भर्तृहरि (वैयाकरण)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg bhartrihari ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- bhartrihari

bhartrihari snskrit ke vyakaranashastr ke ek mahanh gnbhir manishi ke roop men prasiddh hain. unaka vidvatsnmat kal hai eesavi panchavin sadi. vyakaranashastr ka uddeshy keval shabd hai aur chaturth arthath antim purusharth moksh to door raha, dharm, arth aur kam namak tin laukik purusharthon se bhi unaka koee snbndh nahin ho sakata, aisi bhrant kalpana bhartrihari ke kal men vidvanon men bhi zor pakadane lagi thi. isase bhartrihari ko bahut du:kh hua, jise unhonne 'vakyapadiy' ke dvitiy kand ke ant men katipay shlokon men vyakt kiya hai. us bhrant kalpana ko hatakar bhartrihari ne vyakaranashastr ki parampara aur pratishtha ko badhaya. inako vakyapadiyakar se abhinn manane men koee anupapatti nahin pratit hoti, parantu inaka koee any granth abhi tak upalabdh nahin hua hai. vakyapadiy vyakaran vishayak granth hone par bhi prasiddh darshanik granth hai. advait siddhant hi isaka upajivy hai, isamen sndeh nahin hai. kisi-kisi achary ka mat hai ki bhartrihari ke 'shabdabrahmavad' ka hi avalamban karake achary mandanamishr ne brahmasiddhi namak granth ka nirman kiya tha. is par vachaspatimishr ki 'brahmatattvasamiksha' namak tika hai.

parichay

antarng aur bahirng pramanon se adhunik vidvanh itana hi nirnay kar sake hain ki bhartrihari eesavi panchavin sadi men hue. unaka janm, mata, pita, guru, adhyayan, nivas adi vishay men kuchh bhi praman abhi tak nahin mila hai. ek dant katha ke anusar bhartrihari ko apani vidvata ke bare men bada ghamnd tha. ek samay vidvanon ki sabha men kisi pndit ne patnjali ke mahabhashy jaisa doosara shreshth grnth hai hi nahin, aisa kaha. yah sunakar bhartrihari kruddh hote hue bole- 'bhamadrishtava gat: svargamakritarth: patnjali' (mujh jaise vyakaran ke vidvanh ko n dekhane se patnjali apana nishphal jivan chhodakar hi svarg padhara).[1]

grnth tatha kinvadntiyan

bhartrihari ne anek bar bauddh dharm ko svikar kiya aur bar-bar phir se vah brahman ho gaye, is prakar ki akhyayika bhi parampara men prasiddh hai. isi karan bhartrihari ke lie kabhi-kabhi 'prachchhann bauddh' athava 'bahy' visheshan lagaya jata hai. lekin is vishay men nirnayak praman abhi tak upalabdh nahin hai. vakyapadiy grnth ke tin kand aur mahabhashy tika 'dipika' men do grnth bhartrihari ke nam se prasiddh hai. usake vakyapadiy par upalabdh vistrit vivaran roop svopgy tika bhi usi ki mani jati hai. svopgy tika ka kuchh ansh hi aj upalabdh hai. panini sootr vivaran roop bhagavritti, paniniy vyakaran sootron men udaharan prastut karane vala ramacharit kavy (arthath bhattikavy) tatha shatakatray (nitishatak, shrringarashatak aur vairagy shatak)- in grnthon ke karta bhi yahi bhartrihari hain, aisa parampara men mana jata hai. lekin adhunik vidvanon ki manyata yah nahin hai.

