भारत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
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bharat ganarajy
Republic of India
India-Flag.jpg Emblem-of-India.png
bharat ka dhvaj bharat ka kulachihn
rashtravaky: "satyamev jayate" (snskrit) saty hi vijayi hota hai[1]
rashtragan: jan gan man
bharat ki sthiti
rajadhani nee dilli
28° 34′ N 77° 12′ E
sabase bade nagar dilli, mumbee, kolakata aur chennee
rajabhasha(en) hindi sngh ki rajabhasha hai,
angrezi "sahayak rajabhasha" hai.
any bhashaen bangla, gujarati, kannad, malayalam, marathi aur any
sarakar prakar ganarajy
ramanath kovind
venkaiya nayadoo
sumitra mahajan
narendr modi
dipak mishra
vidhayika
-upari sadan
-nichala sadan
bharatiy snsad
rajy sabha
lok sabha
svatntrata
tithi
ganarajy
snyukt rajashahi se
15 agast, 1947
26 janavari, 1950
kshetraphal
 - kul
 
 - jaliy (%)
 
32,87,263 kimi² (satavan)
12,22,559 mil² 
9.56
janasnkhya
 - 2011
 - 2001 janaganana
 - janasnkhya ghanatv
 
1,21,01,93,422[2] (dvitiy)
1,02,70,15,248
382[2]/kimi² (27 van)
954[3]/ mil² 
sakal ghareloo utpad (pipipi)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$4,824 arab[4] 
$3,944[4] 
sakal ghareloo utpad (sanketik)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$1,779 arab[4] 
$1,454[4] 
manav vikas snketank (echadiaee) 0.547 (134 vin) – madhyam
mudra bharatiy rupaya Rupee-symbol.gif (aienar (INR))
samay mandal
 - grishm ritu (delait seving taim)
aiesati (IST) (UTC+5:30)
anusaran nahin kiya jata (UTC+5:30)
intaranet tieladi .in
vahan chalate hain baen
doorabhash kod ++91
any mahatvapoorn janakari
simaon men sthit desh uttar pashchim men afaganistan aur pakistan, uttar men bhootan aur nepal; poorab men myanmar, bangladesh. shrilnka bharat se samudr ke snkirn nahar dvara alag kiya jata hai jo palk stret aur mannar ki khadi dvara nirmit hai.
samudr tat 7,516.6 kilomitar jisamen mukhy bhoomi, lakshadvip aur andaman aur nikobar dvipasamooh shamil hain.
jalavayu sardi (disambar-faravari); garmi (march-joon); dakshin pashchim manasoon ka mausam (joon-sitambar); manasoon pashch mausam (aktoobar-navambar)
bhoo-bhag mukhy bhoomi men char kshetr hain- gret maunten jon, gnga aur sindhu ka maidan, registan kshetr aur dakshini peninsula.
prakritik snsadhan koyala, lauh ayask, maiganij ayask, maika, baauksait, petroliyam, taitaniyam ayask, kromait, prakritik gais, maiganesait, choona patthar, arabal lend, dolomait, maoolin, jipsam, apadait, phosaphorait, stitail, phlorait adi.
prakritik apada manasooni badh, phlesh badh, bhookamp, sookha, zamin khisakana.
janasnkhya vriddhi dar ausat varshik ghatanki vriddhi dar varsh 2001-2011 ke dauran 1.64 pratishat hai.
ling anupat 1000:940 (2011)
dharm varsh 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar 1,028 miliyan desh ki kul janasnkhya men se 80.5 pratishat ke sath hinduon ki adhikanshata hai doosare sthan par 13.4 pratishat ki janasnkhya vale muslim isake bad eesaee, sikh, bauddh, jain aur any ate hain.
saksharata 74.04% (2011) purush- 82.14% mahilaen- 65.46%
sambhavit jivan dar 65.8 varsh (purush); 68.1 varsh (mahila)[5]
jatiy anupat sabhi panch mukhy prakar ki jatiyan- aaustreliyad, mongolaauyad, yooropaauyad, kokosin aur nigroid.
karyapalika shakha bharat ka rashtrapati desh ka pradhan hota hai, jabaki pradhanamntri sarakar ka pramukh hota hai aur mntriparishadh ki sahayata se shasan chalata hai jo mntrimndal mntralay ka gathan karate hain.
nyayapalika shakha bharat ka sarvochch nyayalay bharatiy kanoon vyavastha ka shirsh nikay hai isake bad any uchch nyayalay aur adhinasth nyayalay ate hain.
any janakari bharat ka rashtriy dhvaj ayatakar tirnga hai jisamen kesariya oopar hai, bich men safed, aur barabar bhag men niche gahara hara hai. safed patti ke kendr men gahara nila chakr hai jo saranath men ashok chakr ko darshata hai.
bahari kadiyan bharat ki adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

