ब्रजभाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

braj vishay soochi
brajabhasha
rasakhan ke dohe
vivaran brajabhasha moolat: brajakshetr ki boli hai. 13vin shatabdi se lekar 20vin shatabdi tak bharat men sahityik bhasha rahane ke karan braj ki is janapadiy boli ne apane vikas ke sath bhasha nam prapt kiya aur brajabhasha nam se jani jane lagi.
brajakshetr mathura, aligadh, agara, bharatapur aur dhaulapur men boli jati hai. brajabhasha ka kuchh mishrit roop jayapur ke poorvi bhag tatha bulndashahar, mainapuri, eta, bareli aur badayoon tak bola jata hai.
svaroop 'brajabhasha' men apana roopagat prakriti aukarant hai yani ki isaki ekavachaniy pulling sngya aur visheshan pray: aukarant hote hain; jaise khurapau, yamarau, manjhau adi sngya shabd aukarant hain. isi prakar karau, gorau, sanvarau adi visheshan pad aukarant hai.
kshetriy bhashaon ke tattv brajabhasha men bhojapuri, avadhi, bundeli, pnjabi, pahadi, rajasthani prabhavon ki jhanee padi aur usase brajabhasha men dipti aur arthavatta aee.
vishesh bhaktikal ke kaviyon ne apani rachanaen brajabhasha men hi likhi hain, jinamen sooradas, rahim, rasakhan, bihari lal, keshav, ghananand adi kavi pramukh hain.
any janakari adhunik brajabhasha 1 karod 23 lakh janata ke dvara boli jati hai aur lagabhag 38,000 vargamil ke kshetr men phaili huee hai.

brajabhasha moolat: brajakshetr ki boli hai. vikram ki 13vin shatabdi se lekar 20vin shatabdi tak bharat men sahityik bhasha rahane ke karan braj ki is janapadiy boli ne apane vikas ke sath bhasha nam prapt kiya aur brajabhasha nam se jani jane lagi. shuddh roop men yah aj bhi mathura, agara, dhaulapur aur aligadh zilon men boli jati hai. ise ham kendriy brajabhasha bhi kah sakate hain. prarambh men brajabhasha men hi kavy rachana huee. bhaktikal ke kaviyon ne apani rachanaen brajabhasha men hi likhi hain, jinamen sooradas, rahim, rasakhan, bihari lal, keshav, ghananand adi kavi pramukh hain. hindi filmon aur filmi giton men bhi brajabhasha ke shabdon ka bahut prayog hota hai. adhunik brajabhasha 1 karod 23 lakh janata ke dvara boli jati hai aur lagabhag 38,000 vargamil ke kshetr men phaili huee hai.

snkshipt parichay

  • kendrmathura
  • bolane valon ki snkhya— 3 karod
  • desh ke bahar tajjubekistan men brajabhasha boli jati hai, jise 'tajjubeki brajabhasha' kaha jata hai.
  • sahity— krishn bhakti kavy ki ekamatr bhasha, lagabhag sara ritikal sahity. sahityik drishti se hindi bhasha ki sabase mahattvapoorn boli. sahityik mahattv ke karan hi ise brajaboli nahin brajabhasha ki sngya di jati hai. madhyakal men is bhasha ne akhil bharatiy vistar paya. bngal men is bhasha se bani bhasha ka nam 'braj buli' pada. adhunik kal tak is bhasha men sahity srijan hota raha. par paristhitiyan aisi bani ki brajabhasha sahityik sinhasan se utar di gee aur usaka sthan khadi boli ne le liya.
  • rachanakar— bhaktikalin– sooradas, nandadas adi.

ritikalbihari, matiram, bhooshan, dev adi. adhunik kalinbharatendu harishchandr, jagannath das 'ratnakar' adi.