mahopadhyay upadhi

prachin vanamay men 'mahopadhyay' is atyadaradarshak upadhi ke sath unaka ullekh bahut sthanon par milata hai. snbhavat: yah upadhi unako kisi raja ne ya pndit samaj ne di hogi. barahavin sadi ke jain vyakaran pndit vardhaman ne ganarajamahodadhi men bhartrihari ko vakyapadiy aur prakirnak in do grnthon ka karta tatha mahabhashyatripadi ka vyakhyata bataya hai. is ullekh se bhartrihari ne mahabhashy ke tin padon par tika likhi hogi. 'prakirnak' namak svatntr grnth likha hoga, aisa samajha ja sakata hai. snbhavat: aj upalabdh dipika tika hi vah mahabhashy tika hogi aur vakyapadiy ka tritiy kand hi 'prakirnak' nam se nirdisht hoga, kyonki is tisare kand men jati, dravy, snkhya ityadi anekanek vishayon ka anek prakaranon men vivechan kiya gaya hai. snbhavat: vardhaman ne pahale donon kandon ko hi vakyapadiy nam se nirdisht kiya hoga. is prakar vakyapadiy ke tin kand aur mahabhashy tika 'dipika', usaka anshamatr- sat ahnik hi vartaman men upalabdh aur prakashit hain, in donon grnthon ke lekhak vaiyakaran bhartrihari hain tatha vakyapadiy ki svopgy tika ka karta bhi vahi bhartrihari hai, aisi vidvanon ki manyata hai.[1]

mat-matantar

sampoorn mahabhashy ki pradip namak tika ka lekhak kaiyat, gyarahavin sadi men hua. usane tika ke prarambh men 'bhartrihari ke dvara bandhe hue setu se mere jaisa pngu bhi mahabhashy roopi prachnd sagar men samarth ho saka', aisa kahate hue bhartrihari ke prati atyant adar prakat kiya hai. yah praman bhi mahabhashy dipika ka karta prasiddh vaiyakaran bhartrihari hi hua hoga, is mat ka samarthan karata hai. lekin mahabhashy dipika aur vakyapadiy ki svopgy tika ka karta prasiddh vaiyakaran bhartrihari hi tha, is mat men sndeh kiya ja sakata hai. in do grnthon men se dipika tika pahale sat ahnikon par hi upalabdh hai. is dipika ka bahut sthanon par trutit, ashuddh, adi-ant rahit ek hi hastalikhit roop aj upalabdh hai. mahabhashy ka goodh ashay bahut sthanon par usamen spasht kiya gaya hai. vyakaran ke shabdasiddhi roop arthath prakriyatmak aur arth vivechanatmak vibhag ka bhi usamen bahut vistrit vivechan milata hai. mahabhashy ki ekamev prachin tatha vistrit tika hone se dipika avashy hi mahattv rakhati hai. lekin jabaki vakyapadiy karikaon ki shaili prasadagunayukt hai, dipika tika atyant klisht aur anek sthanon par ativ aprastut vishay ka vistrit vivaran dene vali lagati hai.

shaili

dipika aur svopgy tika in donon ke vishay bhinn hote hue bhi unaki vishay vivechan ki shaili ek jaisi hai. yadyapi dipika ka paniniy tantr aur sootron se vishesh sambandh hai aur svopgy tika ka vishesh sambandh arth prakriya se aur tark, mimansa, vedant ityadi any darshanon se hai, tathapi kee sthanon par jab vivechan ki dhara men saman vishay ate hain, tab donon ki samanata spasht roop se dikhaee deti hai. aisa bhi ho sakata hai ki mahabhashy dipika aur vakyapadiy ki svopgy tika, donon tikaen bhartrihari ke kisi shishy-prashishy ne likhakar usake nam par prasiddh ki hon. prachin kal ke kee lekhakon ki aisi pravritti dikhaee deti hai ki ve guru ya any kisi vyakti ke prati vishesh adar ke karan ya grnth ko pratishtha dilane ke hetu se hi, svayn likhit grnth ko adaraniy v vikhyat vidvanon ke nam par prasiddh karate the. yadyapi mahabhashy ki dipika tika tatha vakyapadiy ki sovopgy tika ka karta bhartrihari hi tha ya nahin, isake bare men sndeh ho sakata hai, tathapi vakyapadiy ke tinon kand bhartrihari ne hi rache hain, isake bare men koee sndeh nahin pratit hota.[1]

