बौद्ध दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhagavan buddh dvara pravartit hone par bhi bauddh darshan koee ek darshan nahin, apitu darshanon ka samooh hai. kuchh baton men vichar samy hone par bhi paraspar atyant matabhed hain. shabd samy hone par bhi arth bhed adhik hain. anek shakhopashakhaon men vibhakt hone par bhi darshanik manyataon men samy ki drishti se bauddh vicharon ka char vibhagon men vargikaran kiya gaya hai, yatha-

  1. vaibhashik,
  2. sautrantik,
  3. yogachar evn
  4. madhyamik.
  • yadyapi atharah nikayon ka vaibhashik darshan men sngrah ho jata hai aur atharah nikayon men sthaviravad bhi sngrahit hai, jagatik vividh du:khon ke darshan se tathagat shakyamuni bhagavan buddh men sarvapratham mahakaruna ka utpad hua. tadanantar us mahakaruna se prerit hone ki vajah se 'main in du:khi praniyon ko du:kh se mukt karane aur unhen sukh se anvit karane ka bhar apane kandhon par leta hoon aur isake lie buddhatv prapt karoonga'- is prakar ka unamen bodhichitt utpann hua.
  • unaki deshanaen tin pitakon aur tin yanon men vibhakt ki jati hain.
  1. sootr,
  2. vinay aur
  3. abhidharm- ye tin pitak hain.
  4. shravakayan,
  5. pratyek buddhayan aur
  6. bodhisattvayan- ye tin yan hain.
  • shravakayan aur pratyekabuddhayan ko hinayan aur bodhisattvayan ko mahayan kahate hain.

shravakayan

jo viney jan du:khamay snsar-sagar ko dekhakar tatha usase udvign hokar tatkal usase mukti ki abhilasha to rakhate hain, kintu tatkalik roop se sampoorn praniyon ke hit aur sukh ke lie samyak sambuddhatv ki prapti ka adhyashay (ichchha) nahin rakhate- aise viney jan shravakayani kahalate hain. unake lie pratham dharmachakr ka pravartan karate hue bhagavan ne char aryasatv aur unake anityata adi solah akaron ki deshana ki aur inaki bhavana karane se pudgalanairatmy ka sakshatkar karake kleshavaran ka samool prahan karate hue arhattv ki aur nirvan ki prapti ka marg upadisht kiya.

pratyekabuddhayan

shravak aur pratyekabuddh ke lakshy men bhed nahin hota. pratyek buddh bhi svamukti ke hi abhilashi hote hain. shravak aur pratyekabuddh ke gyan men aur puny snchay men thoda farq avashy hota hai. pratyekabuddh keval grahyashoonyata ka bodh hota hai, grahakashoonyata ka nahin. puny bhi shravak ki apeksha unamen adhik hota hai. pratyekabuddh us kal men utpann hote hain, jis samay buddh ka nam bhi lok men prachalit nahin hota. ve bina achary ya guru ke hi, poorvajanmon ki smriti ke adhar par apani sadhana prarambh karate hain aur pratyekabuddh-arhattv aur nirvan pad prapt karate hain. inaki yah bhi visheshata hai ki ye vani ke dvara dharmopadesh nahin karate tatha sngh banakar nahin rahate arthath ekaki vicharan karate hain.

bodhisattvayan

jo viney jan sampoorn sattvon ke hit aur sukh ke lie samyak sambuddhatv prapt karana chahate hain, aise viney jan bodhisattvayani kahalate hain. un logon ke lie bhagavan ne bodhichitt ka utpad kar chhah ya das paramitaon ki sadhana ka upadesh diya tatha pudgalanairatmy ke sath dharmanairatmy ka bhi vibhinn yuktiyon se prativedh kar kleshavaran aur gyeyavaran donon ke prahan dvara samyak sambuddhatv ki prapti ke marg ka upadesh kiya. ise mahayan bhi kahate hain.

mahayan ki vyutpatti

'yayate aneneti yanamh' arthath jisase jaya jata hai, yah 'yan' hai. is vigrah ke anusar marg, jisase gantavy sthan tak jaya jata hai, 'yan' hai. arthath yan-shabd marg ka vachak hai. 'yayate asminniti yanamh' arthath jisamen jaya jata hai, yah bhi 'yan' hai. is doosare vigrah ke anusar 'phal' bhi yan kahalata hai. phal hi gantavy sthan hota hai. is tarah yan-shabd phalavachak bhi hota hai. 'mahachch tadh yann mahayanamh' arthath vah yan bhi hai aur bada bhi hai, isalie mahayan kahalata hai.