  • namoona— ek mathura ji ke chaube he (the), jo dilli saihar kau chalai. gadi vare baniya se chaubeji ki bhent hai gee. to ve chaube bole, ar bhiya seth, kahan jayago. vau bolo, maharaja dilli jaoongo. to chaube bole, bhiya hamoon baithalley. baniya bolo, char roopa chalinge bhade ke. chaube bole, achchha bhiya chari dinge.

brajabhasha ka vistar

shuddh roop men brajabhasha aj bhi mathura, aligadh, agara, bharatapur aur dhaulapur zilon men boli jati hai. brajabhasha ka kuchh mishrit roop jayapur rajy ke poorvi bhag tatha bulndashahar, mainapuri, eta, bareli aur badayoon tak bola jata hai. griyarsan ne apane bhasha sarve men pilibhit, shahajahanpur, farrookhabad, haradoee, itava tatha kanapur ki boli ko kannauji nam diya hai, kintu vastav men yahan ki boli mainapuri, eta bareli aur badayoon ki boli se bhinn nahin hain. adhik se adhik ham in sab zilon ki boli ko 'poorvi braj' kah sakate hain. sach to yah hai ki, bundelakhnd ki bundeli boli bhi brajabhasha ka hi rupantaran hai. bundeli 'dakshini braj' kahala sakati hai.[1] daau. gulabaray ke anusar- "brajabhasha ka kshetr nimn prakar hai- mathura, agara, aligadh zilon ko kendr manakar uttar men yah almoda, nainital aur bijanaur zilon tak phaili hai. dakshin men dhaulapur, gvaliyar tak, poorv men kannauj aur kanapur zilon tak, pashchim men bharatapur aur gudaganv zilon tak isaki sima hai.

sahity yatra

bolachal ki bhasha aur sahityik brajabhasha men antar karane ki avashyakata do karanon se padati hai, bolachal ki brajabhasha braj ke bhaugolik kshetr ke bahar upayog men nahin laee jati, jabaki sahityik brajabhasha ka upayog brajakshetr ke bahar ke kaviyon ne bhi usi kushalata ke sath kiya hai, jis kushalata ke sath brajakshetr ke kaviyon ne kiya hai. doosara antar yah hai ki bolachal ki braj aur sahityik braj ke bich men ek manak braj hai, jisamen brajabhasha ke upaboliyon ke sabhi roop svikary nahin hai, doosare shabdon men brajakshetr ke vibhinn roop-vikalpon men se kuchh hi vikalp manak roop men svikrit hain aur is manak roop ko braj ke kisi kshetr vishesh se poorn roop se jodana sambhav nahin hai. adhik se adhik yahi kaha ja sakata hai ki, braj pradesh ke madhyavarti kshetr ki bhasha manak braj ka adhar banati hai. jis tarah merath ke as-pas boli jane vali boli (jise kauravi nam diya gaya hai) manak hindi se bhinn hai, kintu usaka vyakaranik dhancha manak hindi ka adhar hai, usi tarah madhyavarti braj ka dhancha manak braj ka adhar hai. manak braj aur sahityik braj ke bich bhi usi prakar ka antar hai, yah bhed vaky-vinyas, pad-vinyas aur ukti-bhngima ke staron par bhi rekhankit hota hai. yah to bhasha vigyan ka mana hua siddhant hai ki, sahityik bhasha aur samany bhasha men antar prayojanavash ata hai aur choonki sahityik bhasha apane sandesh se kam mahatv nahin rakhati aur usamen bar-bar duharaye jane ki, naya arth udabhavit karane ki kshamata apekshit hoti hai, usamen manak bhasha ki yantrikata apane ap toot jati hai, usamen ek-dishiyata ke sthan par bahudishiyata a jati hai aur shabd-chayan, vaky-vinyas, pad-vinyas sab is prayojan ko charitarth karane ke lie kuchh n kuchh badal jate hain. kintu isaka yah arth nahin hai ki vyakaran badal jata hai ya shabd kosh badal jata hai, keval vyakaran aur shabd ke kary badal jate hain, kyonki donon atirikt soddeshyata se vidyut chalit kar diye jate hain.

brajabhasha ka svaroop

brajabhasha men apana roopagat prakriti aukarant hai yani ki isaki ekavachaniy pulling sngya aur visheshan pray: aukarant hote hain; jaise khurapau, yamarau, manjhau adi sngya shabd aukarant hain. isi prakar karau, gorau, sanvarau adi visheshan pad aukarant hai. kriya ka samany bhootakal ka ekavachan punling roop bhi brajabhasha men pramukh roop se aukarant hi rahata hai. kuchh kshetron men "yh" shruti ka agam bhi milata hai. aligadh ki tahasil kol ki boli men samany bhootakalin roop "yh" shruti se rahit milata hai, lekin zila mathura tatha dakshini bulndashahar ki tahasilon men "yh" shruti avashy paee jati hai. kannauji ki apani prakriti okarant hai. sngya, visheshan tatha kriya ke roopon men brajabhasha jahan aukarantata lekar chalati hai vahan kannauji okarant hai.

