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bauddh dharm ka pratik

bauddh sngiti ka tatpary us 'sngoshthi' ya 'sammelan' ya 'mahasabha' se hai, jo mahatma buddh ke parinirvan ke alp samay ke pashchath se hi unake upadeshon ko sngrahit karane, unaka path (vachan) karane adi ke uddeshy se sambandhit thi. in sngitiyon ko pray: 'dhamm sngiti' (dharm sngiti) kaha jata tha. sngiti ka arth hota hai ki 'sath-sath gana'. itihas men char bauddh sngitiyon ka ullekh hua hai-

  1. pratham bauddh sngiti - (483 ee.poo., rajagrih men)
  2. dvitiy bauddh sngiti - (vaishali men)
  3. tritiy bauddh sngiti - (249 ee.poo., pataliputr men)
  4. chaturth bauddh sngiti - (kashmir men)

pratham sngiti

'pratham bauddh sngiti' ka ayojan 483 ee.poo. men rajagrih (adhunik rajagiri), bihar ki 'saptaparni gufa' men kiya gaya tha. gautam buddh ke nirvan ke bad hi is sngiti ka ayojan hua tha. isamen bauddh sthaviron (theron) ne bhag liya aur buddh ke pramukh shishy 'mahakasyap' (mahakashyap) ne usaki adhyakshata ki. choonki buddh ne apani shikshaon ko lipibaddh nahin kiya tha, isilie sngiti men unake tin shishyon-'mahapandit mahakashyap', sabase vayovriddh 'upali' tatha sabase priy shishy 'anand' ne unaki shikshaon ka sngayan kiya.

dvitiy sngiti

ek shatabdi bad buddhopadisht kuchh vinay-niyamon ke sambandh men bhikshuon men vivad utpann ho jane par vaishali men doosari sngiti huee. is sngiti men vinay-niyamon ko kathor banaya gaya aur jo buddhopadisht shikshaen alikhit roop men prachalit thin, unamen snshodhan kiya gaya.

tritiy sngiti

bauddh anushrutiyon ke anusar buddh ke parinirvan ke 236 varsh bad samrat ashok ke snrakshan men tritiy sngiti 249 ee.poo. men pataliputr men huee thi. isaki adhyakshata prasiddh bauddh granth ‘kathavatthu’ ke rachayita tiss moggaliputr ne ki thi. vishvas kiya jata hai ki is sngiti men tripitak ko antim roop pradan kiya gaya. yadi ise sahi man liya jae ki ashok ne apana saranath vala stambh lekh is sngiti ke bad utkirn karaya tha, tab yah manana uchit hoga, ki is sngiti ke nirnayon ko itane adhik bauddh bhikshu-bhikshuniyon ne svikar nahin kiya ki ashok ko dhamaki deni padi ki sngh men phoot dalane valon ko kada dand diya jayega.

chaturth sngiti

chaturth aur antim bauddh sngiti kushan samrat kanishk ke shasanakal (lagabhag 120-144 ee.) men huee. yah sngiti kashmir ke 'kundal van' men ayojit ki gee thi. is sngiti ke adhyaksh vasumitr evn upadhyaksh ashvaghosh the. ashvaghosh kanishk ka rajakavi tha. isi sngiti men bauddh dharm do shakhaon- hinayan aur mahayan men vibhajit ho gaya. huenasang ke matanusar samrat kanishk ki snrakshata tatha adeshanusar is sngiti men 500 bauddh vidvanon ne bhag liya aur tripitak ka pun: snkalan v snskaran hua. isake samay se bauddh grnthon ke lie snskrit bhasha ka prayog hua aur mahayan bauddh snpraday ka bhi pradurbhav hua. is sngiti men nagarjun bhi shamil hue the. isi sngiti men tinon pitakon par tikayen likhi geen, jinako 'mahavibhasha' nam ki pustak men snkalit kiya gaya. is pustak ko bauddh dharm ka 'vishvakosh' bhi kaha jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bharatiy itihas kosh |lekhak: sachchidanand bhattachary |prakashak: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan |prishth snkhya: 302 |


snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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