hinayan aur mahayan

vaibhashik aur sautrantik darshan hinayani tatha yogachar aur madhyamik mahayan darshan hain isamen kuchh satyansh hone par bhi darshan-bhed yan-bhed ka niyamak qatee nahin hota, apitu uddeshy-bhed ya jivanalakshy ka bhed hi yanabhed ka niyamak hota hai. uddeshy ki adhik vyapakata aur alp vyapakata hi mahayan aur hinayan ke bhed ka adhar hai. yahan 'hin' shabd ka arth 'alp' hai, n ki tuchchh, nich ya adham adi, jaisa ki ajakal hindi men prachalit hai. mahayan ka sadhak samast praniyon ko du:kh se mukt karake unhen nirvan ya buddhatv prapt karana chahata hai. vah keval apani hi du:khon se mukti nahin chahata, balki sabhi ki mukti ke lie vyaktigat nirvan se nirapeksh rahate hue apratishthit nirvan men sthit hota hai. jo vyakti vyaktigat nirvan prapt karata he, vah bhi koee chhota nahin, apitu mahapurush hota hai. mahayan ke achary bhi hue hai. itana saubhagy bhi kam logon ko prapt hota hai. bade punyon ka phal hai yah. pray: sabhi bauddhetar darshanon ka bhi antim lakshy svamukti hi hai. at: yah lakshy shreshth nahin hai, phir bhi apane nirvan ko sthagit karake sabhi prani-matr ko du:khon se mukti ko lakshy banana aur usake lie prayas aur sadhana karana, avashy hi adhik shreshth hai.

mahakaruna

du:kh karuna ka alamban hota hai tatha du:kh ko sahan nahin kar pana isaka akar hota hai. vividh prakar ki shirovedana adi sharirik vedanaen du:kh-du:kh hain. vartaman men sukhavath pratit hone par bhi parinam men du:khadayi dharm viparinam du:kh kahalate hain. sabhi anityon se viyog du:khaprad hota hai, isalie sabhi anity dharm snskar-du:kh hen. karuna bhi prarambh men 'satvalambana' hoti hai. arthath praniyon ko aur unake du:khon ko alamban banati hai. kintu bhavana ke bal se vikasit hokar bad men 'dharmalambana' ho jati hai. bauddh darshan ke anusar pudgal ki satta nahin hoti, vah jad aur chetana ka punjamatr hota hai, phir bhi du:khon se mukt karane ki abhilasha 'dharmalambana' karuna hoti hai. vastut: prgya dvara vichar karane par sabhi dharm ni:svabhav (shoony) hote hain. vastut: sabhi sattv aur unake du:kh bhi ni:svabhav hi hain, phir bhi arthath shoonyata ka avabodh rakhate hue bhi karunavash buddh evn bodhisattv du:khi praniyon ke du:kh ko door karane ka prayas karate hain. unaki aisi karuna 'niralamb' karuna kahalati hai.

bodhichitt

bodhichitt hi mahayan men pravesh kar dvar hota hai. bodhichitt ke utpad ke sath vyakti mahayanon aur bodhisattv kahalane lagata hai tatha bodhichitt se bhrasht hone par mahayan se chyut ho jata hai. 'buddho bhaveyn jagato hitay[1]' arthath sabhi praniyon ko du:khon se mukt karane ke lie main buddhatv prapt karoonga-aisi akritrim abhilasha 'bodhichitt' kahalati hai. is prakar buddhatv mahayan ke anusar sadhy nahin, apitu sadhanamatr hai. sadhy to samast praniyon ki du:khon se mukti hi hai. bodhichitt bhi pranidhi aur prasthan ke bhed se dvividh hota hai. oopar jo buddhatv prapti ki akritrim abhilasha ko bodhichitt kaha gaya hai, vah 'pranidhi-bodhichitt' hai. isake utpann ho jane par sadhak mahayan-snvar grahan karake brahmavihar, sngrahavastu evn paramita adi ki sadhana men pravritt hota hai, yah 'prasthan-bodhichitt' kahalata hai. shastron men pranidhi-bodhichitt ka bhi vipul phal aur mahati anushnsa varnit hai.

paramitaon ki sadhana

paramitaen das hoti hain, kintu unaka chhah men bhi antarbhav kiya jata hai. dan, shil, kshanti, viry, dhyan evn prgya-ye chhah paramitaen hain. upay kaushal paramita, pranidhan paramita, bal paramita evn gyan paramita-in char ko milakar paramitaen das bhi hoti hain. shastron men adhikatar chhah paramitaon ki charcha ki upalabdh hoti hai. in chhah paramitaon men chhathavin prgyaparamita hi 'prgya' hai tatha shesh panch paramitaen 'puny' kahalati hain. in panchon ko ek shabd dvara 'karuna' bhi kahate hain. prgya aur karuna ye donon buddhatv prapti ke uttam upay hain. abhyas ya bhavana ke dvara vikas ki parakashtha ko prapt kar ye donon buddhatv avastha men samaras hokar sthit hoti hain. prgya aur karuna ki yah samarasyavastha hi buddhatv hai. trikayatmak buddhatv ki prapti, bina in paramitaon ke, sambhav nahin hai.