vicharadhara

vakyapadiy men prakat huee bhartrihari ki vicharadhara snkuchit ya vishisht sampradayik nahin lagati. usane jaise vaidik parampara ka, vaise hi bauddh, jain adi sampradayon ka bhi gahara adhyayan kiya tha. in sampradayon ke vishesh vicharon ka adarapoorvak ullekh apane grnthon men bahut sthanon par kiya hai. bhinn-bhinn sampradayon ke adhyayan se hi buddhi ka vivek-samarthy badhata hai, 'prgya vivek lubhate bhinnairagamadarshanai:' aisa vishvas usane spasht roop se vyakt kiya hai. usaki sarvamat-sngrahak vritti ki. lekin kabhi-kabhi bhartrihari dvara bauddh mat ka sngrah aur samarthan hone ke karan, bhartrihari ne bauddh dharm ko svikar kiya, aisa lokabhram phailaya gaya hoga. lekin mukhyat: bhartrihari ke grnth men vedon aur smritiyon ke prati dridh nishtha vyakt ki gee hai tatha mimansadi vaidik shastron ke siddhanton ka agrahapoorvak samarthan kiya gaya hai. anek ullekhon aur drishtanton se yah snket milata hai ki bhartrihari vaidik advait mat ka hi pooraskarta tha, bauddh mat ka anuyayi bilkul nahin tha.

karikaen

bhartrihari ke vakyapadiy ki karikaon ka ullekh vaidik aur avaidik, bauddh, jain adi sampradayon ke vidvanon-granthakaron ne apane-apane maton ke samarthan ke lie aur kee sthanon par usake maton ke khndan ke lie bhi kiya hai. vaidik, bauddh, jain ityadi n keval bhinn apitu atyant viruddh mat vale vidvanh lekhakon ne, jisaka ullekh anek bar kiya hai, aisa vyakaranashastrgy granthakar bhartrihari se any nahin hoga. badarayan ka brahmasootr aur shrimadbhagavadagita, donon ka jo snbndh pratit hota hai, vahin snbndh paninisootr aur vakyapadiy ka hai. brahmasootr men pratipadit keval shuddh tatv gyan ka samany manushy ke dainandin bhashik vyavahar ke sath snbndh jodane ka yashasvi prayatn shrimadbhagavadagita men kiya gaya hai. vaise hi paniniy sootron ke vidhanon ka vyavaharik bhasha ke sath snbndh jodane ka kam vakyapadiy grnth ne prabhavi dhng se kiya hai. isi karan bhashashastriyon ko, vakyapadiy men pratipadit anek siddhant, paninisootron ki apeksha subodh aur dainandin bhashik vyavahar ke lie upayukt maloom hote hain. phalat: vakyapadiy ki karikaon ka ullekh sab prakar ke vanmay men mukhy roop se kiya gaya hai.

vakyapadiy grnth

vakyapadiy vyakaranashastr ka grnth hai, phir bhi usamen shabdasiddhi ka prakriyatmak atyalp roop se milata hai. paniniy vyakaran ki tatvik bhoomika ko ujagar karana anek siddhanton ka vyavaharik tatha shastriy drishtanton se samarthan karana is grnth ka mukhy uddeshy hai. yah sakshath akaragrnth nahin hai. athava akaragrnth ka tikagrnth bhi nahin hai, phir bhi vyakaranashastr ka ek atyant mahattvapoorn prakaran grnth hai.

