बालकृष्ण शर्मा नवीन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

balakrishn sharma navin
balakrishn sharma navin
poora nam balakrishn sharma navin
janm 8 disambar, 1897
janm bhoomi bhayana gram, gvaliyar
mrityu 29 aprail, 1960
abhibhavak jamanalal sharma
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr kavi, gadyakar, advitiy vakta, rajanitigy, patrakar
mukhy rachanaen apalak, kvasi, urmila, kunkum, rashmirekha
bhasha brajabhasha, khadiboli, snskrit
vidyalay madhav kaaulej (ujjain), kraist charch kaaulej (kanapur)
shiksha snatak
puraskar-upadhi padm bhooshan
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

balakrishn sharma navin (angrezi: Bal Krishna Sharma Naveen, janm- 8 disambar, 1897 ee., bhayana gram, gvaliyar; mrityu- 29 aprail, 1960) hindi jagath ke kavi, gadyakar aur advitiy vakta the.

jivan parichay

hindi sahity men pragatishil lekhan ke agrani kavi pndit balakrishn sharma "navin" ka janm 8 disambar, 1897 ee. men gvaliyar rajy ke bhayana namak gram men hua tha. inake pita shri jamanalal sharma vaishnav dharm ke prasiddh tirth shrinath dvara men rahate the vahan shiksha ki samuchit vyavastha nahin thi, isalie inaki man inhen gvaliyar rajy ke shajapur sthan men le aeen. yahan se prarnbhik shiksha lene ke uparant inhonne ujjain se dasavin aur kanapur se intar ki pariksha uttirn ki. inake uparant lokamany bal gngadhar tilak shrimati eni besent evn shri ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ke snpark men ane ke bad unhonne padhana chhod diya. shajapur se angrezi midil pas karake ve ujjain ke madhav kaaulej men pravisht hue. inako rajanitik vatavaran ne shighr hi akrisht kiya aur isi se ve sanh 1916 ee. ke lakhanoo kangres adhiveshan ko dekhane ke lie chale aye. isi adhiveshan men snyogavash unaki bhent makhanalal chaturvedi, maithilisharan gupt evn ganeshashnkar vidyarthi se huee. sanh 1917 ee. men haee skool ki pariksha uttirn karake balakrishn sharma ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ke ashram men kanapur akar kraist charch kaaulej men padhane lage.

vyavaharik rajaniti

san 1920 ee. men balakrishn sharma jab bi.e. fainal men padh rahe the, gandhiji ke satyagrah andolan ke avahan par ve kaaulej chhodakar vyavaharik rajaniti ke kshetr men a gaye. 29 aprail, 1960 ee. ko apane mrityuparyant ve desh ki vyavaharik rajaniti se barabar sakriy roop se sambaddh rahe. uttar pradesh ke ve varishth netaon men ek evn kanapur ke ekachhatr agua the. bharatiy snvidhan nirmatri parishad ke sadasy ke roop men hindi bhasha ko rajabhasha ke roop men svikar karane men unaka bada yogadan raha hai. 1952 ee. se lekar apani mrityu tak ve bharatiy snsad ke bhi sadasy rahe hain. sanh 1955 ee. men sthapit rajabhasha ayog ke sadasy ke roop men unaka mahattvapoorn kary raha hai.

vyaktitv

'navin' ji svabhav se atyant udar, phakkad, aveshi kintu mast tabiyat ke adami the. abhiman aur chhal se bahut door the. bachapan ke vaishnav snskar unamen yavajjivan bane rahe. jahan tak unake lekhak-kavi vyaktitv ka prashn hai, lekhan ki or unaki ruchi indaur se hi thi, parantu vyavasthit lekhan 1917 ee. men ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ke sampark men ane ke bad prarambh hua.

patrakar

ganeshashnkar vidyarthi se sampark ka sahaj parinam tha ki ve us samay ke mahattvapoorn patr 'pratap' se sambaddh ho gaye the. 'pratap' parivar se unaka sambandh ant tak bana raha. 1931 ee. men ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ki mrityu ke pashchath kee varshon tak ve 'pratap' ke pradhan sampadak ke roop men bhi kary karate rahe. hindi ki rashtriy kavy dhara ko age badhane vali patrika 'prabha' ka sampadan bhi unhonne 1921 - 1923 ee. men kiya tha. in patron men likhi gee unaki sampadakiy tippaniyan apani nirbhikata, kharepan aur kathor shaili ke lie smaraniy hain. 'navin' atyant prabhavashali aur ojasvi vakta bhi the evn unaki lekhan shaili (gady-pady donon hi) par unaki apani bhashan-kala ka bahut spasht prabhav hai. rajanitik karyakarta ke saman hi patrakar ke roop men bhi unhonne sare jivan kary kiya.