  1. dharmakay,
  2. sambhogakay aur
  3. nirmanakay- ye tin kary hain. buddhatv ki prapti ke sath in tin karyon ki prapti hoti hai.
  • mahayan ke paramitanay ke anusar abhyas dvara prgya vikasit hote hue ant men buddh ke gyan-dharmakay ke roop men parinat ho jati hai. kintu sambhog aur nirman karyon ki prapti puny arthath shesh panch paramitaon ke bal se hi hoti hai. isilie bodhisattv buddhatv ki prapti ke lie tin asnkhyey kalp paryant gyan aur puny sambharon ka arjan karata hai.
  • mahayan sootron men vrat, upavas, snan, mantr adi ka vidhan hai, jisake dvara papon ka prakshalan aur mukti ki prapti ka ullekh hai, jaisa ki brahman dharm men hai- yah akshep bhi nitant hi sarahin hai. kyonki anantadvaradharani ki sadhana ke anusar is dharani ki bhavana karane vala sadhak (bodhisatv) snskrit aur asnskrit kisi bhi dharm ki kalpana nahin karata, keval buddhanusmriti ki bhavana karata hai.
  • nagarajapariprichchhasootr men bhi kaha gaya hai ki sabhi dharm adit: vishuddh hain, isalie dharani men sthit bodhisatv shoonyasvaroop bijaksharon ka anusaran karata hai, unaki khoj karata hai aur unamen sthit hota hai, jisase usamen rag, dvesh, moh adi utpann nahin hote. yah sadhana bhi vaise hi hai, jaise anityata, ashuchi adi ki bhavana arthath dharanimantr aur vidyamantr ka tathagat ke upadeshanusar jap, dhyan evn bhavana karane se pap ka kshay tatha chitt santati shant hoti hai. yah marg saty ki bhavana ke saman hi hai. dharanimantr ke jap ke samay sadhak men pap se utpann hone vale vipak ke prati bhay tatha pap karm ke prati heyata ka bhav hota hai aur ant men us pap ki punaravritti n ho, aisi pratigya karana anivary hota hai. ye sab pap prayashchitt ke ang hain.
  • atharahon nikayon ko darshanik vibhajan ke avasar par vaibhashik kahane ki bauddh darshanikon ki parampara rahi hai. isalie ham bhi vaibhashik, sautrantik, yogachar aur madhyamik in prasiddh char bauddh darshanon ke vicharon ko hi tulanatmak drishti se prastut karenge. yah bhi gyat hai ki vaibhashik aur saitrantikon ko hinayan tatha yogachar aur madhyamikon ko mahayan kahane ki parampara hai. yadyapi hinayan aur mahayan ke vibhajan ka adhar darshan bilakul nahin hai.

vastusatta
vaibhashik bahyarthavadi hain. ve antarik evn bahy sabhi padarthon ki vastusatta svikar karate hain. sautrantik bhi bahyarthavadi hai aur svabhavasattavadi bhi. sautrantik achary shubhagupt ne 'bahyarthasiddhakarika' namak apane granth men bade vistar se yuktipoorvak vigyanavadiyon ka khandan karake bahyarth ki satta siddh ki hai. bahyarth ko siddh karane men sautrantikon ne abhootapoorv evn stuty prayas kiya hai. vigyanavadi nirbahyarthavadi hain. inake mat men bahyarth parikalpit matr hain arthath bahyarth khapushpavat alik hai. ve keval vigyan-parinam ki hi dravyat: satta svikar karate hain. chitt-chaitasikon ke bahar koee dharm nahin hai. paramanu ki satta ka unhonne bade zoradar dhng se nishedh kiya hai. phalat: paramanuon se snchit sthool bahyarth ka nishedh apane-ap ho jata hai.
paramanu

  • vaibhashik paramanuvadi hain. yadyapi paramanu ke svaroop ke bare men unamen paraspar anekavidh matabhed hen, tathapi sabhi paramanu ki satta svikar karate hain. sautrantik bhi paramanu manate hain. bahyarthavadiyon ke lie paramanu manana avashyak bhi hai. vigyanavadi paramanu nahin manate. bahyarth ka abhav evn vigyan ki satta siddh karane ke lie paramanu ka nishedh karana avashyak hota hai. isilie achary vasubandhu ne vinshika men niravayav paramanu ka zoradar khandan kiya hai.
  • prasngik madhyamik bhi vaibhashikon ki bhanti paramanuvadi hain, tathapi donon ke mat men maulik antar hai. sabhi prakar ke vaibhashik niravayav paramanu manate hain. prasngik paramanu ko kalpit manate hain. vah kalpit paramanu bhi unake matanusar niravayav nahin ho sakate, apitu savayav hote hain. ve kahate hain ki jaise vyavahar men ghat, pat adi ki satta hai, usi prakar paramanu ka bhi astitv hai.

alayavigyan

  • sthaviravadi yadyapi alayavigyan nahin manate, phir bhi karm, karmaphal, punarjanm adi ki vyavastha ke lie ek 'bhavang' namak chitt svikar karate hain. inake matanusar bhavang hi vyaktitv hai, jo kuchh avasthaon ko chhodakar samudr ki bhanti bhitar hi bhitar nirantar pravahit hota rahata hai. jaise alayavigyan jab tak buddhatv prapt nahin hota, tab tak nirantar avichchhinn roop se pravritt hota rahata hai, vaise hi bhavang chitt bhi arhat ke niroopadhishesh nirvanadhatu men lin hote tak pravritt hota rahata hai. samudr se tarangon ki bhanti alayavigyan se jaise sat pravrittivigyanon ki ki pravritti hoti hai aur ant men ve usi men vilin ho jate hain, vaise hi bhavang chitt se chhah pravrittivigyanon (vithichitto) ki pravritti hoti hai aur pravritt hokar usi men vilin ho jate hain. *vigyanavadi alayavigyan ko jaise kushal, akushal ka vipak manate hain, sthaviravadiyon ke mat men bhavang chitt bhi kushal, akushal karmon ka vipak hota hai. alayavigyan ki bhanti bhavang chitt bhi pratisandhi (punarjanm grahan) aur chyuti (maran) krity karata hai. alayavigyan aur bhavang donon snskrit aur kshanik hote hain. vigyanavad ke anusar alayavigyan men kushal, akushal, avyakrit sabhi chitton ki vasanaen nihit rahati hain. vah samast dharmon ke bijon ka adhar hota hai, vaise bhavang chitt se bhi shadh vigyanavithiyan utpann hoti hain aur ant men usi men patit ho jati hain. phalat: vah bhi vasanaon ka adhar ho jata hai.