vakyapadiy ke tin kand arthath vibhag hain. pahale kand men 155 karikaen hain. is kand ka 'agamasamuchchay' nam svopgy tika men diya gaya hai. parampara men yah kand brahmakand nam se prasiddh hai. yadyapi ye donon nam is kand men pratipadit vishay ke anuroop maloom hote hain, tathapi 'agamasamuchchay' nam adhik uchit hai, kyonki usamen vayakaranagamh se snbndhit anek siddhanton ki charcha ki gee hai. prarambh men advait vedant ka siddhant jo brahm hai, usaka varnan, vedon ka mahattv, un vedon ke mukhy ang, vyakaran ki mahima, vyakaranashastr ki samany rachana paddhati, arth bodhak shabd ka nityatv, nity shabd aur dhvaniroop shabd ka vyngy vynjak bhav-ye vishay anek laukik drishtanton ki sahayata se siddh kiye ge hain.

kary ke prakar

mahabhashyakar patnjali ne shabd nity aur kary do prakar ka kaha hai. parantu in do prakar ke shabdon ka svaroop aur paraspar snbndh spasht roop se bataya nahin. shabd ke do prakar manane par anek akshepon ki bhi snbhavana hai. vakyapadiy ke is pratham kand men isaka vivechan aur akshepon ka nirakaran kiya gaya hai. isalie yah kand paniniy vyakaran shastr men atyant mahattvapoorn samajha gaya hai. pahali kee karikaon men bhartrihari ne shabd nivartavad prastut kiya hai. isi ko agale tikakaron ne 'shabdadvaitavad' nam diya hai. kee karikaon men shabdatatv se hi sab arth roop jagath bhasaman hota hai, aisa siddhant bataya hai, to agali ek karika men 'yah sab vishv ka vistar shabd ka hi parinam hai', aisa vedabhyasiyon ka mat raha hai. 'vivart' aur 'parinam' donon shabdon ko bhartrihari ne saman arth men liya hai, parantu parishkrit shastriy drishti se in donon shabdon ka arth bhinn hai. 'vivart' ka arth shram, abhas hai, to 'panini' shabd ka arth hai vikar, parivartan. shukti ka rajarajat roop men dikhana bhram, abhas hai, lekin doodh se dahi, sone se abhooshan ityadi parinam arthath vikar hote hain. aisa unake arth men farq hai. bhartrihari advait mat samarthak tatha vivartavad ka manane vala tha. jis shabd men yah sara jagath utpann hua hai, aisa abhas hota hai, us shabd ko vah shabdatatv athava shabdabrahm kahata hai. sara vishv shabdatatv ka hi vivart hai. is siddhant ka samarthan usane vakyapadiy ke pratham kand men 118 se 131 tak ki chaudah karikaon men kiya hai.[1]

shabdapraman

yah samoocha vishv shabdatatv par keval bhasaman arthath vivart hi hai, aisa bhartrihari ka kathan hai. phir bhi keval kathan se koee bhi siddhant siddh aur svikary nahin ho sakata. kis prabhav ke adhar par vah kathan bhartrihari ne kiya hai. apaurushey ved hi is kathan ka adhar hai, aisa usaka kahana hai.

praman sngharsh

pratyaksh, anuman aur shabd, ye tin praman arthath saty gyan ke sadhan hain. pray: sabhi prachin bharatiy darshanikon ne ye tinon praman mane hain. jis vishay men tinon pramanon ka snvad hai, us vishay men nirnay lena saral bat hai, jaise ki 'agni thadnk ko nasht karati hai', 'soory charachar srishti hai', 'saty men sara vishv pratishthit sthir hai', ityadi. parantu jis vishay ke bare men pramanon men virodh utpann hata hai, usake bare men kaun-sa praman sabal aur kaun-sa durbal hai, yah samasya badi hi kathin hai. aise vishay men bhartrihari ka kathan is prakar hai- pratyaksh aur anuman, ye do praman vyavaharik vyakt vishayon ke bare men kuchh sima tak zaroor nirnayak honge, arthath svikary bhi honge, parantu atyant sookshm paramarthik vishayon men in pramanon ko bilkul sthan nahin dena chahie. un sookshm vishayon ka nirnay keval apaurushey ved roop shabd praman se hi snbhav hai.