bharat [sampoorn prabhutasnpann samajavadi dharmanirapeksh lokatantrik ganarajy bharat. (angrezi: India)] duniya ki sabase purani sabhh‍yataon men se ek hai, jo 4,000 se adhik varshon se chali a rahi hai aur jisane anek riti-rivazon aur paramh‍paraon ka sngam dekha hai. yah desh ki samriddh snsh‍kriti aur virasat ka parichayak hai. azadi ke bad 70 varshon men bharat ne samajik aur arthik pragati ki hai. bharat krishi men ath‍manirbhar desh hai aur audyogikaran men bhi vishv ke chune hue deshon men bhi isaki ginati ki jati hai. yah un deshon men se ek hai, jo chand par pahunch chuke hain aur paramanu shakti snpann hain.

dhyan denvistar men padhane ke lie dekhen:bharat alekh

itihas

bharat men manaviy karyakalap ke jo prachinatam chihn ab tak mile hain, ve 4,00,000 ee. poo. aur 2,00,000 ee. poo. ke bich doosare aur tisare him-yugon ke sndhikal ke hain aur ve is bat ke sakshy prastut karate hain ki us samay patthar ke upakaran kam men lae jate the. isake pashchath ek lambe arase tak vikas mand gati se hota raha, jisamen antim samay men jakar tivrata aee aur usaki parinati 2300 ee. poo. ke lagabhag sindhu ghati ki alishan sabhyata (athava navinatam namakaran ke anusar hadappa snskriti) ke roop men huee. hadappa ki poorvavarti snskritiyan hain: baloochistani pahadiyon ke ganvon ki kulli snskriti aur rajasthan tatha pnjab ki nadiyon ke kinare base kuchh gram-samudayon ki snskriti.[6]

bhautik visheshataen

mukhh‍y bhoobhag men char kshetr hain, namat: mahaparvat kshetr, gnga aur sindhu nadi ke maidani kshetr aur maroosh‍thali kshetr aur dakshini prayadvip.

himalay ki tin shrinkhalaen hain, jo lagabhag samanantar phaili huee hain. isake bich bade - bade pathar aur ghatiyan hain, inamen kashmir aur kulh‍loo jaisi kuchh ghatiyan upajaoo, vish‍trit aur prakritik saundary se bharapoor hain. snsar ki sabase oonchi chotiyon men se kuchh inh‍hin parvat shrinkhalaon men hain. adhik oonchaee ke karan ana -jana keval kuchh hi darron se ho pata hai, jinamen mukhh‍y hain -

  • chunbi ghati se hote hue mukhh‍y bharat-tibh‍bat vh‍yapar marg par jelap la aur nathoo-la darre
  • uttar-poorv darjiling
  • kalh‍pana (kinh‍naur) ke uttar - poorv men sataluj ghati men shipaki la darra

bhoogarbhiy snrachana

bharat ke bhoo‍vaigyanik kshetr vh‍yapak rup se bhautik visheshataon ka palan karate hain aur inh‍hen mukhyat: tin kshetron ke samooh men rakha ja sakata hai:

  1. himalay parvat shrinkhala aur unake snbaddh parvat samooh.
  2. bharat-gnga maidan kshetr.
  3. prayadvipiy kshetr.

ankade ek jhalak

kshetraphal 32,87,263 varg kimi.[7]
-bhoomadhy rekha se doori [8] 876 kimi
-poorv se pashchim lnbaee 2,933 kimi
-uttar se dakshin lnbaee 3,214 kimi
-pradeshik jalasima ki chaudaee samudr tat se 12 samudri mil tak.
-ekantik arthik kshetr snlagn kshetr se age 200 samudri mil tak.

sima 7 desh aur 2 mahasagar[9]
-samudri sima[10] 7516.5 kimi
-prakritik bhag (1) uttar ka parvatiy pradesh (2) uttar ka vishal maidan (3) dakshin ka prayadvipiy pathar (4) samudr tatiy maidan tatha (5) thar marusthal
-sthaliy sima[11] 15,200 kimi