nirvan

  • vaibhashik nirodh ko nirvan manate hain. vah bhi pratisnkhyanirodh aur apratisnkhyanirodh ke bhed se dvividh hain. in donon men pratisnkhyanirodh hi mukhy hai. nirupadhisheshanirvan ki avastha men sabhi snskrit dharm niruddh ho jate hain aur vah (snskrit dharmon ka nirodh) aprati snkhya nirodh svaroop hota hai. vah asnskrit hota hai aur dravyat: sat hota hai.
  • sautrantikon ke mat men nirvan abhavamatr (prasajyapratishedhasvaroop) hota hai, jo samast kleshon se rahit matr hai.
  • vigyanavadiyon ke mat men nirvanayadravyat: sat nahin hai. vah kleshavaran ka abhavamatr hai. mahanirvan bhi kleshavaran aur gyeyavaran donon ka abhavamatr hi hai aur vah ek nity dharm hai. mahayananirvan ki avastha buddhatv ki avastha hai. is avastha men yadyapi sastrav pnch skandh arthath sastrav sharir evn chittasantati vidyaman nahin hote, tathapi anastrav pnch skandh vidyaman hote hain, jo samast jivon ka kalyan siddh karate hain. madhyamik bhi aisi hi manate hain.

buddhavachan
vaibhashik mahayanasootron ko buddhavachan nahin manate, kyonki unamen varnit vishay unhen abhisht nahin hain. ve keval hinayani tripitak ko hi buddhavachan manate hain. prachin ya agamanuyayi sautrantik mahayanasootron ko buddhavachan nahin manate the, kintu dharmakirti ke bad ke arvachin ya yuktyanuyayi sautrantik mahayani acharyon ke prabhav se mahayanasootron ko buddhavachan manane lage, phir bhi ve unaka arth prakarantar se lete the. mahayani achary hinayani aur mahayani sabhi sootron ko buddhavachan manate hain.
dharmachakr

  • vaibhashik aur sautrantik ek dharmachakr hi manate hain, jisaki deshana bhagavan ne rishipatan mrigadav men ki thin isake viney jan shravakavargiy log hain, jo svalakshan aur bahyasatta par adhrit chaturvidh aryasaty ke patr hain. pudgal-nairatmy ke sakshatkar dvara nirvan prapt kar lena, isaka lakshy hai. shravak-vargiy logon ki drishti se yah nitarth deshana hai. yogachar aur madhyamik logon ki drishti se yah neyarth deshana hai.
  • mahayani tin dharmachakr pravartan manate hain. pahala rishipatan mrigadav men, doosara gridhrakoot parvat par tatha tisara vaishali men dvitiy dharmachakr ke viney jan mahayani log hain tatha shoonyata, anutpad, anirodh adi isaki vishayavastu hain. vigyanavadi log is dvitiy dharmachakr ko neyarth manate hain, nitarth nahin. isamen pramukhata: prgyaparamitasootr deshit hain, jinase madhyamik darshan vikasit hua hai. isaki neyanitarthata ke bare men svatantrik madhyamikon evn prasngik madhyamikon men thoda-bahut matabhed hai. achary bhavavivek, gyanagarbh, shantarakshit adi svatantrik madhyamikon ke anusar prgyaparamitasootron men aryashatasahastrika prgyaparamita adi kuchh sootr nitarth hain, kyonki inamen sabhi dharmon ki paramarthat: ni:svabhavata nirdisht hai. bhagavati prgyaparamitahridayasootr adi yadyapi dvitiy dharmachakr men sngrahit hain, tathapi ve nitarth nahin mane ja sakate, kyonki inake dvara jis prakar ki sarvadharmani:svabhavata pratipadit ki gee hai us prakar ki ni:svabhavata svatantrik madhyamikon ko isht nahin hain yadyapi in sootron ka abhipray paramarthat: ni:svabhavata hi hai, tathapi unamen 'paramarthat:' yah visheshan adhik spasht nahin hai jo ki svatantrik madhyamikon ke anusar nitarthasootr hone ke lie paramavashyak hai. kyonki ye log vyavahar men vastu ki svalakshan satta svikar karate hain.
  • prasngik madhyamikon ke anusar dvitiy dharmachakr nitarth deshana hai. ve 'paramarthat: visheshan ko nirarthak manate hain. iname mat men jis sootr ka mukhy vishay shoonyata hai, vah sootr nitarth hai. jisaka mukhy vishay snvriti saty hai, vah neyarth sootr hai. at: inake mat men bhagavati prgyaparamitahridayasootr adi sootr bhi nitarth hi hain.
  • tritiy dharmachakr ka sthan vaishali hain shravak evn mahayani donon isake viney jan hain. ary sandhinirmochan adi isake pramukh sootr hain. vigyanavadiyon ke anusar yah nitarth deshana hain yadyapi dvitiy aur tritiy donon dharmachakron men shoonyata pratipadit hai, tathapi dvitiy dharmachakr men samast dharmon ko saman roop se ni:svabhav kaha gaya hai. usamen yah bhed nahin kiya gaya hai ki amuk dharm ni:svabhav hain aur amuk dharm ni:svabhav nahin hai, apitu sasvabhav hain vigyanavadi samast dharmon ko samanaroop se ni:svabhav nahin manate, apitu padarthon men se kuchh ni:svabhav hain aur kuchh sasvabhav. at: ve dvitiy dharmachakr ko nitarth nahin manate. unake matanusar jo sootr dharmon ki sasvabhavata aur ni:svabhavata ka samyagh vibhajan karate hain, ve hi nitarth mane ja sakate hain. jin sootron men ukt prakar ka vibhajan spasht nahin hai, unhen vigyanavadi neyarth hi manate hain.