brajabhasha ka prayog

sahityik brajabhasha ka prayog braj ke atirikt boli-kshetron men hone ke karan un-un kshetron ki boliyon ke rng bhi jude hain. aj ki sahityik hindi men bhi is prakar ka prabhav dikhaee padata hai. vah ek kisi ek muhavare ek chal men bndhi huee bhasha nahin hai, usamen kshetriy rngaton ko apanane ki aur unhen apane rng men dalane ki kshamata hai. brajabhasha men bhi bhojapuri, avadhi, bundeli, pnjabi, pahadi, rajasthani prabhavon ki jhanee padi aur usase brajabhasha men dipti aur arthavatta aee. kuchh shabdakosh bhi badha, muhavare to nishchit roop se naye-naye usamen sannivisht hue. bundelakhand ke kaviyon men padmakar, thakur bodha aur bakhshi hnsaraj ka prabhav ullekhaniy hai. bhojapuri kshetr ke kaviyon men itane bade nam to nahin lie ja sakate, lekin rngapal, chhutakan jaise kaviyon ke dvara rache ge phagon men bhojapuri se bhavit brajabhasha ki chhata ek alag hi milati hai. gval kavi, guru govindasinh jaise pnjab kshetr ke kaviyon ne pnjabi prabhav diya hai. dadoo, sundaradas aur rajjab jaise santakaviyon ki bhasha men (jo pramukh roop se brajabhasha hi hai) rajasthani ka put gahara hai.

rason ka prayog

rachana bahuly ke adhar par pray: yah man liya jata hai ki, brajabhasha kavy ka vishay roop-varnan, shobha-varnan, shrringari cheshta-varnan, shrringari hav-bhav-varnan, prakriti ke shrringaroddipak roop ka varnan vividh prakar ki kaminiyon ki vilasacharya ka varnan, lalit kala-vinodon ka varnan aur nagar-nagariyon ke pahirav, sajav, singar ka varnan tak hi simit hai. isamen sadharan manushy ke du:kh-dard ya unake jivan-sngharsh ka chitr nahin hai, n kuchh apavadon ko chhodakar jivan men utsah vriddhi jagane ke lie vishesh chav hai. isamen jo alaukik, adhyatmik bhav hai bhi, vah bhi ya to alakshit aur sukumar bhavon ki paridhi ke bhitar hi samaye hue hain ya manushy ke dainy ya udas bhav ke atirek se grast hain. brajabhasha kavy ka snsar is prakar bada hi snkuchit snsar hai. par jab ham byaure men jate hain aur bhakti-kalin kavy ki zamin ka sarvekshan karate hain aur uttar madhyakal ki niti-pradhan rachanaon men ya akshep pradhan rachanaon ka paryavekshan karate hain, to yah snsar bahut vistut dikhaee padata hai. isamen jinhen darabari kavi kahakar chhota manate hain, unaki kavita men ganv ke bade anoothe chitr hain aur lok-vyavahar ke to tarah-tarah ke ayam milate hain. ye ayam shrringari hi nahin hain adabhut, hasy, shant rason ke sainkadon udaharan us uttar madhyakal men bhi milate hain, jise shrringar-kal kaha jata hai. yahi nahin, padmakar jaise kavi ki rachana men sookshm roop men angrezon ke ane ke khatare ki chinta bhi milati hai. bhooshan ki bat chhod bhi de, to bhi anek anam kaviyon ke bhitar dharati ka lagav, jo jan-jan ke aradhy alnbanon se jude hue hain, bahut saral dhng se ankit milata hai. dev ka ek prasiddh chhand hai, jisamen barat ke akar vida hone men aur usake bad ki udasi ka chitr milata hai.

kam parayau dulahi aru dulah, chakar yar te dvar hi chhoote.
maya ke bajane baji gaye parabhat hi bhat khava uthi boote.
atisabaji gee chhin men chhooti deki ajau uthike ankhi phoote.
‘dev’ dikhaiyanu dag bane rahe, bag bane te barothahin loote.