rajy 29
-snghashasit kshetr[12] 7
-zilon ki snkhya 593
-upazilon ki snkhya 5,470
-sabase bada zila laddakh (jammoo-kashmir, kshetraphal 82,665 varg kimi.).
-sabase chhota zila thaubal (manipur, kshetraphal- 507 varg kimi.).
-dvipon ki kul snkhya 247 [13]
-tatarekha se lage rajy gujarat, maharashtr, gova, karnatak, keral, tamilanadu, andhr pradesh, udisa aur pashchim bngal.
-kendrashasit pradesh (tatarekha) daman v div, dadara evn nagar haveli, lakshadvip, pandicheri tatha andaman evn nikobar dvip samooh.
-kark rekha [14] gujarat, rajasthan, madhyapradesh, chhattisagadh, jharakhnd, pashchim bngal, tripura tatha mizoram.
-pramukh nagar mumbee, nee dilli, kolakata, chennee, bengalor, haidarabad, tiruanantapuram, sikandarabad, kanapur, ahamadabad, jayapur, jodhapur, amritasar, chanh‍digadh, shrinagar, jammoo, shimala, disapur, itanagar, kochin, agara adi.
-rajadhani nee dilli.
-parvatiy paryatan almoda, nainital, lainsadaun, gadhamukteshvar, masoori, kasauli, shimala, kulloo ghati, dalahauzi, shrinagar, gulabarg, sonamarg, amaranath, pahalagam, darjiling, kalinpong, ranchi, shilang, kunjur, ootakamnd (ooti), mahabaleshvar, pnchamadhi, maunt aboo.
-pratham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 300
-dvitiy shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 345
-tritiy shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 947
-chaturth shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 1,167
-pncham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 740
-shashtham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 197
-kul nagaron ki snkhya 5,161
-sarvadhik nagaron vala rajy uttar pradesh (704 nagar)
-sabase kam nagar vala rajy meghalay (7 nagar)
-sarvadhik nagariy janasnkhya vala rajy uttar pradesh (3,45,39,582), mizoram (45.10%)
-sabase kam nagariy janasnkhya vala rajy sikkim (59,870), himachal pradesh (8.69%)
-snghashasit kshetr sarvadhik janasnkhya[15] dilli 89.93%
-sngh shasit kshetr kam janasnkhya [16] dadara tatha nagar haveli (8.47%)
-snghashasit kshetr (sabase bada)[17] andaman evn nikobar dvipasamooh (8,293 varg kimi.)
-sabase chhota sngh shasit kshetr lakshadvip (32 varg kimi.)
-shaharon ki snkhya 5,161
-ganvon ki snkhya 6,38,588
-abad ganvon ki snkhya 5,93,732
-gair-abad ganvon ki snkhya 44,856
-samudrik matsyayan ka pramukh kshetr pashchimi tat (75% tatha poorvi tat (25%) [18]
-sabase bada rajy (kshetraphal) rajasthan (3,42,239 varg kimi.)
-sabase chhota rajy gova (3,702 varg kimi.)

bhoogol
-pramukh parvat himalay, karakoram, shivalik, aravali, pashchimi ghat, poorvi ghat, vindhyachal, satapuda, annamalaee, nilagiri, palani, nallamala, maikal, ilayachi.
-pramukh nadiyan sindhu, satalaj, brahmaputr, gnga, yamuna, godavari, damodar, narmada, tapti, krishna, kaveri, mahanadi, ghaghara, gomati, ramagnga, chambal adi.
-parvat shikhar gadavin astin ya maunt ke 2 (8,611 mi.), knchanajngha (8,598 mi.), nnga parvat (8,126 mi.), nndadevi (7,717 mi.), kamet (7,756 mi.), makaloo (8,078 mi.), annapoorna (8,078 mi.), manasaloo (8,156 mi.), badrinath, kedaranath, trishool, mana, gngotri, gurushikhar, mahendragiri, anaeemudi adi.
-jhil dal, vular, naini, satatal, nagin, sanbhar, didavana, chilka, husain sagar, vembanad adi.
-jalavayu manasooni
-vanakshetr 750 lakh hekteyar [19]
-pramukh mittiyan jalodh, kali, lal, pili, laiterait, marusthaliy, parvatiy, namakin evn pit tatha daladali.
-sinchaee [20] naharen (40.0%) kuen (37.8%), talab (14.5%) tatha any (7.7%).
-krishi ke prakar tar kheti [21], ardr kheti [22], jhoom krishi [23] tatha parvatiy krishi [24].
-khadyann fasalen chaval, gehoon, jvar, bajara, ragi, jau adi.
-naqadi fasalen ganna, chay, kafi, rabad, nariyal, phal evn sabjiyan, dalen, tambakoo, kapas tatha tilahani fasalen.
-khanij snsadhan lauh ayask, koyala, mainganij, abhrak, baauksait, choonapatthar, yooreniyam, sona, chandi, hira, khanij tel adi.

