ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ashrit rajyon, upaniveshon, snrakshit rajyon aur any pradeshon ki ek vishvavyapi vyavastha, jo tin shatabdi tak gret briten ki prabhusatta aur british sarakar ke prashasan ke adhin rahi. samrajy ke bahut vistrit hone ke karan adhinasth rajyon ko paryapt matra men svashasan ka adhikar ya manyata dene ki niti se 20vin sadi men ‘british rashtramndal’ (kaaumanavelth) ki avadharana vikasit huee, jisamen mukhyat: svashasit adhinasth rajy ate the, jinhonne pratikatmak taur par nirntar badhati british prabhusatta ko svikar kiya. is sngya ko 1931 ke adhyadesh men sthan mila. aj rashtramndal british samrajy ke bhootapoorv bhookshetron ka prabhusattatmak rajyon ke roop men svatntr sngh hai.

bastiyon ki sthapana

gret briten ne sabase pahale 16vin shatabdi men sagar par deshon men apani bastiyan banane ki azamaish ki. vyavasayik mahattvakakshanon aur frans se pratidvndvita ke chalate, 17vin shatabdi men samudravarti vistar men tezi aee aur parinamasvaroop uttari amerika aur vest indiz men bastiyon ki sthapana huee. 1670 tak nyoo inglaind, varjiniya aur mairilaind men upaniveshon ki aur baramooda, hondooras, entigua, barabados aur nova skotiya men british ameriki bastiyon ki sthapana ho chuki thi. 1655 men jamaika ko yuddh dvara jita gaya aur 1670 ke bad se hadasan be knpani ne khud ko poorvottar kanada kahe jane vale kshetr men sthapit kar liya. 1600 men eest indiya knpani ne bharat men vyaparik chaukiyan qayam karani shuroo kar di thi aur is knpani ki gatividhiyon ke prasar ke falasvaroop jaladamaroomadhy bastiyon (strets sentalaments (panang, singapur, malakka aur labuan)) par briten ka qabza ho gaya. afriki upamahadvip men pahali sthayi british basti ganbiya nadi ke jems dvip par sthapit huee. gulamon ka vyapar siyara lion men pahale hi shuroo ho chuka tha, lekin yah shretr 1787 men hi british adhikar men aya. briten ne kep aph gud hop (ab dakshin afrika men) 1806 men hasil kiya aur british niyntran men boar aur british agragamiyon ne dakshin afrika ke antarik pradesh khol die. lagabhag sabhi shuruati bastiyan british taj ke bajay kinhin khas knpaniyon aur bade vyavasayiyon ke prayas ke phalasvaroop banin. british taj ne niyukti aur nirikshan ke kuchh adhikaron ka prayog zaroor kiya lekin ye upanivesh moolat: sv-prabndhit udyam hi the. at: samrajy ka gathan tukadon- tukadon men hasil ek avyavasthit prakriya thi. kabhi-kabhi to british sarakar is prakriya men sabase kam utsahi bhagidar hoti thi.

upaniveshon par niyntran

17vin aur 18vin sadi men british taj upaniveshon par apana niyntran mukhyat: vyapar aur jahajarani ke kshetron men rakhata tha. us samay ki vanijyik soch ke anuroop upaniveshon ko inglaind ke lie avashyak kachche mal ke srot ke roop men rakha jata tha aur british bazaron men tnbakoo aur chini jaise unake niji utpadon par unhen ekadhikar de diya gaya tha. badale men unase asha ki jati thi ki ve apana samast vyapar british jahajon ke dvara hi karenge aur briten nirmit utpadon ke lie bazar banenge. 1651 ke jahajarani adhiniyam aur isake bad ke adhiniyamon ne briten aur usake upaniveshon ke madhy ek bnd arthavyavastha sthapit ki, sabhi aupaniveshik niryat angrezi bazaron se british bazaron men jate the aur sabhi aupaniveshik ayat inglaind ke raste ate the. yah vyavastha tab tak chali, jab tak skaauti arthashastri aidam smith ki 'velth aauf neshans' ke prakashan (1776) aur ameriki upaniveshon ko kho baithane v briten men mukt vyapar andolan badhane ke sammilit prabhavon se 19vin sadi ke poorvarddh men yah dhire-dhire samapt n ho gee. amerika men briten ki aupaniveshik arthavyavastha ke lie gulamon ka vyapar mahattvapoorn ho utha tha aur kairebiyaee upaniveshon v bhavi snyukt rajy (amerika) ke dakshini bhagon ke lie ek arthik avashyakata ban gaya. briten ke upaniveshon men das-pratha men mukti ke lie chalane vala andolan, ameriki andolan se bahut pahale saphal ho chuka tha. vahan par 1807 men gulamon ka vyapar samapt kar diya gaya tha aur 1833 men briten adhikrit kshetron men bhi gulam-pratha ka ant ho gaya tha.

raaubart klaiv, jems vulf aur ayar koot jaise vyaktiyon ke netritv men briten ki thal v nau-sainy shakti ne british samrajy ke lie kanada aur bharat jaise do mahattvapoorn hisse hasil kie. 18vin shatabdi ke poorvarddh men amerika men british aur fransisi upaniveshon ke bich chalane vala yuddh sthaniy hi tha. lekin 1763 ki peris ki sndhi, jisase satavarshiy yuddh (uttari amerika men phrench aur indiyan vaaur ke nam se prasiddh) samapt hua, kanada men briten ka varchasv sthapit kar diya. bharat men eest indiya knpani ko frans ki konpeni d ind se muqabala karana pada, lekin 1750 men fransisiyon aur bngal ke shasakon par klaiv ki sainik vijay ne briten dvara bade paimane par bharatiy kshetron ke adhigrahan aur bharat men unake bhavi varchasv ka rasta saf kar diya.