pratyaksh praman

pratyaksh praman se keval sthool aur vartamanakalin padarth ka hi gyan hota hai. sookshm, bhootakalin, bhavishyakalin aur doorasth vastuon ke bare men vah praman poornataya nirupayogi hai. samooche vishv ka mool karan kya hai? vishv ka aur usake karan ka saty svaroop kya hai. is vishay men tatha dharm, adharm, pap, puny, paralok, sadh shabd aur asadhu shabd, apabhrnsh adi paroksh vishayon men vah praman sarvatha durbal hai. yah sare prachin shastrakaron ki nirvivad manyata hai. isalie bhartrihari ne pratyaksh ka samarthan ya nirakaran kuchh bhi nahin kiya hai. sirf ek do sthanon par usane usaka ullekh kiya hai. anuman praman bhi pratyakshavalnbi hi hai. is karan se sarvatha apratyaksh, atyant sookshm aur jis vishay ka pratyaksh ke sath door se bhi snbndh nahin ho sakata, aise vishay men anuman praman se nirnay lena anarthakari hoga. aisa siddhant bhartrihari ne spasht roop se bataya hai. atyant sookshm vishay ke bare men anuman aur shruti in donon ka virodh ho to kis praman se nirnay liya jae. is vishay vaidik siddhant aur bhartrihari ka siddhant bilkul ek hi hai. aise vishay men anuman ko sthan dene men bada dhokha hai. yah to anuman ka kshetr hi nahin hai. is vishay men tarkikon ka hi apas men jhagada shuroo ho jayega. ek tarkik ek hetu ke adhar par ek nirnay dega to doosara doosare hetu ke adhar par viparit nirnay dega. anuman ke is bahumukhi ravanavatar ki usane kadi alochana ki hai. is vishay ka pratipadan karane vali usaki bahut prasiddh karikaen anek granthon men uddhrit ki gee hain.[1]

arsh pratyaksh

samany manushy ko dharm, adharm, pap, puny ityadi sookshm (pratyakshanuman se agyey) vishayon ka gyan apton ke vachan se hi prapt hota hai. parantu gyani tapasvi rishiyon ko vah gyan pratyaksh praman se hi prapt hota hai. vishesh dharmanushthan, tapashcharya athava vishesh abhyas se unako koee ek vishesh shakti prapt hoti hai aur is vishesh shakti se prapt yah dharm, adharm, pap, puny adi ka gyan sarvatha abadhy pratyaksh samajhana uchit hai. itana hi nahin, tapasvi gyani rishiyon par adig shraddha rakhane vale samany janon ko bhi unaka vachan pratyaksh saman hota hai. is karan anuman athava tark ki mnd vayulahari se vah sthir dridh pratyaksh svalparoop se bhi vichalit nahin ho sakata. ratn parikshakon ka pariksha gyan jis tarah vishesh abhyas athava poorvajanm ke snskaron ke karan pratyaksh svaroop hi, atev abadhy hota hai, usi tarah rishi-muniyon ka ary pratyaksh hota hai. is tarah se anek drishtanton dvara bhartrihari ne arshapratyaksh ki siddhi ki hai.

shabdanityatv

sootrakar panini ne shabd ke svaroop ke bare men koee ullekh tak nahin kiya hai. vartikakar katyayan ne is vishay ka sirf ullekh aur vah bhi anishchayak roop men kiya hai. mahabhashyakar patnjali ne shabd, arth aur un donon ka snbndh tinon nity hai, aisa vyakaranashastr ka dridh siddhant anek sthanon par ni:sndigdh roop se bataya hai. parantu us siddhant par ane vale akshepon ka samadhan aur us siddhant ka pramanapoorvak samarthan snskrit vyakaranashastr men pahale bhartrihari ne hi kiya aur vah siddhant dridh roop se sthapit kiya.