janasnkhya 1,028,610,328 (2001) [25]
-purush janasnkhya 53,21,56,772
-mahila janasnkhya 49,64,53,556
-anusoochit jati [26] 16,66,35,700 (kul janasnkhya ka 16.2%)
-anusoochit janajati [27] 8,43,26,240 (kul janasnkhya ka 8.2%)
-pramukh janajatiyan gaddi, gujjar, tharoo, bhotiya, mipuri, riyana, lepcha, mina, bhil, garasiya, koli, mahadevi, konkana, snthal, munda, uranv, baiga, koya, gond adi.
-vishv men sthan (janasnkhya) doosara
-vishv janasnkhya ka pratishat 16.87%
-janasnkhya ghanatv 324 vyakti prati varg kimi
-janasnkhya vriddhi dar (dashak) 21.54% (1991-2001)
-ausat vriddhi dar [28] 1.95%
-linganupat ♀/♂ 933 : 1000
-raj bhasha hindi [29]
-prati vyakti ay 27,786 ru0 (2007-08)

arthavyavastha
-niryat ki vastuen injiniyari upakaran, masale, tambakoo, chamade ka saman, chay, lauh ayask adi.
-ayat ki vastuen rasayan, mashinari, upakaran, urvarak, khanij tel adi.
-vyapar sahayogi snyukt rajy amerika, briten, naye rashtron ke rashtrakul (si.aee.es.) ke desh, japan, itali, jarmani, poorvi yooropiy desh.
-rashtriyakrit bainkon ki snkhya 20
-telashodhanashalaon ki snkhya 13
-kul udyamon ki snkhya 4,212 karod (krishi men snlagn udyamon ke atirikt)
-udyam (gramin kshetr) 2,581 karod (krishi men snlagn udyamon ke atirikt)
-udyam (shahari kshetr) 1,631 karod (38.7%).
-krishi kary ka pratishat [30] 15%
-gair-krishi kary ka pratishat [31] 85%
-udyam (10 ya adhik kamagar) 5.83 lakh [32]
-sarvadhik udyam (panch rajy) tamilanadu-4446999 (10.56%), maharashtr- 4374764 (10.39%), pashchim bngal- 4285688 (10.17%), andhr pradesh- 4023411 (9.55%), uttar pradesh- 4015926 (9.53%).
-sarvadhik udyam (kendr shasit) dilli-753795(1.79%), chndigadh- 65906 (0.16%), pandicheri-49915 (0.12%).
-pramukh udyog lauh-ispat, jalayan nirman, motar vahan, saikil, sootivastr, ooni vastr, reshami vastr, vayuyan, urvarak, davaen evn aushadhiyan, relave injan, rel ke dibbe, joot, kagaz, chini, siment, matsyayan, chamada udyog, shisha, bhari evn halke rasayanik udyog tatha rabad udyog.
-bade bandaragahon ki snkhya 12 bade evn 139 chhote bndaragah.
-pramukh bandaragah mumbee, nhava sheva, kalakatta, haldiya, gova, kochin, kandala, chennee, nyoo mngalor, tootikorin, vishakhapatanam, majhaganv, aleppi, bhatakal, bhavanagar, kalikat, kakinada, kudaloor, dhanushakodi, paradvip, gopalapur.
-pashchimi tat pramukh bndaragah kandala, munbee, marmugaon, nyoo mngalaur, kochin aur javaharalal neharoo
-poorvi tat ke pramukh bndaragah tootikorin, chennee, vishakhapattanam, paradip aur kolakata- haldiya.
-purana bndaragah (poorvi tat) chennee
-sabase gahara bndaragah vishakhapattanam
-karyashil vyaktiyon ki snkhya 31.5 karod, mukhy shramik- 28.5 karod, simant shramik- 3,0 karod
-taje jal ki machhaliyan saau-phish, laivaphish, phaidarabaink, enkavi, eel, bata, reva, tor, chitala, katala, mingal, milkaphish, karp, parlashat adi.

