भारतीय कला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
parichay    itihas    bhoogol    snvidhan    dharm   krishi    vany jivan    bhasha    shiksha    kala    snskriti    khanapan    raksha    rajy    paryatan    alekh

kala logon ki snskriti men ek moolyavan virasat hai. jab koee kala ki bat karata hai to amataur par usaka abhipray drishtimoolak kala se hota hai. jaise vastukala, moortikala tatha chitrakala. atit men ye tinon pahaloo apas men mile hue the. vastukala men hi moortikala evn chitrakala ka samavesh tha.

vidvanon ka manana hai ki bharatiy kala dharm se prerit huee. vaise is bare men kuchh nakarane jaisa bhi nahin hai. ho sakata hai, kalakaron aur hastashilpiyon ne dharmacharyon ke nirdeshanusar kam kiya ho, par svayn k abhivyakt karate samay unhonne snsar ko jaisa dekha, vaisa hi dikhaya. yah sahi hai ki bharatiy kala ke madhyam se jo pavan drishti ko hi abhivyakt kiya gaya, jo bhautik snsar ke pichhe chhipe daiv tatvon se, jivan aur prakriti ki sanatan vishamata aur sabase oopar manaviy tatv se hamesha avagat rahati hai.

bharatiy kala

bharatiy kala apani prachinata tatha vivadhata ke lie vikhyat rahi hai. aj jis roop men 'kala' shabd atyant vyapak aur bahuarthi ho gaya hai, prachin kal men usaka ek chhota hissa bhi n tha. yadi aitihasik kal ko chhod aur pichhe pragaitihasik kal par drishti dali jae to vibhinn nadiyon ki ghatiyon men puratattvavidon ko khudaee men mile asnkhy pashan upakaran bharat ke adi manushyon ki kalatmak pravrittiyon ke sakshat praman hain. patthar ke tukade ko vibhinn takanikon se vibhinn prayojanon ke anuroop svaroop pradan kiya jata tha. hastakulhade, khurachani, chhidrak, takshiniyan tatha bedhak adi pashan-upakaran sirf upayogita ki drishti se hi mahattvapoorn nahin the, balki unaka kalatmak paksh bhi gyatavy hai. jaise-jaise manushy sabhy hota gaya usaki jivan shaili ke sath-sath usaka kala paksh bhi mazaboot hota gaya. jahan par ek or mridabhannd, bhavan tatha any upayogi samanon ke nirman men vriddhi huee vahin par doosari or abhooshan, moorti kala, muhar nirman, gufa chitrakari adi ka bhi vikas hota gaya. bharat ke uttar-pashchimi bhag men vikasit saindhav sabhyata (hadappa sabhyata) bharat ke itihas ke prarambhik kal men hi kala ki paripakvata ka sakshath praman hai. khudaee men lagabhag 1,000 kendron se prapt is sabhyata ke avasheshon men anek aise tathy samane aye hain, jinako dekhakar barabar hi man yah manane ka badhy ho jata hai ki hamare poorvaj sachamuch uchch koti ke kalakar the.

vishv virasat soochi (yoonesko) men shamil bharatiy dharohar
kram dharohar ghoshana varsh chitr
1 agara ka lal qila 1983 Red-Fort-Agra.jpg
2 ajanta ki guphaen 1983 Ajanta-Caves-Aurangabad-Maharashtra-3.jpg
3 elora guphaen 1983 Ellora-Caves-Aurangabad-Maharashtra-3.jpg
4 tajamahal 1983 Tajmahal-10.jpg
5 mahabalipuram ke smarak 1984 Pancha-Rathas-Mahabalipuram-5.jpg
6 konark ka soory mndir 1984 Sun-Temple-Konark.jpg
7 kajirnga neshanal park 1985 Kaziranga-National-Park-Assam.jpg
8 kevaladev neshanal park 1985
9 manas senkchuri 1985
10 gova ke charch 1986 Se-Cathedral-Church-Goa-1.jpg
11 fatehapur sikari 1986 Buland-Darwaja-Fatehpur-Sikri-Agra.jpg
12 hampi avashesh 1986 Hampi-3.jpg
13 khajuraho mndir 1986 Khajuraho-Temple-Madhya-Pradesh-7.jpg
14 eliphenta ki guphaen 1987 Elephanta-Caves-Mumbai.jpg
15 chol mndir 1987-2004
16 pattadakal ke smarak 1987
17 sundaravan neshanal park 1987 Sunderbans-Wildlife-Sanctuary.jpg
18 nnda devi aur phoolon ki ghati 1988-2005 Valley-Of-Flowers-National-Park.jpg
19 sanchi ka stoop 1989 Buddha-Stupas.jpg
20 humayoon ka maqabara 1993 Humayun's-Tomb-Delhi.jpg
21 qutub minar 1993 Qutub-Minar-Delhi.jpg
22 maunten relave 1999-2005
23 bodhagaya ka mahabodhi mndir 2002 Buddha-Statue-Bodhgaya-Bihar-2.jpg
24 bhimabetaka ki guphaen 2003 Bhimbetka-Caves-Bhopal.jpg
25 champaner-pavaragadh park 2004
26 chhatrapati shivaji tarminas 2004 Chhatrapati-Shivaji-Terminus.jpg
27 lal qila, dilli 2007 Red-Fort.jpg
28 rigved ki pandulipiyan 2007