sooradas, soor kuti, soor sarovar, agara

vidvanon v kaviyon dvara prayog

yah bat anadekhi karane yogy nahin hai ki, brajabhasha ke kaviyon ne samany grihasth jivan ko hi kendr men rakha hai, chahe ve kavi snt ho, darabari ho, raja ho ya fakir ho. rahim ke nimnalikhit shabd-chitron men shramajivi ki sahadharmita ankit hai-

like sughar khurapiya piy ke sath.
chhibe ek chhatariya barasat path..

brajabhasha sahity sarvekshan

sahityik brajabhasha kosh taiyar karane ke pichhe uddeshy yah nahin hai ki, sahityik brajabhasha ko sahityik hindi se alag karake dekha jae, balki uddeshy yah hai ki, is sahityik brajabhasha ko padhane-padhane men jo kathinaee ho rahi hai, vishesh roop se un pranton men, jahan kshetriy bhashaen pratham bhasha ke roop men svikrit hain. usake marg darshan ke lie ek aisa kosh hona chahie, jo brajabhasha sahity ke adhyayan-adhyapan, thik roop se kahen hindi sahity ke samooche adhyayan-adhyapan ko ek avashyak avalamb de sake. sahityik brajabhasha ke aitihasik svaroop ko samajhane ke lie avashyak hai ki, brajabhasha sahity ka sarvekshan is roop men karaya jae ki is sahity ki prakriti sarvadeshik sarvabhaumik ekatmata lane vali rahi hai.

brajabhasha gady ka prayog

jab ham brajabhasha sahity kahate hain to, usamen gady ka samavesh nahin karate. isaka karan yah nahin hai ki, brajabhasha men gady aur sahityik gady hai hi nahin. vaishnavon ke varta sahity men, bhakti granthon ke tika sahity men tatha ritakalin granthon ke tika sahity men brajabhasha gady ka prayog hua hai, parantu gady ka prasar do hi sthitiyon men hota hai, ya to vah shastr ho ya gadyagandhi ho, kyonki inhin donon dishaon men usamen punaravartamanata hoti hai. chhapakhane ke agaman ke bad gady ka mahatv apane ap badha, kyonki tab knthagat karane ki apariharyata nahin rahi. lalloolal ji ne apane premasagar men brajabhasha se bhavit aise gady ki rachana ki aur vah gady hi adhunik gady ki bhoomi bana, kintu brajabhasha ka sthan unnisavin shatabdi ke ant se jo hindi ko mila, usamen gady ki nayi bhoomika ka mahatv to tha hi, sabase bada karan tha, angrezon ke dvara uttar bharat men kachahari bhasha ke roop men urdoo ko manyata dena.

kal vibhajan

brajabhasha sahity ke itihas ko tin charanon men banta ja sakata hai. isaka udayakal jisake oopar 'nagar' apabhrnsh kavy ki chhap hai. isi karan usamen dikhane vale hindi ke madhy desh men paida hue amir khusaro se lekar maharashtr men paida hue mahanubhav aur gyaneshvar ke sathi namadev hain. doosari or pnjab se lekar bihar tak ke sant kavi hain, jo bhinn-bhinn prayojanon se bhinn-bhinn prakar ki bhasha ka vyavahar karate hain, parantu gey prayojan ke lie pray: brajabhasha ka hi vyavahar karate hain. inaki soochi badi lambi hai aur pandrahavin aur solahavin shatabdi ke adhikansh sant-kavi sahityik brajabhasha ka hi prayog karate hain. mukhy nam ye hain-kabir, raidas, dharmadas aur guru nanak, dadoo dayal aur satrahavin shatabdi ke sundaradas, malookadas aur aksharanany hain.