1776-1783 men briten ke hath se 13 ameriki upaniveshon ke nikal jane ki kshatipoorti, 1788 se astreliya men nee bastiyon aur ab ke amerika se british satta ke vafadar logon ke utpravas ke bad oopari kanada (ab ontariyo) ke abhootapoorv vikas se huee. nepoliyan se hue yuddhon ne samrajy ko atirikt labh pradan kiya. aimien ki sndhi (1802) ne trinidad aur silon (vartaman shrilnka) ko adhikarik roop se british satta ke adhin kar diya aur peris ki sndhi (1814) se frans ne tobaigo, maaurishas, sent looshiya aur malta saunp die. 1795 men malakka samrajy men shamil hua aur sar staimaphord raiphals ne 1819 men singapur hasil kiya. alabarta, mainitoba aur british kolnbiya ki kanadaee bastiyon ne british prabhav ko prashant mahasagar tak pahuncha diya, jabaki bharat men british vijay dvara agara aur avadh ke snyukt rajyon, madhy pranton, poorvi bngal aur asam ko bhi mila liya gaya.

poorn pallavan ka kal

19vin shatabdi ko british samrajy ke poorn pallavan ka kal mana jata hai. prashasan aur niti men badalav isi shatabdi ke dauran hue aur 17vin v 18vin shatabdi ki jas-tas vyavastha ki jagah, aupaniveshik karyalay men joseph chainbaralen ke karyakal (1895- 1900) ki vishisht vivekapoorn vyavastha a gee. 1801 men shuroo hua yah karyalay, pahale grih karyalay aur vyapar bord ke sath snlagn tha, lekin 1850 men yah ek alag vibhag ban gaya, jisake karmikon ki snkhya badh rahi thi aur jisaki apani ek satat niti thi. isake madhyam se zaroorat padane par aupaniveshik sarakaron par dabav dala jata tha aur unhen anushasit kiya jata tha.

aupaniveshikaran

1840 men nyoojilaind adhikarik taur par british samrajy ka hissa ban gaya. isake bad yahan ka aupaniveshikaran tezi se hua. british mishanariyon ki or se padane vale thode-bahut dabav ke karan british adhipaty phiji, tonga, papua aur prashant mahasagar ke doosare dvipon tak phail gaya. aur 1877 men pashchimi prashant mahasagar ke dvipon ke lie british uchchayog ki sthapana ki gee. bharatiy vidroh (1857) ke bad british taj ne bharat men eest indiya knpani ki sarakari satta snbhal li. 1886 men briten dvara barma (vartaman myanmar) ka adhigrahan poora ho gaya, jabaki pnjab (1849) aur baloochistan (1854-76) ki vijay se svayn bharatiy upamahadvip men use mahattvapoorn ne pradesh upalabdh ho ge. fransisiyon dvara svej nahar ka kam poora (1869) kar lie jane ke bad briten ko bharat ke lie pahale se kahin chhota marg sulabh ho gaya. briten ne isaka labh adan men apane bndaragah ke vistar, somalilaind (vartaman somaliya) men ek sarnkshit sarajy aur dakshini arab ki riyasaton men apane prabhav-kshetr men vriddhi ke roop men uthaya. saipras, jo jibraltar aur malta hi ki tarah bhoomadhy sagar se hota hua bharat ke sath snpark-shrinkhala ki ek kadi tha, par 1878 men qabza kar liya gaya. anyatr, jaladamaroomadhy bastiyon aur malay rajy parisngh ke vikas ke sath british prabhav sudoor poorv tak phaila aur 1880 ke dashak men broonee aur saravak snrakshit rajy bana lie ge. 1841 men hangakang dvip british adhikar men a gaya. chin men british-sndhi-bndaragahon aur vyapar ke kendr, shnghaee, ke madhyam se ek ‘anaupacharik samrajy’ chal raha tha.

vistar

british satta ka sabase bada vistar afrika men hua. briten ko 1882 se misr men aur 1899 se soodan men sattadhari shakti ke roop men jana jata tha. is shatabdi ke uttarardh men, raauyal naijar knpani ne british prabhav ko naeejiriya aur gold kost (vartaman ghana) men badhana shuroo kar diya tha aur janbiya bhi british adhikar men a gaya. kenya aur yuganda kahe jane vale kshetron men 'inpiriyal british eest afrika knpani kam karati thi aur british sauth afrika knpani jinbabve,[1] janbiya[2] aur malavi men sakriy thi. dakshin aphrika se uttar men misr tak phaili british pradeshon ki shrinkhala ne angrez janata ke ‘kep se kahira’ tak vistrit afriki samrajy ke sapane ko poora kar diya. 19vin sadi ke ant tak snsar ki ek-chauthaee bhoomi aur usaki chauthaee se bhi adhik janasnkhya british samrajy ka hissa thi.

briten ke kuchh upaniveshon ke lie simit svashasan ke vichar ki sifarish sabase pahale kanada ke lie 1839 men laaurd daraham ne ki thi. is riport men ‘uttaradayi svashasan’ ka prastav rakha gaya tha, taki british sarakar dvara chune ge adhikariyon ke bajay kanada ke nagarikon dvara chuni gee mntriparishad karyakari adhikaron ka prayog kar sake. apane karyakal ke lie mntriparishad prathamik taur par aupaniveshik vidhan sabha ke samarthan par nirbhar rahane vali thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhootapoorv dakshini rodeshiya
  2. bhootapoorv uttari rodeshiya

snbndhit lekh