aitihasik kal men bharatiy kala men aur bhi paripakvata aee. maury kal, kushan kal aur phir gupt kal men bharatiy kala nirantar pragati karati gee. ashok ke vibhinn shilalekh, stambhalekh aur stambh kalatmak drishti se atyant mahattvapoorn hain. saranath sthit ashok sh‍tamh‍bh aur usake char sinh v dharm chakr yukt shirsh bharatiy kala ka utkrisht namoona hai. kushan kal men vikasit gandhar aur mathura kalaon ki shreshthata jagazahir hai. gupt kal sirf rajanitik aur arthik drishti se hi sampann nahin tha, kalatmak drishti se bhi vah atyant sampann tha. tabhi to itihasakaron ne use prachin bharatiy itihas ka 'svarn yug' kaha hai. poorv madhyayug men nirmit vishalakay mandir, qile tatha moortiyan tatha uttar madhyayug ke islamik tatha bharatiy kala ke sngam se yukt anek bhavan, chitr tatha any kalatmak vastuen bharatiy kala ki amooly dharohar hain. adhunik yug men bharatiy kala par pashchaty kala ka prabhav pada. usaki vishay vastu, prastutikaran ke tariqe tatha bhavabhivyakti men vividhata evn jatilata aee. adhunik kala apane kalatmak paksh ke sath-sath upayogita paksh ko bhi sath lekar chal rahi hai. yadyapi bharat ke dirghakalik itihas men kee aise kal bhi aye, jabaki kala ka hras hone laga, athava vah apane marg se bhatakati pratit huee, parantu samany taur par yah dekha gaya ki bharatiy janamanas kala ko apane jivan ka ek ansh manakar chala hai. vah kala ka vikas aur nirman nahin karata, balki kala ko jita hai. usaki jivan shaili aur jivan ka har kary kala se paripoorn hai. yadi ek samany bharatiy ki jivanacharya ka adhyayan kiya jay to, spasht hota hai ki usake jivan ka har ek pahaloo kala se paripoorn hai. jivan ke dainik kriya-kalapon ke bich usake pooja-path, utsav, parv-tyohar, shadi-vivah ya any ghatanaon se vividh kalaon ka ghanisht sambandh hai. isilie bharat ki charcha tab tak apoorn mani jaegi, jab tak ki usake kala paksh ko shamil n kiya jay. prachin bharatiy granthon men 64 kalaon ka ullekh milata hai, jinaka gyan pratyek susnskrit nagarik ke lie anivary samajha jata tha. isilie bhartrihari ne to yahan tak kah dala 'sahity, sngit, kala vihinah sakshath pashuah puchchhavishanahinah.' arthath sahity, sngit aur kala se vihin vyakti pashu ke saman hai.