dvivij nairatmy

vigyanavad ke anusar pudgalanairatmy ka svaroop panch skandhon se dravyat: bhinn, nity, shashvat atma ka nishedhamatr hai, vaibhashik, sautrantik adi hinayani aur svatantrik madhyamik bhi aisa hi manate hain. vigyanavad ke anusar bahyarth se shoonyata ya grahy-grahakadvay se shoonyata dharmanairatmy hai tatha svatantrik madhyamikon ke anusar dharmon ki paramarthat: ni:svabhavata dharmanairatmy hai. prasngik aisa nahin manate. unake mat men yadyapi ukt prakar ki atma ka astitv many nahin hai, tathapi ukt prakar ke pudgalanairatmy ke gyan se sarvavidh atmadrishti ka nishedh nahin hota. ukt gyan keval parikalpit atmrishti ka hi pratipaksh hai, jo (atma) keval siddhantavishesh se prerit logon men hi hoti hai. sahaj atmadrishti ki isase kuchh bhi hani nahin hoti. isake matanusar nairatmy ki sthapana pudgal tatha dharm ke bhed se ki jati hain pudgalani:svabhavanata pudgalanairatmy tatha ghatadi ni:svabhavata dharmanairatmy hai.

dvividh avaran

sabhi mahayani darshanon men dvividhi avaranon ki vyavastha hai, yatha –

  1. kleshavaran evn
  2. gyeyavaran.
  • kramash: pratham avaran mukti ki prapti men mukhy badhak hai tatha
  • doosara avaran sarvgyta ki prapti men mukhy badhak hai.

vigyanavad ke anusar pudgalatmadrishti tatha usase sambaddh klesh 'kleshavaran' hai. bahyarthadrishti tatha usaki vasanaen 'gyeyavaran' hain svatantrik madhyamikamata men kleshavaran ka svaroop vigyanavadiyon se bhinn nahin hai, kintu unake matanusar dharmon ki satyat: sattadrishti gyeyavaran hai. prasngik madhyamik matanusar pudgalatmadrishti tatha dharmatmadrishti sabhi kleshavaran hain, kyonki sabhi svabhavasadh-drishti klesh hoti hai. svabhavasadh-drishti mukti ki prapti men mukhy badhak hai. at: mokshaprapti ke lie ni:svabhavata ka gyan anivary hai. at: shravak tatha pratyekabuddh aryon ke lie ni:svabhavata ka gyata hona nishchit hota hai. svabhavasadh-drishti ki vasana gyeyavaran hai. yahi sarvgygyan ki prapti men mukhy badhak hai. usake prahan ke lie mahakaruna se sngrahit sambharon tatha parimataon ki avashyakata hoti hai. yah prasangikon ki vishisht manyata hai.

dvividh saty

  • do satyon ki charcha hinayani granthon men bhi upalabdh hoti hai. pali atthakatha evn abhidharmakosh men inake lakshan varnit hain, kintu mahayan men inaki pushkal charcha huee hai. nagarjun isake pravartak mane jate hain. sautrantik paramarthat: arthakriyasamarth ko paramarthasaty kahate hain. nirbahyarthata ya grahy-grahak dvait se rahitata yogachar mat men paramarthasaty hai. svatantrik aur prasangik madhyamik ka satyadvay ke bare men jo sookshm drishtibhed hai, use jan lena avashyak hai.
  • bhavavivek ke mat men paramarthat: ni:svabhavata 'paramarthasaty' hai. keval ni:svabhavata paramarthasaty nahin mani jati, kyonki unake mat men svabhavasatta hoti hai.

prasangik madhyamon ke matanusar ni:svabhavata hi 'paramarthasaty' hai. unake anusar 'paramarthat:' yah visheshan nirarthak hai.