parivahan
-jal parivahan kolakata (kendriy antardeshiy jal parivahan nigam ka mukhyalay)
-sadak marg ki kul lambaee 33,19,664 kimi.
-rashtriy rajamargon ki snkhya snkhyanusar 109 jabaki kul 143 (lagabhag 19 nirmanadhin).
-rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee 66,590 kimi.
-sabase lamba rashtriy rajamarg rajamarg snkhya 7 (lnbaee- 2369 kimi varanasi se kanyakumari)
-rashtriy rajamarg (svarn chaturbhuj) 5,846 kimi (yojana ke antargat shamil rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee)
-rashtriy rajamarg (uttar-dakshin kaauridaaur) 7,300 kimi (yojana antargat shamil rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee)
-relamarg 63,465 kimi.
-relave parimandalon ki snkhya 16
-sabase bada relave parimandal uttar relave (11,023 kimi., mukhyalay- nee dilli)
-relave steshanon ki snkhya lagabhag 7,133 (31 march, 2006 tak)
-rel yatriyon ki snkhya 50,927 lakh pratidin (2002-03)
-rel injanon ki snkhya</ref> 8,025 (march, 2006).
-rel savari dibbon ki snkhya 42,570 (2001)
-rel mal dibbon ki snkhya 2,22,147 (2001)
-yatri relagadiyon ki snkhya 44,090
-any savari rel gadiyan 5,990
-antarrashtriy havaee addon ki snkhya panch [33]
-mukt akashiy havaee adda gaya (bihar)
-prastavit antarrashtriy havaee adde bngalaur, haidarabad, ahamadabad, gova, amritasar, guvahati evn kochin.

any
-jiv-jantu (anumanit) 75,000 jinamen ubhayachar- 2,500, sarisrip- 450, pakshi- 2,000 tatha stanapayi- 850
-rashtriy udyan 70
-vany prani vihar 412
-prani udyan 35
-rashtriy pratik rashtradhvaj- tirnga
-rajachinh sinhashirsh (saranath)
-rashtr gan jan gan man [34]
-rashtriy git vande mataramh [35]
-rashtriy pashu bagh (painthar taigris).
-rashtriy pakshi mayoor (pavo kristeshas).
-svatantrata divas 15 agast
-ganatantr divas 26 janavari

bharat ka snvidhan

bharat ka snvidhan 26 janavari, 1950 ko lagoo hua. isaka nirman snvidhan sabha ne kiya tha, jisaki pahali baithak 9 disambar, 1946 ko huee thi. snvidhan sabha ne 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan ko angikar kar liya tha. snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak avibhajit bharat ke lie bulaee gee thi. 4 agast, 1947 ko snvidhan sabha ki baithak punah huee aur usake adhyaksh sachchidanand sinha the. sinha ke nidhan ke bad daau. rajendr prasad snvidhan sabha ke adhyaksh bane. faravari 1948 men snvidhan ka masauda prakashit hua. 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan antim roop men svikrit hua aur 26 janavari 1950 ko lagoo hua.

dharm

bharatiy snskriti men vibhinnata usaka bhooshan hai. yahan hindoo dharm ke aganit roopon aur snpradayon ke atirikt, bauddh, jain, sikkh, islam, eesaee, yahoodi adi dharmon ki vividhata ka bhi ek sanskritik samayojan dekhane ko milata hai. hindoo dharm ke vividh sampraday evn mat sare desh men phaile hue hain, jaise vaidik dharm, shaiv, vaishnav, shakt adi pauranik dharm, radha-ballabh snpraday, shri snpraday, ary samaj, samaj adi. parantu in sabhi matavadon men sanatan dharm ki ekarasata khandit n hokar vividh roopon men gathit hoti hai. yahan ke nivasiyon men bhasha ki vividhata bhi is desh ki moolabhoot sanskritik ekata ke lie badhak n hokar sadhak pratit hoti hai.

arthavyavastha

bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha kray shakti samanata ke adhar par duniya men chauthi sabase badi arthavh‍yavash‍tha hai. yah vishal janashakti adhar, vividh prakritik snsadhanon aur sashakh‍t vrihat arthavh‍yavash‍tha ke moolabhoot tath‍von ke karan vh‍yavasay aur nivesh ke avasaron ke sabase adhik akarshak gntavh‍yon men se ek hai. varsh 1991 men arnbh ki gee arthik sudharon ki prakriya se samh‍poorn arthavh‍yavash‍tha men phaile nitigat dhanche ke udarikaran ke madhh‍yam se ek niveshak anukool parivesh milata raha hai. bharat ko azad hue 70 sal ho chuke hain aur is dauran bharatiy arthavyavastha ki dasha men zabaradast badalav aya hai. audyogik vikas ne arthavyavastha ka roop badal diya hai. aj bharat ki ginati duniya ki sabase tezi se badhati arthavyavasthaon men hoti hai. vishv ki arthavyavastha ko chalane men bharat ki bhoomika badhati ja rahi hai. aeeti saktar men poori duniya bharat ka loha manati hai.