bhartrihari ne vakyapadiy men 'nitya: shabdath snbndha:' aisa poorv ni:sndigdh ullekh aur usaka samarthan drishtanton se aur tark se kiya hai. dhvaniroop shabd utpann hota hai aur us dhvaniroop shabd se abhivyakt jo arthabodhak shabd hai, use nity hi manana padega, kyonki vah vakta aur shrota donon ki buddhi men pahale se hi hota hai. vah shabd unaki buddhi men pahale se n ho to vakta usake abhivynjak dhvaniroop shabd ka uchcharan nahin karega aur shrota ko arth bodh bhi kabhi nahin hoga. bhasha men pahale shabd hote hi hain. unake uchcharan yani vishisht dhvani se abhivyakti vakta karata hai. is prakar vaktaon aur shrotaon ke buddhisth shabdon ki pravahanityata manana zaroori hai. pravah roop nityata se hi rigved men prayukt agni shabd aj bhi ham prayukt kar sakate hain. 'vahi yah agni shabd hai' aisi pratyabhigya shabd ke nityatv ke bina nahin ho sakati. is snsar men prani jaise anadi kal se hai, us tarah shabd bhi anadi kal se hai. aisi shabdon ki vyavastha nityata athava pravahanityata bhartrihari ne vyakaranashastr men sarvapratham batalaee hai.

dhvani roop shabd utpann hone vala tatha nasht hone vala hai. usake bare men 'shabd' shabd ka prayog aupacharik, gaun hi samajha jana chahie. arthabodhak buddhisth shabd hi vyakaran shastr ka uddisht hai. usake bare men hi 'shabd' shabd ka vyavahar mukhy roop se hota hai. vah arthabodhak shabd anadi aur bhavaroop hone se nity hi siddh hota hai, kyonki anadi bhavapadarth tark ke siddhantanusar nity hota hai. is tarah shabd ki abhivynjak aur abhivyngy roop-dvividhata, anadita aur pravahanityata ka bhartrihari ne samarthan kiya hai. dhvani roop shabd se abhivyakt hone vala arth bodhak, buddhisth shabd snsar men sarvajanik hai hi. un donon ka snbndh abhivynjak aur abhivyngy ka hai. abhivyngy arthabodh shabd ke lie vyakaranashastr men 'sphot' shabd roodh hai. ham ghat, pat ityadi padarth ankhon se dekhate hain. prakash n ho to vah padarth ham kabhi nahin dekh sakenge. prakash sirf chhatapatadi padarthon ko prakashit yani abhivyakt hi karata hai. utpann kabhi nahin kar sakata. jis tarah kamare men pahale se vidyaman ghatapatadi padarthon ko prakashit karana matr prakash ka kary hai, usi tarah abhivynjak dhvani ka itana hi kam hai ki shrotaon ki buddhi men pahale se hi vidyaman sphot roop shabd ko vah vyakt kare, n ki utpann kare.[1]

shabd shakti

prakash jaise svayn prakashit hokar any padarthon ko prakashit karata hai, vaise hi shabd bhi svayn prakashit hokar arth ka gyan kara deta hai. is tarah shabd ki shakti do prakar ki hoti hai- svayn prakash aur any prakash. brahmadvaitavadi vedant siddhant ke anusar snsar ki pratyek vastu men jo 'satv' sadnsh bhasaman hota hai, jaise- ghat hai, pat hai ityadi. vah sndesh sare snsar ke adhishthanaroop brahmakari hai, n ki vastu ka hai, kyonki ghatapatadi vastuen vastav roop men hai hi nahin. isi tarah sabhi gyan men chahe vah pratyaksh ho ya anuman ho ya shabd ho, shabd ka snbndh avashy hai. aisa koee gyan nahin hai, jisamen shabd ka snbndh n ho. aisa shabd aur gyan ka nity snbndh usane pratipadit kiya hai. jaise yogasootrakar patnjali shabd, arth aur gyan in tinon ka itaretaradhyasaroop tadatmy batate hain, usi prakar shabd aur gyan paraspar ekaroop hone se arthath un donon ka tadatmy hone se gyan roop shabd hi brahmaroop hai aur us shabd brahm ke dridh abhyas se koee bhi manav moksh prapt kar sakata hai. vyakaranashastr hi shabdabrahm ke abhyas ka ek matr saral subodh upay hone se moksh ka sidha marg hai, aisa bhartrihari ka kahana hai.