  • donon ke mat men snvriti ke do prakar hain. bhavavivek vishay ki drishti se tathyasnvriti aur mithyasnvriti – ye do bhed manate hain. parantu prasangik mat ke anusar vishay do prakar ke nahin ho sakate, kyonki sabhi vishay mithya hi hote hain vishayi (gyan) do prakar ka hota hai. yah lokavyavastha ke anukool bhi hai. prasangik ki apani drishti se to sabhi gyan mithya hi hain, kyonki unaki drishti se sabhi sanvrit gyan bhrant hote hain. phir bhi lokavyavastha ke anusar gyan ke do prakar hain

praman vichar

  • pramanon ki do snkshya ke bare men pray: sabhi bauddh ekamat hai. pramanon ke bare men sautrantikon ne vistrit vichar kiya hai. praman do hain – pratyaksh aur anuman. sautrantik pratyaksh praman ko chaturvidh manate hain. yogachar darshanik bhi sautrantikon ke saman hi manate hain. parantu prasangik madhyamik svasnvedan pratyaksh nahin manate. vaibhashik bhi aisa hi manate hain. inake mat men pratyaksh trividh hi hai, tatha –
  1. indriyapratyaksh,
  2. manasapratyaksh aur
  3. yogipratyaksh.
  • kuchh vidvanon ka kahana hai ki prasangik keval do hi praman nahin manate, apitu pratyaksh anuman, upaman aur agam- in char pramanon ko manate hain ve apane bat ki pushti ke lie prasannapada ke ek shlok ko uddhrit bhi karate hain.
  • achary chonkhapa ka kahana hai ki prasannapada ka vachan vigrahavyavartani par adhrit hai, vah char praman hone ka saboot nahin hai. kyonki upaman aur agam ka anuman men hi antarbhav ho jata hai.
  • pramanavartik men agam ko kitani sima tak tatha kis prakar parikshit hone par grihit kiya ja sakata he aur apt ling ki vyavastha tatha usaka svaroop kya hai? in sabaka spashtataya varnan kiya gaya hai.
  • nishkarshat: prasangik dvividh pramanavadi hain. 'mann dvividhn meyadvaividhyath' (pramanavartik, pratyakshaparichchhed) in niyam ko prasangik bhi manate hain.

trikay vyavastha

buddhatv mahayan ka antim praptavy pad hai. mahayan ke anusar nirupadhishesh nirvan prapt hone par bhi vyakti ki roopasantati evn chittasantati ka nirodh nahin hota, jaise ki hinayani darshanon ke anusar hota hai. mahayaniyon ka kahana hai ki nirupadhishesh nirvan hone par vyakti ki keval klisht santati ka hi nirodh hota hai. anastrav panchaskandh santati to savarda pravahaman hoti hi rahati hai.

  • bodhisatv jab buddhatv prapt karata hai to buddhatv-prapti ke sath hi tin karyon ki prapti hoti hai, yatha -
  1. dharmakay,
  2. sambhog kay evn
  3. nirman kay.

dharmakay

  • jaise ek samany vyakti men chitt (chetanansh) aur sharir (jadansh) donon hote hain, vaise hi buddh ki avastha men bhi ye donon hote hain. unamen se chitt (chetanansh) dharmakay hai tatha unake sambhog kay aur nirmanakay ye sharirasthaniy hain. sansarik avastha men vyakti ke chakshurvigyan adi vigyan roop, shabd adi vibhinn vishayon men pravritti hote rahate hain. usaka alayavigyan samast vasanaon aur daushthulyon ka ashray hua karata hai. klisht manovigyan, jo ek visham vigyan hai, vah sarvada alayavigyan ko atmatven grahan karata rahata hai. buddhavastha men in samast vigyanon ki samapti ho jati hai aur unake sthan par ne-ne vigyanon ka utpad ho jata hai. is prakriya ko hi 'ashrayaparavritti' kahate hain. jaise sansarik avastha men alayavigyan samast vigyanon ka ashray hua karata hai, usi tarah buddhavastha men sarvgygyan hi unake samast gyanon ka adhar hota hai aur usamen hi samast buddhagan vidyaman rahate hain. alayavigyan ke sthan par buddhavastha men sarvgygyan utpann hota hai, jo apratishthit nirvan ka adhar hota hai. klisht manovigyan ke sthan par samata gyan ka utpad hota hai, jo samast dharmon ko samanaroop se shoony janata hai. sansarik avastha chakshuradivigyanon ke sthan par ativishuddh chakshuradivigyan utpann hote hain, jo ek-ek bhi samast dharmon aur unaki shoonyata ko janate hain. ye samast gyan *samoohik roop se 'gyan dharmakay' kahalate hain. is gyanakay men sarvgygyan hi pramukh hai.
  • sarvgygyan men sthit avaranon ka kshay bhi dharmakay hai, use 'agantuk vishuddh svabhav dharmakay' kahate hain. vigyanavadi mat men dharmakay tin prakar ka nahin mana ja jata, jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai, apitu do hi prakar ka mana jata hai, yatha-
  1. gyanadharmakay evn
  2. agantuk vishuddh svabhavadharmakay.
  • is mat men svabhavishuddh svabhavadharmakay nahin hota, kyonki sarvgygyan men sthit bahyarthashoonyata in vigyanavadiyon ke mat men dharmakay nahin hai. isaka karan yah hai ki sarvgygyan men sthit bahyarthashoonyata us sarvgygyan ke vishay roop adi ki bhi bahyarthashoonyata hai. gyatavy hai ki is mat men roop aur roop ko janane vala chakshurvigyan ye donon roop ke paratantralakshan hain aur donon ki shoonyata ek hi hai. isilie roop ko janane vala sarvgygyan bhi roop ka paratantralakshan hai aur usamen sthit shoonyata roop ki bhi shoonyata hai. aisi sthiti men jab ki sarvgygyan men sthit shoonyata roop men bhi vidyaman hai, to vah kaise dharmakay ho sakati hai. arthath sarvgygyan men sthit shoonyata dharmakay nahin hai.
  • yah siddhant madhyamik mat se bahut bhinn hai. madhyamikon ke mat men ek dharm ki shoonyata doosare dharm ki shoonyata kathamapi nahin ho sakati. phalat: unake mat men sarvgygyan men jo shoonyata sthit hai, vah dharmakay hoti hai, jise 'svabhavavishuddh svabhavadharmakay' kahate hain. aisa hone ke karan madhyamikon ke mat men trividh dharmakay hote hain, yatha- dvividhasvabhav dharmakay aur gyanadharmakay. dvividh svabhav dharmakay ye hain- svabhavavishuddh svabhav dharmakay evn agantuk vishuddh svabhavadharmakay.