'kala' shabd ki utpatti kalh dhatu men achh tatha tapoo pratyay lagane se huee hai (kalh+achh+tapoo), jisake kee arth hain—shobha, alnkaran, kisi vastu ka chhota ansh ya chandrama ka solahavan ansh adi. vartaman men kala ko angrezi ke art shabd ka upayog samajha jata hai, jise panch vidhaon—sngitakala, moortikala, chitrakala, vastukala aur kavyakala men vargikrit kiya jata hai. in panchon ko sammilit roop se lalit kalaen kaha jata hai. vasvat men kala manava mastishk evn atma ki uchchatam evn prakharatam kalpana v bhavon ki abhivyakti hi hai, isilie kalayukt koee bhi vastu barabas hi snsar ka dhyan apani or akrisht kar leti hai. sath hi vah unhen prasannachitt evn ahaladit bhi kar deti hai. vastav men yah kalaen vyakti ki atma ko jhnjhodane ki kshamata rakhati hain. yah ukti ki bharatiy sngit men vah jadoo tha ki dipak rag ke gayan se dipak prajjavalit ho jata tha tatha pashu-pakshi apani sudh-budh kho baithate the, kitana saty hai, yah kahana to kathin hai, lekin itana to saty hai ki bharatiy sngit ya kala ka har paksh itana sashakt hai ki snvedanavihin vyakti men bhi vah snvedana ke tivr udveg ko utpann kar sakata hai. inhen bhi dekhen: patralata

sanskritik prabhavashilata

hamesha se hi bharat ki kalaen aur hastashilp isaki sanskritik aur parnparagat prabhavashilata ko abhivyakt karane ka madhyam bane rahe hain. deshabhar men phaile isake rajyon aur sngh rajy kshetron ki apani vishesh sanskritik aur parnparik pahachan hai, jo vahan prachalit kala ke bhinn-bhinn roopon men dikhaee deti hai. bharat ke har pradesh men kala ki apani ek vishesh shaili aur paddhati hai, jise "lok kala" ke nam se jana jata hai. lok kala ke alava bhi parnparagat kala ka ek any roop hai, jo alag-alag janajatiyon aur dehat ke logon men prachalit hai. ise "janajatiy kala" ke roop men vargikrit kiya gaya hai. bharat ki lok aur janajatiy kalaen bahut hi parnparik aur sadharan hone par bhi itani sajiv aur prabhavashali hain ki unase desh ki samriddh virasat ka anuman svat: ho jata hai.

apane parnparagat saundary bhav aur pramanikata ke karan bharatiy lok kala ki antarrashtriy bazar men snbhavana bahut prabal hai. bharat ki gramin lok chitrakari ke dizayan bahut hi sundar hain, jisamen dharmik aur adhyatmik chitron ko ubhara gaya hai. bharat ki sarvadhik prasiddh lok chitr kalaen hain- bihar ki 'madhubani chitrakari', odisha rajy ki 'patachitr', andhr pradesh ki 'nirmal chitrakari' aur isi tarah lok kala ke any roop hain. lok kala keval chitrakari tak hi simit nahin hai. isake any roop bhi hain, jaise ki mitti ke bartan, grih sajja, jevar, kapada dizayan adi. vastav men bharat ke kuchh pradeshon men bane mitti ke bartan to apane vishisht aur parnparagat saundary ke karan videshi paryatakon ke bich bahut hi lokapriy hain. isake alava bharat ke anchalik nrity, jaise ki pnjab ka bhangada, gujarat ka dandiya, asam ka bihoo nrity adi bhi, jo ki un pradeshon ki sanskritik virasat ko abhivyakt karate hain, bharatiy lok kala ke kshetr ke pramukh davedar hain. in lok nrityon ke madhyam se log har mauke, jaise ki nee ritu ka svagat, bachche ka janm, shadi, tyohar adi par apana ullas vyakt karate hain. bharat sarakar aur snsthaon ne kala ke un roopon ko badhava dene ka har snbhav prayas kiya hai, jo bharat ki sanskritik pahachan ka ek mahattvapoorn hissa hai.

kala ke utthan ke lie kiye ge bharat sarakar aur any sngathanon ke satat prayason ki vajah se hi lok kala ki bhanti janajatiy kala men paryapt roop se pragati huee hai. janajatiy kala samanyat: gramin ilakon men dekhi gee us srijanatmak oorja ko pratibimbit karati hai, jo janajatiy logon ko shilpakarita ke lie prerit karati hai. janajatiy kala kee roopon men maujood hai, jaise ki bhitti chitr, kabila nrity, kabila sngit adi. inhin men se ek hai "tnjaur kala", jisaki khoobasoorati ka jitana bakhan kiya jaye kam hai.