rajanitigy evn patrakar ke samanantar hi unake vyaktitv ka tisara bhasvar paksh kavi ka tha. unake kavi ka mool svar manornjak tha, jise vaishnav snskaron ki adhyatmikata evn rashtriy jivan ka vidrohi kanth barabar anukoolit karata raha. unhonne jab likhana prarambh kiya tab dvivedi yug samapt ho raha tha evn rashtriyata ke naye ayam ki chhaya men svachchhandatavadi andolan kavy men mukhar hone laga tha. parinamasvaroop donon hi yugon ki pravrittiyan hamen 'navin' men mil jati hain.

kritiyan

urmila

mahavir prasad dvivedi ki prerana ne hi kaviyon ki chir-upekshita 'urmila' ka lekhan unase 1921 ee. men prarambh karaya, jo poora sanh 1934 ee. men hua evn prakashit sanh 1957 ee. men hua. is kavy men dvivedi yug ki itivrittatmakata, sthool naitikata ya prayojan (jaise ramavan gaman ko ary snskriti ka prasar manana) spasht dekhe ja sakate hain, parantu moolat: svachchhandatavadi gititatvapradhan 'navin' ka yah prayas prabandhatv ki drishti se bahut saphal nahin kaha ja sakata. chhah sargon vale is mahakavy granth men urmila ke janm se lekar lakshman se punarmilan tak ki katha kahi gayi hai, par varnan pradhan katha ke marmik sthalon ki n to unhen pahachan hai aur n ram-sita ke virat vyaktitv ke age lakshman-urmila bahut ubhar hi sake hain. urmila ka virah avashy kavi ki prakriti ke anukool tha aur kala ki drishti se sabase saras evn praudh ansh vahi hai. yon atyant vilamb se prakashit hone ke karan samyakh aitihasik pariprekshy men is granth ka moolyankan nahin ho saka hai. yah vilamb unaki sabhi kritiyon ke prakashan men hua hai.

kunkum

san 1930 ee. tak ve yadyapi kavi roop men yashasvi ho chuke the, parantu pahala kavita sngrah 'kunkum' 1936 ee. men prakashit hua. is git sngrah ka mool svar yauvan ke pahale uddam pranayaveg evn prakhar rashtriyata ka hai. yatr-tatr rahasyatmak snket bhi hain, parantu unhen tatkalin vatavaran ka faishan prabhav hi manana chahie. 'kavi kuchh aisi tan sunao' tatha 'aj khadg ki dhar kunthita hai' jaisi prasiddh kavitaen 'kunkum' men sngrahit hain.

any rachanaen

svatntrata sngram ka sabase kathin evn vyast samay a jane ke karan 'navin' barabar usi men ulajhe rahe. kavitaen unhonne barabar likhin, parantu unako snkalit kar prakashit karane ki or dhyan nahin raha. svatntrata ki prapti ke bad bhi ve snvidhan nirman jaise karyon men lage rahe. is prakar ek lambe antaral ke pashchath 1951 ee. men 'rashmi rekha' tatha 'apalak', 1952 ee. men aur 'kvasi' sngrah prakashit hua. vinoba aur bhoodan par likhi unaki katipay prashastiyan evn udabodhanon ka ek sngrah 'vinoba stavan' sanh 1955 ee. men prakashit hua. is prakashit samagri ke atirikt kunkum-kvasi kal (1930-1949) ki anek kavitaen tatha 'pranarpan' nam se ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ke balidan par likha gaya khand kavy abhi aprakashit hi hai. 1949 ee. ke bad bhi ve barabar likhate evn patron men prakashit karate rahe hain. "yah shril yukt yah ahialingit jivan" jaisi shreshth atmaparak kavitaen isi antim avastha men likhi gayi hain. par ye sab bhi asngrahit hain. 'navin' rashtriy vir kavy ke pranetaon men mukhy rahe hain, parantu unake prakashit sngrahon men ye kavitaen bahut kam a saki hain. unaka gady lekhan bhi asnkalit roop men yatr-tatr bikhara hua hai.

rashmirekha

ab tak prakashit sngrahon men pranay ke kavi 'navin' ka snvedana aur shilp ki samagrata ki drishti se shreshthatam evn pratinidhi sngrah 'rashmirekha' hai. isamen 'navin' ki mauji evn premil abhivyaktiyan prachur matra men hain. "ham aniketan ham aniketan" atyant nirlipt atmasvikaran ke bhav se ve kah uthate hain,
ab tak itani yon hi kati, ab kya sikhen nav paripati? kaun banaye aj gharaunda, hathon chun-chun knkad mati. that fakirana hain, apana baghambar sohe apane tan. [1]
pranay evn virah ki kitani hi madak smritiyan, kitane hi manoram chitr, kitane hi vyakul besudh pukaren evn vivashata ki kitani hi chitkaren 'rashmirekha' men sngrahit hain. yah pranayi aniketan atyant uddam bhav se kahata hai,
krije do krije men bujhane vali pyas nahin, bar-bar 'la!la!' kahane ka samay nahin, abhyas nahin.
vastut: hindi men halabad ke adi pravartak 'navin' hi hain tatha bhagavaticharan varma evn 'bachchan' ne svayn is bat ko svikar kiya hai.[2]

'apalak' aur 'kvasi'

