. sanh 1956 men mainne apana pahala natak saaulyooshan eks likha. phir sanh 1956 men 'baro pishima' aya.' abhi hal hi men unaki do pustaken 'purono kushundi aur probosher hijjibijji aee hain, jinamen unake natakon, anubhavon aur videsh yatraon ka vivaran hai.

nukkad natak

san 1961 men unaka tisara natak 'ram shyam jodoo' aya jo ek videshi kahani par adharit tha. is natak ki saphalata ne unhen ek alag kism ke thietar ka janak banaya, jise bharat men 'thard thietar' aur 'saiko phijikal thietar' (mano-sharirik rngamnch) ke namon se jana gaya. sanh 1963 men unhonne do natakon ka nirdeshan kiya. ye natak the - evamh indrajit aur vallabhapur ki roopakatha . in natakon ke sath hi badal sarakar ka nam har rngakarmi ki juban par chha gaya. badal sarakar ne apane sathiyon ke sath ‘parikrama’ karyakram ke sath bngal ke anek zilon men ganv-ganv ja kar natak kie aur bngal ke gramin janon se sidha rngasampark banaya. nadiya, 24 paragana adi zilon men bhi ganv-ganv ghoom kar badal sarakar ne rngakarm ka sndesh de kar abhijaty naty jagath ko chunauti di. unake natakon men kalakaron aur darshakon ke bich koee farq nahin hota hai. badal sarakar ne angan, chhat, nukkad aur ganvon men natakon ko pahuncha kar natak ko vyapak banaya.[4]

'mere natak sndesh mera sndesh dete hain. parantu main mahasoos karata hoon ki in natakon ko yadi main aj likhata to inaka pharm aur nereshan doosara hota. jis path par main ab tak chala aur jo navachar mainne bharatiy rngamnch men kiya, us par mujhe aj bhi vishvas hai.' - badal sarakar

badal sarakar batate hain ki unhonne thietar apane parivar valon ke sath mil kar shuroo kiya. ghar se sadi-kapade le ja kar usi se stej bana kar poori lagan se natak taiyar karate the. unhonne kee bar natakon men mahila patr ka kam kiya, halanki unake mata-pita ko yah bilkul pasnd nahin tha. 'nukkad natak' ke unake muhavare ko rashtriy naty vidyalay tak men samman mila. badal sarakar ka rngakarm vyavastha ke viruddh udghosh hai. unaki oorja har yuva ko akarshit karati hai, isalie badal sarakar ke natak poore desh men har naty dal dvara bar-bar khele ge. badal da ke natak samaj men atyachar aur bikharati samaj vyavastha ke viruddh tikha pratirodh karate hain. samaj aur rajaniti ki vidroopataon par unake natak gahari chot karate hain. is karan se badal sarakar ke natak aur ve svayn bhi desh ke rngakarmiyon ke chahete hain.[4]

samman aur puraskar

badal sarakar ko varsh 1968 men sngit natak akadami puraskar, varsh 1972 men padmashri, varsh 1997 men sngit natak akadami-ratn sadasy ka puraskar mil chuka hai. varsh 2010 men bharat sarakar dvara unhen padmabhooshan samman diya gaya jo unhonne lene se yah kahakar inkar kar diya ki ek lekhak ka sabase bada samman sahity akadami puraskar vah pahale hi pa chuke hain.[5]

nidhan

tisara rngamnch ke snsthapak aur bharatiy gramin parnparik rngamnch ke purodha badal sarakar ka pashchim bngal ki rajadhani kolakata men 13 mee 2011 ko nidhan ho gaya. badal sarakar kainsar se pidit the.

yogadan

badal sarakar ke anusar shahari rngamnch pashchim se prabhavit hai aur gramin rngamnch parnparik shailiyon se, aur donon men hi antarvastu ki kami hai. shahari rngamnch apane prosiniyam dayare men bndha hai aur gramin ya parnparik rngamnch apani purani shailiyon men, jisamen prakhar rajanitik chetana ka abhav hai. badal sarakar adhunik rngamnch ko prosinimay dayare se nikal kar logon ke bich le ge. ganvon aur kasbon men le ge. badal sarakar ke natak juloos (bangla men michhil) ne akhil bharatiy star par 1974-75 ke samay men jab jayaprakash narayan ke netritv men shuroo hue chhatr andolan ka samay tha, rngakarminyon aur naty premiyon ki kalpanashilata ko behad prabhavit kiya. nukkad natakon ko lokapriy banane, use rngamnch ki samakalin bahas ke bich lane men sabase bada yogadan badal sarakar ka hi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jivan ki roopakatha ke natakakar badal sarakar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 joon, 2011.
  2. 18 julaee, 2008
  3. bhaumik, ashok badal sarakar : vh‍yakti aur rngamnch (hindi). gajiyabad: antika prakashan.
  4. 4.0 4.1 pratirodh ko thiyetar ka madhyam banane vale rngakarmi badal sarakar (hindi) jabalapur chaupal. abhigaman tithi: 10 joon, 2011.
  5. tisara-rngamnch-ke-snsthapak-aur-bharatiy-gramin-parnparik-rngamnch-ke-purodha-badal-sarakar-ka-nidhan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 joon, 2011.

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