ब्राह्मण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

brahman
brahman
vivaran 'brahman' bharatiy samaj men varn vyavastha ka mahattvapoorn hissa hain. brahman varn ab hindoo samaj ki ek jati bhi hai.
any nam 'vipr', 'dvij', 'dvijottam' ya 'bhoosur'
adhikar archa, dan, ajeyata, avadhyata
kartavy 'brahmany' (vnsh ki pavitrata), 'pratiroopacharya' (kartavyapalan), 'lokapakti' (lok ko prabuddh karana)
upajatiyan tyagi, bajapeyi, bhoomihar, mahiyal, galav, anavil, chitapavan, karve, ayngar, hegade, nnboodiri, ayngar, ayyar, niyogi, das, mishr, gaud, sarasvat, kanyakubj, maithil, utkal.
snbndhit lekh varn vyavastha, hindoo dharm, brahman grnth, brahman sahity, brahman granthon ke bhashyakar
any janakari samavediy brahman granthon men tandy brahman sabase adhik prasiddh hain. isamen pachchis adhyay hain. isalie yah 'pncharvish brahman' bhi kahalate hain. jin brahmanon ke baithane se brahmabhoj ki pnkti dooshit samajhi jati hai, unako 'pnktidooshan' kaha jata hai.

brahman bharat men aryon ki samaj vh‍yavash‍tha arthath varn vyavastha ka sabase oopar ka varn hai. bharat ke samajik badalav ke itihas men jab bharatiy samaj ko hindoo ke roop men snbodhit kiya jane laga, tab brahman varn, jati men bhi pari‍vartit ho gaya. brahman varn ab hindoo samaj ki ek jati bhi hai. brahman ko 'vipr', 'dvij', 'dvijottam' ya 'bhoosur' bhi kaha jata hai.

itihas

brahman samaj ka itihas prachin bharat ke vaidik dharm se arnbh hota hai. 'manusmriti' ke anusar aryavart vaidik logon ki bhoomi hai. brahman vyavahar ka mukhy srot ved hain. brahmanon ke sabhi sampraday vedon se prerana lete hain. parnparik taur par yah vishvas hai ki ved 'apaurushey'[1] tatha anadi hain, balki anadi saty ka prakaty hai, jinaki vaidhata shashvat hai. vedon ko shruti mana jata hai[2] dharmik v sanskॄtik ritiyon evn vyavahar men vividhataon ke karan aur vibhinn vaidik vidyalayon ke unake snbandh ke chalate, brahman samaj vibhinn upajatiyon men vibhajit hai. sootr kal men, lagabhag 1000 ee. poo. se 200 ee. poo. vaidik angikaran ke adhar par, brahman vibhinn shakhaon men batane lage. pratishthit vidvanon ke netॄtv men, ek hi ved ki vibhinn namon ki prithak-prithakh shakhaen banane lagin. in pratishthit rishiyon ki shikshaon ko 'sootr' kaha jata hai. pratyek ved ka apana sootr hai. samajik, naitik tatha shastranukool niyamon vale sootron ko 'dharmasootr' kahate hain , anushthanik valon ko 'shrautasootr' tatha ghareloo vidhishastron ki vyakhya karane valon ko 'grihasootr' kaha jata hai. sootr samanyataya pady ya mishrit gady-pady men likhe hue hain.
brahman ardhy dete hue

vyakhya

brahm = ved ka pathak athava brahm = paramatma ka gyata. rigved ki apeksha any snhitaon men yah sadharan prayog ka shabd ho gaya tha, jisaka arth purohit hai. rigved ke 'purushasookt' (10.90) men varnon ke char vibhajan ke sandarbh men isaka jati ke arth men prayog hua hai. vaidik granthon men yah varn kshatriyon se ooncha mana gaya hai. rajasooy ygy men brahman kshatriy ko kar deta tha, kintu isase shatapath brahman men varnit brahman ki shreshthata nyoon nahin hoti. is bat ko bar-bar kaha gaya hai ki kshatriy tatha brahman ki ekata se hi sarvaginn unnati ho sakati hai. yah svikar kiya gaya hai ki katipay rajany evn dhanasampann log brahman ko yadi kadachit dabane men samarth hue hain, to unaka sarvanash bhi shighr hi ghatit hua hai. brahman prithvi ke devata ('bhoosur') kahe gaye hai, jaise ki svarg ke devata hote hain. aitarey brahman men brahman ko dan lene vala (adayi) tatha som pine vala (apayi) kaha gaya hai. usake do any virood 'avasayi' tatha 'yathakam-prayapy' ka arth aspasht hai. pahale ka arth sab sthanon men rahane vala tatha doosare ka anand se ghoomane vala ho sakata hai.[3]