sambhog kay

sansarik avastha men bodhisattv ka jo sastrav sharir hota hai, vah dash bhoomiyon ki avastha men kramash: shuddh hota jata hai. akhiri janm men bodhisattv 'charamabhavik bodhisattv' kahalata hai. vah charamabhavik bodhisattv apane akhiri janm men kamadhatu aur roopadhatu ke sthanon men utpann nahin hota, apitu keval akanishth ghanakshetr men hi janmagrahan karata hai. vahan usaka sharir atyant divy hota hai aur karm-kleshon ka us par koee prabhav nahin hota. usi divy janm men vah buddh ho jata hai. buddh hote hi vyakti sambhogakay ho jata hai aur usaka sharir 32 mahapurush lakshanon aur 80 anuvyajnnon se vibhooshit ho jata hai. vah sambhogakay nimn panch viniyaton se yukt hota hai.

  1. sthanaviniyat- vah sarvada keval akanishth ghanakshetr men hi sthit rahata hai.
  2. kayaviniyat-usaka sharir 32 mahapurushalakshan aur 80 anuvyanjanon se sarvada yukt rahata he.
  3. parivaraviniyat- unake parivar men keval mahayani ary bodhisattv hi rahate hain.
  4. vagh-viniyat- yah sada mahayan dharm ka hi upadesh dete hain.
  5. kalaviniyat- vah yavath-snsar arthath jab tak snsar hai, tab tak usi roop men sthit rahate hain.
  6. nirman kay
  • sambhogakay sarvada akanishth ghanakshetr men hi sthit rahata hai, tathapi vah sakal jagath ke kalyanarth samast kshetron men shakyamuni gautam buddh adi ke roop men anek buddhon ka nirman karata hai. aise buddhon ko 'nirmanakay' kahate hain. inake sthan adi niyat nahin hote. varanasi, magadh adi anek sthalon men ve bhraman karate rahate hain. ve nirmanakay pashu, pakshi, prithagjan adi sabhi jivon ke drishtigochar hote hain tatha samast viney janon ke kalyanarth shravak, pratyek buddh bodhisattv adi sabhi yonon ka upadesh karate hain. nirmanakay tin prakar ke hote hain, yatha :
  • uttam nirmanakay— uttam nirmanakay ka sambhogakay se sakshat sambandh hota hai. ve jamboodvip adi vibhinn lokon men dvadash(12)charit (lila) pradarshit karate hain. in chariton ke dvara ve viney janon ka kalyan siddh karate hain. yah kay bhi 32 mahapurushalakshan aur 80 anuvyajanon se vibhooshit hota hai. shakyamuni gautam buddh isake nidarshan (udaharan) hain.
  • dvadash charit is prakar hain-
  1. tushit lok se chyuti,
  2. matrikukshi men pravesh,
  3. lumbini udyan men avataran,
  4. shilp kala men nipunata evn kaumaryochit lalit kridaen,
  5. raniyon ke parivar ke sath rajyagrahan,
  6. char nimitton (vriddh, rogi, mrit adi) ko dekhakar sasnveg pravrajya,
  7. nerajnna nadi ke tat par chhah varshon tak kathor tapashcharan,
  8. bodhivriksh ke mool men upasthiti,
  9. man ki sampoorn sena ka daman,
  10. vaishakh poornima ke din bodhi ki prapti,
  11. rishipatan mrigadav (saranath) men dharmachakr-pravartan evn
  12. kushinagar men mahaparinirvan.

shailpik nirmanakay

uttam nirmanakay ko adhar banakar uttam kalakar ke roop men prakat hona 'shailpik nirmanakay' kahalata hai. ek samay shakyamuni ne apani kala ke abhimani gandharvaraj pramudit ka daman karane ke lie svayn ko vinavadak ke roop men prakat kiya tha. yah 'shailpik nirmanakay' ka udaharan hai.

nairyanik nirmanakay

uttam nirmanakay evn shailpik nirmanakay ke atirikt buddh ka any sattv ke roop men janm lena 'nairyanik nirmanakay' kahalata hai. uttam nirmanakay ke roop men raja shuddhodan ke putr hone ke pahale buddh tushit kshetr men devaputr sachchhvetaketu ke roop men utpann hue then unaka yah janm nairyanik nirmanakay ka udaharan hai.