krishi

krishi bharat ki arthavyavastha ki ridh mani jati hai. vibhinn pnchavarshiy yojanaon dvara chalae ja rahe vibhinn karyakramon evn prayason se krishi ko rashtriy arthavyavastha men garimapoorn darja mila hai. krishi kshetron men lagabhag 64% shramikon ko rozagar mila hua hai. 1950-51 men kul ghareloo utpad men krishi ka hissa 59.2% tha jo ghatakar 1982-83 men 36.4% aur 1990-91 men 34.9% tatha 2001-2002 men 25% rah gaya. yah 2006-07 ki avadhi ke dauran ausat adhar par ghatakar 18.5% rah gaya. dasavin yojana (2002-2007) ke dauran samagr sakal ghareloo utpad ki ausat varshik vriddhi pad 7.6% thi jabaki is dauran krishi tatha sambaddh kshetr ki varshik vriddhi dar 2.3% rahi. 2001-02 se prarnbh huee nav sahastrabdi ke pratham 6 varshon men 3.0% ki varshik samany ausat vriddhi dar 2003-04 men 10% aur 2005-06 men 6% ki rahi.

khanij snpada

svatntrata prapti ke pashchath bharat men khanijon ke utpadan men nirantar vriddhi huee hai. koyala, lauh ayask, baauksait adi ka utpadan nirntar badha hai. 1951 men sirf 83 karod rupaye ke khanijon ka khanan hua tha, parantu 1970-71 men inaki matra badhakar 490 karod rupaye ho gee. agale 20 varshon men khanijon ke utpadan men abhootapoorv vriddhi huee. 2001-02 men nikale gaye khanijon ka kul mooly 58,516.36 karod rupaye tak pahunch gaya jabaki 2005-06 ke dauran kul 75,121.61 karod rupaye mooly ke khanijon ka utpadan kiya gaya. yadi matra ki drishti se dekha jaye, to bharat men khanijon ki matra men lagabhag tiguni vriddhi huee hai, usaka 50% bhag sirf petroliyam aur prakritik gais ke karan tatha 40% koyala ke karan hua hai.

raksha

bharat ki raksha niti ka pramukh uddeshy yah hai ki bharatiy upamahadvip men use badhava diya jae evn sthayitv pradan kiya jae tatha desh ki raksha senaon ko paryapt roop se susajjit kiya jae, taki ve kisi bhi akraman se desh ki raksha kar saken. varsh 1946 ke poorv bharatiy raksha ka poora niyntran angrezon ke hathon men tha. usi varsh kendr men antarim sarakar men pahali bar ek bharatiy desh ke raksha mntri baladev sinh bane. halanki kamandar-in-chiph ek angrez hi raha . 1947 men desh ka vibhajan hone par bharat ko 45 rejimenten milin, jinamen 2.5 lakh sainik the. shesh rejiment pakistan chali gayin. gorakha fauj ki 6 rejiment (lagabhag 25,000 sainik) bhi bharat ko milin. shesh gorakha sainik british sena men sammilit ho gaye. british sena ki antim tukadi samarasait lait inphaintri ki pahali bataliyan ho gayi. british sena ki antim tukadi samarasait lait inphaintri ki pahali bataliyan bharatiy bhoomi se 28 faravari, 1948 ko svadesh ravana huee.

pashu pakshi jagat

vany jivan prakriti ki amooly den hai. bhavishy men vany praniyon ki samapti ki ashnka ke karan bharat men sarvapratham 7 julaee, 1955 ko vany prani divas manaya gaya . yah bhi nirnay liya gaya ki pratyek varsh do aktoobar se poore saptah tak vany prani saptah manaya jaega. varsh 1956 se vany prani saptah manaya ja raha hai. bharat ke snrakshan karyakram ki avashyakataon ko poora karane ke lie ek mazaboot snsthagat dhanche ki rachana ki gayi hai.

bharatiy bhasha parivar

bharat ki mukhy visheshata yah hai ki yahan vibhinnata men ekata hai. bharat men vibhinnata ka svaroop n keval bhaugolik hai, balki bhashayi tatha sanskritik bhi hai. ek riport ke anusar bharat men 1652 matribhashayen prachalan men hain, jabaki snvidhan dvara 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata pradan ki gayi hai. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 344 ke antargat pahale keval 15 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata di gayi thi, lekin 21ven snvidhan snshodhan ke dvara sindhi ko tatha 71van snvidhan snshodhan dvara nepali, konkani tatha manipuri ko bhi rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya. bad men 92van snvidhan snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003 ke dvara snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men char nee bhashaon bodo, dogari, maithili tatha snthali ko rajabhasha men shamil kar liya gaya. is prakar ab snvidhan men 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya hai.