panini kal men brahman

katyayan ne char varnon ke bhav ya karm ko chaturvarny kaha hai.[4] anupoorvi kram se charon varnon ke liye 'brahmanakshatriyavith shoodra:' yah samast pad prayukt hota tha.[5] panini ne 'brahmanh' aur 'brahman' donon shabdon ko paryay roop men prayukt kiya hai. brahmanh ke lie hitakari is arth men brahmany pad banata tha.[6] patnjali ne isaka arth 'brahmanebhy: hitamh' kiya hai. unaka kahana hai ki brahmanh aur brahman paryayavachi hain.[7], kintu yath pratyay brahman shabd se hi hota hai, brahman se nahin. gyat hota hai ki panini-kal men brahman shabd brahmanochit adhyatmik gun-sampatti ke lie prayukt hota tha aur brahman janm par ashrit jati ke lie. brahman ke bhav (adarsh) aur karm (achar) ke liye brahmany pad siddh kiya gaya hai.[8] nam matr ke acharahin brahman 'brahmabndhu' kahalate the. aitarey brahman, chhandogy upanishad, shrautasootr evn grihyasootron men 'brahmabndhu' shabd paya jata hain. sootr 6.3.44 ki kashika vritti men udahrit 'brahmabndhutar' aur 'brahmabndhutam' prayog batate hain ki 'brahmabndhu' pad ke pichhe kutsa parak vyngy ki kee kotiyan thin. panini ke samay men keval jati ka abhiman karane vale karm-vihin brahmanon ke lie brahmabndhu ki tarah 'brahmanajatiy' yah naya visheshan bhi prachalit ho gaya tha.[9]

janapadon ke anusar brahmanon ke nam

'brahmano janapadakhyayan'[10] sootr se gyat hota hai ki bhinn-bhinn deshon men bas jane ke karan brahmanon ke alag-alag namon ki pratha chal padi thi. knboj janapad se lekar kaling-ashmak-kachchh-sauvir janapadon tak phaile hue vistrit pradesh men brahman phail chuke the. svabhavat: prithakh-prithakh bhookhndon ke anusar unake alag nam bhi pade honge. kashika men surashtr brahm (=surashtreshu brahm) aur avnti brahma (= avntishu brahma) ye do udaharan hain. avntibrahm malav brahmanon ke poorvavarti the, kyonki ujjayini ke sath shabd ka sambndh gupt kal ke lagabhag arambh hua. isi prakar gujarati aur kachchhi brahmanon ke poorvavarti surashtr ke brahman rahe honge. janapadon ke anusar nam padane ke karan brahmanon ke pnchagaud aur pnchadravid do mukhy bhed kalantar men prasiddh hue.

buddh tatha mahavir ka kathan

n jatahi n gottehi n jachcha hoti brahmano.
yamhi sachchn ch dhammo ch so suchi so ch brahmano॥

arthath bhagavan buddh kahate hain ki "brahman n to jata se hota hai, n gotr se aur n janm se. jisamen saty hai, dharm hai aur jo pavitr hai, vahi brahman hai. kamal ke patte par jal aur are ki nok par sarason ki tarah jo vishay-bhogon men lipt nahin hota, main use hi brahman kahata hoon."[11]

brahman

tasapane viyanetta sngahen y thavare.
jo n hinsi tivihen tn vayn boom mahann॥

arthat mahavir svami kahate hain ki "jo is bat ko janata hai ki kaun prani tras hai, kaun sthavar hai. aur man, vachan aur kaya se kisi bhi jiv ki hinsa nahin karata, usi ko ham brahman kahate hain."