ekayanavad

snsar men koee bhi aisa prani nahin hai, jo kisi n kisi din buddhatv prapt n kar lega. shravak aur pratyekabuddh bhi, jinhonne nirupadhishesh nirvan bhi prapt kar liya hai, yah sambhav hai ki anek kalpon tak ve nirvanadhatu men lin rahen, phir bhi unaka ek n ek din mahayan men pravesh hoga aur ve avashy buddhatv prapt karenge. achary dharmakirti ne pramanavartik men jivon ki chittasantati ko anadi evn anant siddh kiya hai[2]. isase siddh hota hai ki nirupadhisheshanirvan ki avastha men bhi chittasantati vidyaman hoti hai. jab chittasantati ka uchchhed nahin hota, tab koee karan nahin ki buddhatv prapt n kiya ja sake. donon prakar ke vigyanavadiyon men alayavigyan ka manana ya n manana hi sabase bada antar hai. kintu alayavigyan manane vale vigyanavadi ekayanavadi ne hokar triyanavadi hote hain, yah bhi bada antar hai. vigyanavad ki sthapana ya vigyptimatrata siddh karane men bhi yadyapi donon ke yuktiyon men bhed hai, tathapi yah shailigat bhed hai, manyataon men nahin.

tathagataguhyak

  • prarambhik tantr mahayanasootron se bahut milate-julate hain. udaharanarth manjushrimoolakalp avatnsak ke antargat 'mahavaipulyamahayanasootr', ke roop men prasiddh hai.
  • vidvanon ki ray hai ki tathagataguhy, guhyasamajatantr tatha ashtadashapatal tinon ek hi hain. arthath granth men jo tathagataguhyasootr ke uddharan milate hain, ve guhyasamaj se bhinn hain. at: tathagataguhyasootr evn guhyasamajatantr ka abhed nahin hai arthath bhinn-bhinn hain.
  • 'ashtadash' is nam se yah prakat hota hai ki is granth men atharah adhyay ya parichchhed hain.
  • tathagataguhyasootr ke anusar bodhisattv pranidhan karata hai ki shmashan men sthit usake mrit sharir ka tiryag yoni men utpann prani yathechchh upabhog karen aur is paribhog ki vajah se ve svarg se utpann ho. itana hi nahin, vah unake parinirvan ka bhi hetu ho. age vistar men padhen:- tathagataguhyak

dashabhoomishvar

  • gandavyooh ki bhanti yah sootr bhi avatnsak ka ek bhag mana jata hai. isamen bodhisattv ki das aryabhoomiyon ka vistrit varnan hai, jin bhoomiyon par kramash: adhirohan karate hue buddhatv avastha tak sadhak pahunchata hai. 'mahavastu' men is siddhant ka poorvaroop upalabdh hota hai. is granth men ukt siddhant ka paripak hua hai.
  • mahayan men is sootr ka atyuchch sthan hai. ise dashabhoomik, dashabhoomishvar evn dashabhoomak nam se bhi jana jata hai.
  • ary asng ne 'dashabhoomak' shabd ka hi prayog kiya hai. isaki lokapriyata evn pramanikata men yah praman hai ki atyant prachinakal men hi isake tibbati, chini, japani ev mngoliyan anuvad ho gaye the.
  • shri dharmaraksh ne isaka chini anuvad ee. sanh 297 men kar diya tha. isake pratipadan ki shaili men lambe-lambe samast pad evn roopakon ki bharamar hai.
  • mithila vidyapith ne daau. jones rathar ke snskaran ke adhar par isaka pun: snskaran kiya hai.
  • gyat hai ki mahayan men das aryabhoomiyan mani jati hain, yatha- pramudita, vimala, prabhakari, archishmati, sudarjaya, abhimukhi, doorangama, achala, sadhumati evn dharmamedha.
  • aryavastha se poorv jo prithagjan bhoomi hoti hai, use 'adhimukticharyabhoomi' kahate hain. mahayan men panch marg hote hain- sambharamarg, prayogamarg, darshanamarg, bhavanamarg evn ashaikshamarg. darshanamarg prapt hone par bodhisattv 'ary' kahalane lagata hai. uparyukt das bhoomiyan ary ki bhoomiyan hain. darshan marg ki prapti se poorv bodhisatv prithagjan hota hai. sambharamarg evn prayogamarg prithagjanamarg hain aur unaki bhoomi adhimukticharyabhoomi kahalati hai.
  • mahayan gotriy vyakti bodhichitt ka utpad kar mahayan men pravesh karata hai. prithagjan avastha men sambhar marg evn prayogamarg ka abhyas kar darshan marg prapt karate hi ary hokar pratham pramudita bhoomi ko prapt karata hai. age vistar men padhen:- dashabhoomishvar

vaibhashik darshan

  • inaka bahut kuchh sahity nasht ho gaya hai. inaka tripitak snskrit men tha. inake abhidharm men pramukh roop men sat granth hain, jo pray: mool roop men anupalabdh hain ya anshik roop men upalabdh hain.
  • chini bhasha men inaka aur inaki vibhasha tika ka anuvad upalabdh hai.
  • ve sat granth is prakar hain-
  1. gyanaprasthan,
  2. prakaranapad,
  3. vigyanakay,
  4. dharmaskandh,
  5. prgyptishastr,
  6. dhatukay evn
  7. sngitiparyay.
  • vaibhashik aur sarvastivadi donon abhidharm ko buddhavachan manate hain. age vistar men padhen:- vaibhashik darshan


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. advayavajrasngrah kudrishtinirdhatan, pri. 6
  2. 1:46-47

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