shiksha

1911 men bharatiy janaganana ke samay saksharata ko paribhashit karate hue kaha gaya hai ki "ek patr padh-likhakar usaka uttar de dene ki yogyata" saksharata hai. bharat men lambe samay se likhit bhasha ka astitv hai, kintu pratyaksh soochana ke abhav ke karan isaka sntoshajanak vikas nahin hua. hadappa aur mohanajodado ki lekhan chitralipi tin hazar varsh eesa poorv aur bad ki hai. yadyapi abhi tak is lipi ko padha nahin ja saka hai, tathapi isase yah spasht hai ki bharatiyon ke pas kee shatabdiyon pahale se hi ek likhit bhasha thi aur yahan ke log padh aur likh sakate the. hadappa aur ashok ke kal ke bich men pandrah sau varshon ka aisa samay raha hai, jisamen ki koee likhit praman nahin milata. lekin panini ne us samay bharatiyon ke dvara boli jane vali vibhinn bhashaon ka ullekh kiya hai.

bharatiy kala

bharatiy kala apani prachinata tatha vividhata ke lie vikhyat rahi hai. aj jis roop men 'kala' shabd atyant vyapak aur bahuarthi ho gaya hai, prachin kal men usaka ek chhota hissa bhi n tha. yadi aitihasik kal ko chhod aur pichhe pragaitihasik kal par drishti dali jae to vibhinn nadiyon ki ghatiyon men puratattvavidon ko khudaee men mile asnkhy pashan upakaran bharat ke adi manushyon ki kalatmak pravrittiyon ke sakshat praman hain. patthar ke tukade ko vibhinn takanikon se vibhinn prayojanon ke anuroop svaroop pradan kiya jata tha.

bharatiy sngit

sngit manaviy lay evn talabaddh abhivyakti hai. bharatiy sngit apani madhurata, layabaddhata tatha vividhata ke lie jana jata hai. vartaman bharatiy sngit ka jo roop drishtigat hota hai, vah adhunik yug ki prastuti nahin hai, balki yah bharatiy itihas ke prasambh ke sath hi juda hua hai. vaidik kal men hi bharatiy sngit ke bij pad chuke the. samaved un vaidik richaon ka sngrah matr hai, jo gey hain. prachin kal se hi eeshvar aradhana hetu bhajanon ke prayog ki parampara rahi hai. yahan tak ki ygyadi ke avasar par bhi samoohagan hote the.

nrity kala

bharat men nrity ki anek shailiyan hain. bharatanatyam, odisi, kuchipudi, kathakali, manipuri, kathak adi parnparagat nrity shailiyan hain to bhngada, gidda, naga, bihoo adi lok prachalit nrity hai. ye nrity shailiyan poore desh men vikhyat hai. gujarat ka garaba hariyana men bhi mncho ki shobha ko badhata hai aur pnjab ka bhngada dakshin bharat men bhi bade shauq se dekha jata hai. bharat ke sngit ko vikasit karane men amir khusaro, tanasen, baijoo bavara jaise sngitakaron ka vishesh yogadan raha hai. aj bharat ke sngit-kshitij par bismilla khan‎, zakir husain, ravi shnkar saman roop se sammanit hain.

snskriti

tyohar aur mele bharatiy snskriti ke abhinn ang hain. yah bhi kah sakate hain ki bharatiy snskriti apane hriday ke madhury ko tyohar aur melon men vyakt karati hai, to adhik sarthak hoga. bharatiy snskriti prem, sauhardr, karuna, maitri, daya aur udarata jaise manaviy gunon se paripoorn hai. yah ullas, utsah aur vikas ko ek sath samete hue hai. anand aur madhury to jaise isake pran hain. yahan har kary anand ke sath shuroo hota hai aur madhury ke sath sampann hota hai. bharat jaise vishal dharmapran desh men astha aur vishvas ke sath mil kar yahi anand aur ullas tyohar aur melon men phoot padata hai. tyohar aur mele hamari dharmik asthaon, samajik paramparaon aur arthik avashyakataon ki triveni hai, jinamen samoocha janamanas bhavavibhor hokar gote lagata hai.

bharatiy bhojan

bharatiy bhojan svad aur sugndh ka madhur sngam hai. pooran poori ho ya dal bati, tndoori roti ho ya shahi pulav, pnjabi bhojan ho ya maravadi bhojan, zikr chahe jis kisi ka bhi ho raha ho, keval nam sunane se hi bhookh jag uthati hai. bharat men pakavanon ki vividhata bhi bahut adhik hai. rajasthan men dal-bati, kolakata men chaval-machhali, pnjab men roti-sag, dakshin men idali-dosa. itani vividhata ke bich ekata ka praman yah hai ki aj dakshin bharat ke log dal-roti usi shauq se khate hain, jitane shauq se uttar bharatiy idali-dosa khate hain. sachamuch bharat ek rngabirnga guladasta hai.