bharatiy sngit

sngit manaviy lay evn talabaddh abhivyakti hai. bharatiy sngit apani madhurata, layabaddhata tatha vividhata ke lie jana jata hai. vartaman bharatiy sngit ka jo roop drishtigat hota hai, vah adhunik yug ki prastuti nahin hai, balki yah bharatiy itihas ke prasambh ke sath hi juda hua hai. baidik kal men hi bharatiy sngit ke bij pad chuke the. samaved un vaidik richaon ka sngrah matr hai, jo gey hain. prachin kal se hi eeshvar aradhana hetu bhajanon ke prayog ki parampara rahi hai. yahan tak ki ygyadi ke avasar par bhi samoohagan hote the.

bharatiy sngit ki utpatti

bharatiy sngit ki utpatti vedon se mani jati hai. vadon ka mool mntr hai - 'Om' (oamh) . (oamh) shabd men tin akshar a, u tatha mh sammilit hain, jo kramashah brahma arthath srishtikarta, vishnu arthath jagath palak aur mahesh arthath snharak ki shaktiyon ke dyotak hain. in tinon aksharon ko rigved, samaved tatha yajurved se liya gaya hai. sngit ke sat svar shadaj (sa), rishabh (r), gandhar (ga) adi vastav men oon (oamh) ya onkar ke hi antavirbhag hain. sath hi svar tatha shabd ki utpatti bhi oon ke garbh se hi huee hai. mukh se uchcharit shabd hi sngit men nad ka roop dharan kar leta hai. is prakar 'oon' ko hi sngit ka jagath mana jata hai. isilie kaha jata hai ki jo sadhak 'oon' ki sadhana karane men samarth hota hai, vahi sngit ko yatharth roop men grahan kar sakata hai. yadi darshanik drishti se isaka goodharth nikala jay, to isaka tatparth yahi hai ki oon arthath sampoorn srishti ka ek ansh hamari atma men nihit hai aur sngit usi atma ki avaz hai, antah sngit ki utpatti hridayagat bhavon men hi mani jati hai.

bharatiy sngit ke roop

prachin kal men bharatiy sngit ke do roop prachalit hue-1. margi tatha 2. deshi. kalatar men margi sngit lupt hota gaya. sath hi deshi sngity do roopon men vikasit hua- (i) shastriy sngit tatha (ii) lok sngit. shastriy sngit shastron par adharit tatha vidvanon v kalakaron ke adhyayan v sadhana ka pratiphal tha. yah atynt niyamabaddh tatha shreshth sngit tha. doosari or lok sngit kal aur sthan ke anuroop prakriti ke svachchhand vatavaran men svabhavik roop se palata hua vikasit hota raha, atah yah adhik vividhatapoorn tatha halka-phulka v chittakarshak hai.

bharatiy sngit ke vividh ang

sngit se sambndhit kuchh moolabhoot tathyon ko janakar hi sngit ki barikiyon ko samajha ja sakata hai. dhvani, svar, lay, tal adi isake antargat ate hain.

pramukh vady yntr evn kalakar
vady vadak
sitar pndit ravishnkar, nikhil bainarji, vilayat khan, bnde hasan, shahid paravej, umashnkar mishr, buddhadity mukharji adi.
tabala alla rakkha khan, gudee maharaj, (pn. samata prasad) zakir husain, latif khan, kishan maharaj, fayyar khan, sukhavindar sinh adi.
bansuri pannalal ghosh, hari prasad chaurasiya, vi. kunjamani, en. nila, rajendr prasanna, rajendr kulakarni adi.
sarod amajad ali khan, ali akabar khan, alauddin khan, vishvajit ray chaudhari, zarin daroovala, buddhadev das gupta, mukesh sharma adi.
vayalin daau. en. rajan, vishnu govind jog, el. subrahmanyamh, sngita rajan, kunakkadi vaidyanathan, ti. en. krishnanh adi.
vina es. balachndran, kalyan krishn bhagavatar, badarooddin dagar, vi. doresvami ayngar adi.
shahanaee bismilla khan, dayashnkar jagannath, ali ahamad husain khan adi.
sntoor shivakumar sharma, bhajan sopari adi.
pakhavaj gopal das, ustad rahaman khan, chhatrapati sinh, thakur lakshman sinh adi.
rudravina asad ali khan, ustad sadik ali khan adi.
mridng paladhar raghu, thakur bhikam sinh, daau. jagadish sinh adi.