kshetriy bhashaon ke tattv

yah man lena ki prarambh ke kavi bhasha ke prati udasin the aur unaka dhyan bhasha ke snvar par nahin tha, sahi nahin hai. kam se kam bahut door tak nahin hi sahi hai. upadesh ki bhasha ya phatakar ki bhasha men ek janaboojhakar bazar-bhasha ka roop milata hai, anek kshetriy bhashaon ke tattv milate hain, kintu jahan ragatmak snvedana tivr hai, vahan bhasha parinishthit hai aur yah parinishthit bhasha braj hai. aisa lagata hai, jaise us yug men bhasha ke prayog ki kuchh roodhiyan usi tarah se svikrit ho chuki thin, jis tarah snskrit ke natakon men snskrit aur vibhinn prakriton ke snndarbh men kuchh roodhiyan ban gee thin. isilie ek hi kavi bhinn-bhinn bhoomikaon men bhinn-bhinn bhashaon ka prayog karata hai. amir khusaro se hi yah bat drishtigochar hone lagati hai. gey padon men choonki ragatmakata ka sannivesh aparihary hai, isalie unaki bhasha men to brajabhasha pray: nirapavad roop men hai. jin dohon, sorathon, jhoolane, savaiyon aur kavitton men kori upadeshaparakata nahin hai, sundar tarike se kahane ka bhav hai ya kisi lality ki abhivynjana hai ya koee gahari snvedana vyakt karane ka bhav hai, unamen pray: brajabhasha ka hi prayog milega. isake viparit yuddh varnan men dingal ya rajasthani bhasha ka prayog milega. kahin-kahin is dingal men prachin apabhrnsh ke bhi avashesh dikhaee dete hain. jahan kahin ek khas kism ka shaharipan hai, vahan par khadi boli ka prayog hai aur jahan sadhukkadi thath hai, vahan par mishrit bhasha ka prayog kiya gaya hai. is prakar se prabandh yojana men avadhi bhasha ka prayog adhikatar dekhane ko milata hai. usaka karan hai ki avadhi ne jis apabhrnsh ka uttaradhikar liya hai, us apabhrnsh men prabandh kavy bahut liye ge the. svaynbhoo jaise kaviyon ne anek prabandh kavy likhe the.

tadabhav aur tatsam shabdon ka prayog

dvitiy charan ke brajabhasha sahity ke panch bindu atyant snlakshy roop se dikhaee dete padate hain.

  • tadabhav aur tatsam shabdon ka ek aisa sahaj santulan milata hai, jisamen tatsam shabd bhi brajabhasha ki prakriti men dhale dikhate hain, adhikatar to ve arddh-tatsam roop men. ‘pratit’ ke lie ‘paratiti’ jabaki isake sath-sath tadbhav roop ‘patiyabo’ bhi milata hai, jaise tatsam pratipadakon men nee nam dhatuen banakar ‘abhilash’ se ‘abhilakhat’ ya ‘anurag’ se ‘anuragat’. is avadhi men samanantar tatsam aur tadbhav shabdon ke arthakshetr bhi kuchh n kuchh spashtat: vyatireki ho ge hain. jab nakh-shikh ki bat karenge, tab ‘nah’ ka prayog nahin karenge aur jab dason nah ka prayog karenge, tab ‘nakh’ vahan prayukt nahin hoga.

bhasha ke prati asajagata

ek prachin kavisamay ke abhipray ki nee udabhavana ki gee hai ki, prabhu ke charanon ke nakhon men soory ki jyoti ka prakash hai, vahan rat ki koee sambhavana nahin, vahan samast dvandvon ki vishranti hai. bhakti ke dvara jahan ek or samany vyakti ki bhasha ko asamany mahatv diya gaya aur samany bhasha ka sngitatmak upayog n keval bhagavad bhakti ka sadhan hua, vah bhagavad bhakti ki siddhi bhi bana. is karan se pratyek bhakt gayak aur pad rachanakar hone laga. doosari or jo bhakt kavi kushal nahin the, ve bhasha ke prati sajag nahin rahe, ve sampreshan ke prati udasin rahe, unake man men yah bhram raha ki bhav mukhy hai, bhasha nahin. ve yah samajh nahin sakate the ki bhav aur bhasha ka bahut ghanishth sambandh hai. inake achet kavi-karm ki bahulata ka prabhav bhasha par pada, usamen kuchh jadata ane lagi.

bhakti andolan

sooradas, soorasarovar, agara

bhakti andolan to chalata raha aur usaka vyapak prabhav bhi janajivan par bana raha, par kavi-karm ke prati sajag kaviyon ne bhasha aur bhav ke aiky par dhyan dena shuroo kiya. ritikal bhaktihin nahin hai, us kal men bhi sansarik prapnch men rahate hue vishv aur vishvatma ko udvelit karane vale prem-vyapar ki chinta thi. ve darabaron men ashray pate the, par darabaradari se sabhi kavi bndhe nahin the, jaisa ki pahale bhi kaha ja chuka hai ki unaka snsar nayak-nayika tak simit nahin tha aur n nayak-nayikaen hi uchch varg ya sampann varg tak hi simit thin, ve sadharan jivan men abhivyapt rag snvedana ki pahachan karana chahate the. unhen shriradha-krishn ki premanuga-bhakti ka ek chaukhata mil gaya, jisase unhen apani bat kahane men thodi asani rahi. bhikharidas ki pnkti men-

age ke sukavi rijhi hai to kavitaee
n tau radhika kanhaee ke sumiran ko bahanau hai.