n vi mundien samano n onkaren bnbhano.
n muni rannavasenn kusachiren n tavaso॥

arthath mahavir svami kahate hain ki "sir munda lene se hi koee shraman nahin ban jata. 'onkar' ka jap kar lene se hi koee brahman nahin ban jata. keval jngal men jakar bas jane se hi koee muni nahin ban jata. valkal vastr pahan lene se hi koee tapasvi nahin ban jata."

shanakaistu kriyalopadinaah kshatriy jatayah.
vrishalatvn gata loke brahmana darshanen ch॥
paundrakashachaundradravidaah kambojaah bhavanaah shakaah .
paradaah pahalvashchinaah kirataah daradaah khashaah॥[12]

arthath brahmanatv ki upalabdhi ko prapt n hone ke karan us kriya ka lop hone se pondr, chaundr, dravid, kamboj, bhavan, shak, parad, pahalav, chini kirat, darad v khash ye sabhi kshatriy jatiyan dhire-dhire shoodratv ko prapt ho geen.[11]

adhikar tatha kartavy

shatapath brahman men brahman ke kartavyon ki charcha karate hue usake adhikar is prakar kahe gaye hain-

  1. archa
  2. dan
  3. ajeyata
  4. avadhyata
  • brahman ke kartavy is prakar hain-
  1. 'brahmany' (vnsh ki pavitrata)
  2. 'pratiroopacharya' (kartavyapalan)
  3. 'lokapakti' (lok ko prabuddh karana)
  • brahman svayn ko hi snskrit karake vishram nahin leta tha, apitu doosaron ko bhi apane gunon ka dan achary athava purohit ke roop men karata tha.
  • acharyapad se brahman ka apane putr ko adhyay tatha yagyik kriyaon men nipun karana ek vishesh kary tha.[13]
  • upanishad granthon men aruni evn shvetaketu[14] tatha varun evn bhrigu ka udaharan hai.[15]
  • achary ke anekon shishy hote the tatha unhen vah dharmik tatha samajik prerana se padhane ko badhy hota tha. use pratyek gyan apane chhatron par prakat karana padata tha. isi karan kabhi kabhi chhatr achary ko apane men parivartit kar dete the, arthath achary ke saman pad prapt kar lete the. adhyayan kal tatha shikshan pranali ka sootron men vivaran prapt hota hai.
  • purohit ke roop men brahman mahaygyon ko karata tha. sadharan grihriygy bina usaki sahayata ke bhi ho sakate the, kintu mahattvapoorn kriyaen (shraut) usake bina nahin sampann hoti thin. kriyaon ke vidhivat kiye jane par jo dharmik labh hota tha, usamen dakshina ke atirikt purohit yajaman ka sajhedar hota tha. purohit ka sthan sadharan dharmik ki apeksha samajik bhi hota tha. vah raja ke any vyaktigat karyon men bhi usaka pratinidhi hota tha. rajaniti men usaka bada hath rahane laga tha.

smriti granthon ka ullekh

brahman

smriti granthon men brahmanon ke mukhy chh: kartavy (shatkarm) bataye gaye hain-

  1. pathan
  2. pathan
  3. yajan
  4. yajan
  5. dan
  6. pratigrah

inamen pathan, yajan aur dan samany tatha pathan, yajan tatha pratigrah vishesh kartavy hain. apaddharm ke roop men any vyavasay se bhi brahman nirvah kar sakata tha, kintu smritiyon ne bahut se pratibandh lagakar lobh aur hinsavale kary usake lie varjit kar rakhe hain. gaud athava lakshanavati ka raja adisoor ne brahman dharm ko punarujjivit karane ka prayas kiya, jahan par bauddh dharm chhaya hua tha.

vargikaran

is samay desh bhed ke anusar brahmanon ke do bade vibhag hain-

  1. pnchagaud
  2. pnchadravin
brahman

pashchim men afaganistan ka gor desh, pnjab, jisamen kurukshetr sammilit hai, gonda-basti janapad, prayag ke dakshin v asapas ka pradesh, pashchim bngal, ye panchon pradesh kisi n kisi samay par gaud kahe jate rahe. inhin panchon pradeshon ke nam par sambhavat: samoohik nam 'pnch gaud' pada. adi gaudon ka udgam kurukshetr hai. is pradesh ke brahman visheshat: gaud kahalaye. kashmir aur pnjab ke brahman sarasvat, kannauj ke as-pas ke brahman kanyakubj, mithila ke brahman maithil tatha utkal ke brahman utkal kahalaye. narmada ke dakshinasth andhr, dravid, karnatak, maharashtr aur gurjar, inhen 'pnch dravid' kaha gaya hai. vahan ke brahman inhin panch namon se prasiddh hain.