keval shabdasiddhi hi vyakaranashastr ka prayojan hai, aisa mane jane se bhartrihari se pahale ke vyakaranashasatr ka kshetr ativ snkuchit sa ho gaya tha. un snkoch ko hatakar bhartrihari ne vyakaran ka kshetr bahut vistrit kiya. dharm, arth, kam, moksh charon purusharthon ka, visheshat: moksh ka uttam, saral, sadhan vyakaranadarshan hai. yah siddhant bade agrah se usane samarpit kiya hai. bhartrihari ne sphotaroop shabd ka svaroop gyanaroop, nity, akhnd bataya hai. shabd se pratit hone vale arth ka svaroop mahabhashy ke anusar usane jatiroop aur vyaktitv do prakar ka mana hai. phir bhi pratyaksh praman se pratit arth se vah arth bhinn hai, chahe vah yogasootrakar patnjali ke kathan ke anusar vikalp roop ho ya keval buddh men bhasaman arthath 'bauddh' hi ho. vyakaran mahabhashyakar patnjali ke kathan ke anusar vah arth nity hi hai. shabd aur nity arth in donon ka snbndh bhi nity hi hona chahie. is riti se 'nitya: shabdarth snbndh':- yah vyakaranashastr ka siddhant bhartrihari ne samarthit kiya hai.

sadh-asadhu shabd

paniniy vyakaran ke anusar jo shabd sadhu mane ge hain, vahi shabd shishton ke lie prayogarh evn puny janak hain. jo shabd panini ke vyakaran ke anusar sadhu nahin mane ge hain, ve shisht prayogarh evn puny janak nahin hain. phir bhi arth gyan to sadhu aur asadhu aise donon prakar ke shabdon se saman hi hota hai, aisa mahabhashy men vachan hai. yah mahabhashy ka mat bhartrihari ne bhi svikrit aur samarthit kiya hai. kuchh prachin darshanik manate the ki asadhu shabd se arth bodh sakshath nahin hota hai, balki asadhu shabd sunane par tadarthak sadhu shabd ka smaran hota hai aur us smrit sadhu shabdon se arth gyan hota hai. yah mat bhi bhartrihari ne vakyapadiy ke pahale kand ke ant men katipay karikaon men uddhrit kiya hai. sadhu shabd prayog se puny aur asadhu shabd prayog se pap hota hai. yah kalpana mahabhashy men prathamat: snkshep men prastut ki gee hai. bhartrihari ne ise apanate hue aisa apana mat prakat kiya hai ki panini adi rishiyon ne arsh pratyaksh se kaun sa shabd puny janak v kaun sa pap janak hai, yah gyan pahale prapt kiya aur yah vyakaran smriti taiyar ki. sharir ka rog roopi dosh jaise vaidyakashastr se aur buddhi ka snbhramadi dosh adhyatmashastr se door hota hai. is shastr ke abhyas se jisaki vani shuddh ho gayi hai, vahi ved pratipadit aur sabhi gyan ka udgam hone vala brahm ka sakshatkar prapt kar sakata hai.

vakyapadiy ke dvitiy kand men vishesh roop se vaky aur vakyarth ka vishay prastut kiya gaya hai. usamen bhartrihari ne poorvamimansashastr ke bahut siddhanton par vichar vimarsh kiya hai. us kand men kul karikaen 487 hai. antim das karikaon men vyakaranashastr parampara ka utkarsh aur apakarsh kaise hua, yah snkshep men kaha hai.