  ka arth yah nahin hai ki sachamuch men unake lie ‘radhika kanhaee’ ka smaran bahana tha. usaka arth keval yahi hai ki ve vinamratapoorvak apane ko laukik rakhana chahate the, parantu alaukik shrikrishn ki laukik lila se ve kisi bhi prakar aprabhavit nahin the. yadi in kaviyon ke samanantar darabari urdoo kaviyon ke sath tulana ki jae to yah bat aur achchhi tarah samajh men ati hai ki urdoo kavita men ukti chamatkar ke star par kavi-karm ki vaisi hi sajagata hai, parantu usake anubhav ka snsar simit hai. is karan unaki bhasha men ek jadaoopan to hai, vibhinn prakar ke jivan kshetron se ane vali tazagi nahin hai. unamen gramy jivan ke chitr nahin ke barabar hain. ritikal men abhivyakti ko nissndeh mahattv mila, parantu isaka arth yah nahin samajha jana chahie ki unaka kavy anubhav unake bhakt n hone ke karan aparihary roop se hey ya bhakt kaviyon ki apeksha kam upadey anubhav hai. atirek pratyek yug men hota hai aur vah us yug ki pravritti nahin hai. usake adhar par us yug ki kavita ka moolyankan karana samichin nahin hai.

brajabhasha ki samriddhata

ritikal punarmoolyankan ki apeksha rakhata hai. vah vyaktitvon ke adhar par kiya jata raha hai. athava unnisavin shatabdi ki viktoriyan, khokhali naitikata ke manadandon se kiya jata raha hai. yah sahi hai ki sooradas ya tulasidas ki oonchaee ka kavi ya unake vyapak kavy snsar jaisa snsar is yug ke kaviyon men nahin prapt hai, par sadharan jan ke knth men tulasi, soor, kabir ki hi tarah rahim, rasakhan, padmakar, thakur, dev, biharilal hi nahin bahut apekshakrit kam vikhyat kavi bhi chadhe. usaka karan unaki kavita ki sahradata aur sampreshaniyata hi thi. in kaviyon se brajabhasha samriddh huee hai, usane ek aise jivan men pravesh kiya hai, jo sabaka ho sakata hai. yah ullekhaniy hai ki is yug ke jo kavi rajadarabaron men hain, ve bhi keval kasida ya badhaee likhakar santosh nahin pate the. ve apana kavy raja ko samarpit kar den, par us kavy men raja ya rajadarabar ka jivan bahut kam rahata tha. ve prakriti ke mukt vitan ke kavi the, snkari aur andheri gali ke kavi nahin the. isalie is yug ke utkrisht kavy men senapati jaise kavi ke svachchh prakriti chitran milate hain aur vibhinn vyavasayon, vishesh karake krishi vyavasay ke manoram chitr kahin vimb ke roop men, kahin varny vishay ke roop men, kahin sadrishy ke roop men milate hain. snskrit ki muktak kavy parampara aur snskrit ki kavyashikha parampara ka day is kal men prasrit dikhata hai. parantu isaka yah arth nahin ki usake poorvavarti kal men usaki chhap n ho, apabhrnsh kavy men vir gathaon, vaishnav padavali sahity in sabamen usaki chhap hai. at: isako ritikal ka abhilakshan batana uchit nahin. ritikal ke kaviyon men desh ki chetana n ho, aisi bat bhi nahin hai. bhooshan, lal, soodan, padmakar jaise prasiddh kaviyon ke atirikt bhi anek kavi hue, jinake kavy men svadesh ka anurag vyakt hota hai aur vah parampara bharatendu harishchandr, shridhar pathak aur saty narayan kaviratn tak akshunn chali aee hai.



pichhe jaen
brajabhasha
age jaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. brajabhasha vyakaran, (pratham snskaran 1937 ee.) pri. 13

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