antarvibhag

uparyukt dason ke anek antarvibhag hain. ye sabhi ya to sthanon ke nam se prasiddh hue, ya vnsh ke kisi poorv purush ke nam se prakhyat, athava kisi vishesh padavi, vidya ya gun ke karan namadhari hue. badanagara, vishanagara, bhatanagar, nagar, mathur, moolaganvakar ityadi sthanavachak nam hain. vnsh ke poorv purush ke nam, jaise- sanyal (shandily), narad, vashishth, kaushik, bharadvaj, kashyap, gobhil ye nam vnsh ya gotr ke soochak hain. padavi ke nam, jaise- 'chakravartti vandyopadhyay', 'mukhyopadhyay', 'bhatt', 'phadanavis', 'kulakarni', 'rajabhatt', 'joshi' (jyotishi), 'deshapande' ityadi. vidya ke nam, jaise- 'chaturvedi', 'trivedi', 'shastri', 'pandey', 'vyas', 'dvivedi' ityadi. karm ya gun ke nam, jaise- 'dikshit', 'sanadhay', 'sukul', 'adhikari', 'vastavy', 'yajak', 'yagyik', 'naigam', 'achary', 'bhattachary' ityadi.

brahmanon ko sampoorn bharatavarsh men vibhinn upanamon se jana jata hai, jaise- poorvi uttar pradesh, pashchimi uttar pradesh, uttaranchal, dilli, hariyana v rajasthan ke kuchh bhagon men tyagi, avadh (madhy uttar pradesh) tatha madhy pradesh men bajapeyi, bihar v bngal men bhoomihar, jammoo kashmir, pnjab v hariyana ke kuchh bhagon men mahiyal, madhy pradesh v rajasthan men galav, gujarat men anavil, maharashtr men chitapavan evn karve, karnatak men ayngar evn hegade, keral men namboodaripad, tamilanadu men ayngar evn ayyar, andhr pradesh men niyogi evn rav tatha udisa men das evn mishr adi bihar men maithil brahman adi.

pnktidooshan brahman

  • jin brahmanon ke baithane se brahmabhoj ki pnkti dooshit samajhi jati hai, unako pnktidooshan kaha jata hai.
  • aise logon ki badi lambi soochi hai.

pncharvish brahman

samavediy brahman granthon men tandy brahman sabase adhik prasiddh hain. isamen pachchis adhyay hain. isalie yah pncharvish brahman bhi kahalata hai.

bhatapant

  • bhatapant ek vicharadhara hai. bhatapant ka arth hai, "ek pnkti men baithakar saman kul ke logon ke dvara kachcha bhojan karana."
  • yah vicharadhara bahut prachin hai.
  • puranon aur smritiyon men havy-kavyagrahan ke sambandh men brahmanon ki ek pnkti men baithane ki patrata par vistar se vichar hua hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: hindoo dharm, varn vyavastha, jati, jat, kayasth, vaishy, kshatriy evn shoodr


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kisi manav/devata ne nahin likhe
  2. shravan hetu, jo maukhik parnpara ka dyotak hai.
  3. aitarey brahman 7.29,2
  4. gun-vachan brahmanadibhy: karmani ch, 5.1.124, sootr par vartik
  5. varna-namanupoorven poorvanipat, 2.2.34 va.
  6. brahmane hitam, 5.1.7
  7. samanarthavetau brahman shabdon brahman shabdashch
  8. gun vachan brahmanadibhy: karmani ch, 5.1.1.24
  9. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 90-91 |
  10. 5.4.104
  11. 11.0 11.1 kaun hai asali brahman janie (hindi) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 25 march, 2015.
  12. - manusnhita (1- (/43-44)
  13. shatapath brahman 1,6,2,4
  14. bri0 u0 6,1,1
  15. shatapath brahman 11,6,1,1

snbndhit lekh