'apalak' aur 'kvasi' men snkalit kavitaon men yadyapi kavitaon ka rachanakal vahi hai, jo 'rashmirekha' ki kavitaon ka hai. par inamen jo kavitaen snkalit hain, unamen pranay ka veg darshan evn bhakti bhavana se pratihat hota lagata hai. 'adhyatmikata' ka svar chhayavad ke bahut se alochakon ko bhi bhram aur vivad men dalata raha hai, parantu shilp ke jis lakshanik vaichitry ke madhyam se vah svar vyakt hua hai, usane un kavitaon ko anagadh nahin hone diya. parantu 'navin' ka chhayavadakal men hi likha gaya yah adhyatm nivedan bahut kuchh sthool evn itivrittatmak padavali men vyakt hua hai. chhayavad ke shilp ko ve man se nahin svikar karate, par rahasy ya adhyatm ki padavali un par havi pratit hoti hai. parantu in snkalanon men jahan unaka mast evn pranayi vyaktitv sahaj hi vyakt hua hai, vahan kavy nitant rasanirbhar ho saka hai. 'ham hain mast fakir' ('apalak') 'tum yug-yug ki pahachani si' ('kvasi'), 'man chhodo' (kvasi), 'sun lo priy madhur gan' ('apalak'), aisi hi kavitaen hain. adhyatmik anyokti ki drishti se 'dolevalon' ('kvasi') unaki shreshthatam kavita hai.

bhasha

brajabhasha 'navin' ki matribhasha thi. unake pratyek granth men brajabhasha ke bhi katipay git ya chhand milate hain. brajabhasha men 'navin' bhav-snvedana ki abhivyakti ka prayas kar unhonne brajabhasha ke adhunik sahity ko samriddh kiya hai. urmila ka ek sampoorn sarg hi brajabhasha men hai. parantu unaka brajabhasha moh evn khadi boli ke parinishthit prayogon ke madhy a prakat hota hai. tab pathak ke lie rasabhng ki sthiti paida ho jati hai. brajabhasha ke kriyapadon ya shabdon janrin hoon, sochrin hoon, naik, lagi, nachin, umaday diya adi ka nikhari tatsam pradhan khadiboli men prayog atyant akushal dhng se hua hai. vastr ke lie 'bastar'[3] jaise prayog bhi bahudha khatakate hain. vastut: adhunik kal ke shreshth kaviyon men 'navin' se adhik bhasha ke bhrasht prayog mil hi nahin sakate. lagata hai yah bhi unaki bhashanakala ka hi prabhav tha. sambhavat: rajanitik vyastata bhi is parishkarahinata ke mool men thi. snskrit ke bhari bharakam aprachalit evn durooh shabdon ko lane ki pravritti unaki barabar badhati gayi hai.

durooh akavyatmak shabdavali

san 1950-51 ee. ke bad ki kavitaon men adhyatm moh ke sath-sath durooh akavyatmak shabdavali (shabd aur arth ke vakr kavivyaparashali sahabhav se vichchhinn) ka unaka agrah unake kavy ke rasasvadan men barabar badhak banata gaya hai. lagata hai shaili jitati gayi hai aur ve harate gaye hain.

kavy

hindi kavy dhara ki dvivedi yug ke pashchath jo parinati chhayavad se huee hai, 'navin' usake antargat nahin ate. rajaniti ke kathor yatharth men unake lie shayad yah sambhav nahin tha ki vaisi bhavukata, taralata, atindriyata evn kalpana ke pnkh ve bandhate, parantu is bat ko yad rakhana hoga ki unaka kavy bhi svachchhandatavadi (manornjak) andolan ka hi prakash hai. 'navin' maithilisharan gupt adi ka kavy chhayavad ke samanantar sncharan karata hua age chalakar bachchan, anchal, narendr sharma, dinakar adi ke kavy men parinat hota hai. kavyadhara ke is pravah ki or hindi alochakon ne abhi tak upeksha ka hi bhav rakha hai. astu, 'navin' ke kavy men ek or rashtriy sngram ki kathor jivanabhootiyan evn jagaran ke svar vynjit hue hain aur doosare sahaj manaviy star (yoddha se alag) par prem-virah ki rag-snvedanaen prakash pa saki hain. isi kram men halavadi kavy ki bhi srishti huee hai. is prakar chhayavad ke samanantar bahane vali vir-shrringar dhara ke ve agrani kavi rahe hain. kavi ke atirikt gadyalekhak ke roop men bhi 'pratap' jaise patr ke madhyam se unhonne oj-gunapradhan ek shaili ke nirman men apana yog diya hai.

puraskar

balakrishn navin ko sahity evn shiksha ke kshetr men sanh 1960 men padm bhooshan se sammanit kiya gaya tha.

mrityu

balakrishn sharma navin ji ka nidhan 29 aprail, 1960 ee. men hua tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rashmirekha, pri. 117
  2. saptahik 'hindustan', 1 julaee, 1960, pri. 35.
  3. 'kvasi', prishth 9

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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