tritiy khnd ki karikaen

tritiy khnd men qariban terah sau karikaen hain. usamen pad aur padarthon ka vichar bade vistar se ajati, dravy, snkhya, gun, kriya, sadhan ityadi chaudah upaprakaranon men kiya gaya hai. un upaprakaranon ko grnthakar ne jatisamudesh, dravyasamudev ityadi nam die hain. in namon ka matalab snbhavat: yah hai ki jati, dravy adi vishayon par jo vikar usane bhinn-bhinn darshan pranaliyon men dekhe, un sab vicharon ka sngrah in upaprakaranon men kiya gaya hai. in sab vicharon ki jo samiksha bhartrihari ne ki hai, usamen bhartrihari ke niji mat to vyakt hue hain hi, phir bhi mahabhashy ki vichar dhara ka vishesh prabhav sare vivaran par vishesh roop se dikhata hai. vakyapadiy ke tritiy kand men vyakaranashastranusari shabd siddhi prakriya ka bhi vimarsh ata hai, tathapi usamen bhi arth prakriyatmak vivaran hi mukhy hai.

'vakyapadiy' shabd ka arth hai 'vaky aur pad in donon vishayon ka vichar karane vala grnth.' panchavin sadi men likhi gee panini sootravritti karika men yah shabd siddh kiya gaya hai. isamen aisa tark kiya ja sakata hai ki yah grnth kashikavrittikar ko vidit tha. lekin kashikavrittikar ko jo vakyapadiy vidit tha, usamen doosare aur tisare kand hi mukhy the. pahala 'brahmakand' athava 'agam samuchchay' kand vastavik ke roop men bad men jod diya gaya hoga, aisa bhi tark koee karega. yadyapi pratham kand ka shabd siddhi roop prakriyatmak vyakaranashastr ke sath koee bhi sakshath snbndh maloom nahin hota hai, phir bhi vyakaranashastr ki tatv pranali is pratham kand men di gee hai. ved kal se prachalit ati prachin shabdadvait athava shabd vivat sampraday ka usamen pratipadan aur samarthan hone se us prastavik kand ko hi bad men bada mahattv prapt hua. is vajah se vah kand hi jyadatar adhyayanadhyapan pranali men raha, usi par bahut tikaen, bhashantar likhe ge aur anyany grnthakaron ne sthan-sthan par usamen se anek karikaen uddhrit kin.[1]

vyakaranashastr ka atmasvaroop- vakyapadiy grnth

vakyapadiy grnth vyakaranashastr ka atmasvaroop hai, kyonki keval isi grnth men vyakaranashastr ko vedant shastr ke saman pratishtha prapt kara di hai. rigved mntron ke kal se jo shabd vivartavad aur shabdadvaitavad ki parampara atyant bij roop men mntradi men ullikhit thi, usaka punaruddhar aur samarthan bhartrihari ne vakyapadiy men kiya hai. jaise rat ke samay asnkhy taraganon ki roshani hote hue bhi akela chndrama hi andhera hatane men samarth hota hai, usi tarah keval is grnth se hi bhartrihari ki vishesh pratishtha n keval vyakaranashastr men, balki samooche prachin bharatiy vanamay men bhi sthir ho gayi. is grnth men bhartrihari ne gyan ke pramanon ke snbndh men jo vimarsh kiya hai, sthan sthan par drishtant die hain aur jo siddhant prasthapit kie hain, unase yah spasht hota hai ki bhartrihari punarjanm, karmavishayak ygyadi karmakand, vedon ki aur srishti ki anadita adi vishayon men vaidik siddhanton par bhi badi shraddha rakhane vala, unaka samarthak aur moksh ke bare men advaitamat ko antim manane vala mahavaiyakaranik tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: pn. vaman ba. bhagavat |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 368 |

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