paryatan

bharatavasi apani dirghakalin, anavarat evn satarngi upalabdhiyon se yukt itihas par garv kar sakate hain. prachin kal se hi bharat ek atyant hi vividhata sampann desh raha hai aur yah visheshata aj bhi samay ki ghadi par ankit hai. yahan prarambh se anek adhyavasayon ka anusaran hota raha hai, prithakh-prithakh manyataen hain, logon ke rivaj aur drishtikonon ke vibhinn rngon se saza yah desh atit ko bhoot, vartaman evn bhavishy ki ankhon se dekhane ke lie ahvan kar raha hai. kintu bahurngi sabhyata evn snskriti vale desh ke sabhi ayamon ko samajhane ka prayas itana asan nahin hai.

dhyan den vistar men padhane ke lie dekhen:bharat alekh

rajy snrachana


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. satyamev jayate nanritn satyen pntha vitato devayanah.
    yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatr satsatyasy paramn nidhanamh॥

    mundakopanishadh tritiy mundak shlok 6
  2. 2.0 2.1 India : Census 2011
  3. Population Density per Square Mile of Countries
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (angrezi) (e.es.pi) International Monetory Fund. abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2012.
  5. sitambar 2006-2011 ki sthiti ke anusar
  6. pustak 'bharat ka itihas' romila thapar) prishth snkhya-19
  7. (vishv ka 2.2% vishv men 7van sthan)
  8. ekadam dakshini bhag ki bhoomadhy rekha se doori
  9. uttar men himalay parvatamala se lage hue chin, nepal tatha bhootan, poorv men parvatiy shrrinkhala se alag hua myanmar tatha poorv men hi bangladesh, pashchim men pakistan evn afaganistan tatha dakshin men hind mahasagar, bngal ki khadi evn arab sagar.
  10. dvipon sahit samudri sima ki kul lnbaee
  11. sthaliy sima ki lnbaee
  12. snghashasit kshetron ki snkhya
  13. bngal ki khadi men dvipon ki snkhya- 204, arab sagar men dvipon ki snkhya- 43.
  14. ve rajy jinase hokar kark rekha gujarati hai
  15. sarvadhik nagariy janasnkhya vala sngh shasit kshetr
  16. sabase kam nagariy janasnkhya vala sngh shasit kshetr
  17. kshetraphal ki drishti se sabase bada snghashasit kshetr
  18. pramukh sagariy machhaliyan- bataraphish, svet bet, saradain, pran, maikarel, jyoophish, ribanaphish, kaitaphish, sarnga, dara, tyoona, mulets, siyaraphish, shark, pamaphret, shrimp adi. vishv matsyayan ka- 2.7%.
  19. kul kshetraphal ka 22.7%
  20. sinchaee ke sadhan
  21. 200 semi. varshik varsha vale kshetron men bina sinchaee ke
  22. 100 se 200 semi. varsha valeai jalodh env kali mitti ke kshetron men
  23. uttar-poorvi bharat, pashchimi ghat adi kshetron men
  24. vishesh roop se himalay ke dhalon par
  25. manipur ke senapati zile ke tin upazilon ko chhodakar
  26. anusoochit jatiyon ki snkhya
  27. anusoochit janajatiyon ki snkhya
  28. ausat varshik ghatiy vriddhi dar
  29. anuchchhed 344 (1), 351, athavin anusoochi ke anusar 22 bhashaain hai jinake nam is prakar hai:- asamiya , bangla , gujarati , hindi , kannad , kashmiri , konkani , malayalam , manipuri , marathi , nepali , udiya , pnjabi , snskrit , sindhi , tamil , urdoo , telugu , bodo , dogari , maithili , snthali
  30. krishi se snbndhit kary men snlagn udyamon ka pratishat
  31. gair-krishi snbndhi karyon men snlagn udyamon ka pratishat
  32. kul udyamon ka 1.4%
  33. javahar lal neharoo antarrashtriy havaee adda (santakruj, mumbee), subhash chandr bos havaee adda (damadam- kolakata), indira gandhi antarrashtriy havaee adda (palam, dilli), minambakam havaee adda (chennee) tatha tiruvanantapuram.
  34. rachayita-gurudev ravindr nath taigor
  35. rachayita- bnkimachandr chatarji
oopar jayen

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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