nrity kala

bharat men nrity ki anek shailiyan hain. bharatanatyam, odisi, kuchipudi, kathakali, manipuri, kathak adi parnparagat nrity shailiyan hain to bhngada, gidda, naga, bihoo adi lokaprachalit nrity hai. ye nrity shailiyan poore desh men vikhyat hai. gujarat ka garaba hariyana men bhi mncho ki shobha ko badhata hai aur pnjab ka bhngada dakshin bharat men bhi bade shauq se dekha jata hai !

bharat ke sngit ko vikasit karane men amir khusaro, tanasen, baijoo bavara jaise sngitakaron ka vishesh yogadan raha hai. aj bharat ke sngit-kshitij par bismilla khan‎, zakir husain, ravi shnkar saman roop se sammanit hain.

vividh nrity kala

nataraj birajoo maharaj bihoo nrity, asam odisi nrity, udisa kathakali nrity, keral ghumar nrity, rajasthan manipuri nrity, manipur bhangada nrity, pnjab garaba nrity, gujarat kuchi pudi nrity, andhr pradesh rasalila charakula nrity

bharatiy moortikala

any kalaon ke saman hi bharatiy moortikala bhi atyant prachin hai. yadyapi pashan kal men bhi manav apane pashan upakaranon ko kushalatapoorvak kat-chhantakar vishesh akar deta tha aur patthar ke tukade se phalak nikalate hetu 'dabav' takanik ya patakakar todane ki takanik ka istemal karane laga tha, parantu bharat men moortikala apane vastavik roop men hadappa sabhyata ke dauran hi astitv men aee. is sabhyata ki khudaee men anek moortiyan prapt huee hain jo lagabhag 4000 varsh poorv hi bharat men moorti nirman takanik ke vikas ka dyotak hain. bharatiy moorti kala ki pramukh shailiyan is prakar hain-

  1. sindhu ghati sabhyata ki moorti kala
  2. maury moortikala
  3. mauryottar moortikala
  4. gandhar kala ki moortiyan
  5. mathura kala ki moortiyan
  6. guptakal ki moortikala
  7. bakatak ki moortikala
  8. madhyakal ki bharatiy moortikala
  9. chol moortikala
  10. adhunik moortikal
bodhisatv maitrey

bharat ke rajyon ki kala

asam
  • kala aur hastashilp se sambndhit kutir udyogon ke lie asam sadaiv vikhyat raha hai.
  • hathakaragha, resham, bent aur bans ki vastuen, galichon ki bunaee, kashth shilp, pital adi dhatuon ke shilp pramukh kutir udyog hain.
tnjaur

tnjaur ki kala lok kala aur kahani-kisse sunane ki vismrit kala se judi hai. tnjaur ki prasiddh chitrakari parnparik kala ka hi roop hai. is kala ne bharat ko vishv mnch par prasiddhi dilane men mahati bhoomika nibhaee hai. dharmikata se otaprot aur pauranik vrittant hi isake mukhy vishay rahe hain. kala aur shilp donon ka hi ek achchha mishrit roop tnjaur ki chitrakari men bhi dikhaee deta hai. chitrakari men hindoo devi-devataon ko hi mukhy vishay banaya gaya hai. tasviren ek vilakshan roop men snjiv pratit hoti hain.

gujarat

gujarat ki vastukala shaili apani poornata aur alnkarikata ke lie vikhyat hai, jo somanath, dvaraka, modhera, than, ghumali, giranar jaise mndiron aur smarakon men snrakshit hai. muslim shasan ke dauran ek alag hi tariqe ki bharatiy-islami shaili vikasit huee. gujarat apani kala v shilp ki vastuon ke lie bhi prasiddh hai. inamen jamanagar ki bandhani (bndhaee aur rngaee ki takanik), patan ka utkrisht reshami vastr patola, idar ke khilaune, palanapur ka itr konodar ka hastashilp ka kam aur ahamadabad v soorat ke laghu mndiron ka kashthashilp tatha pauranik moortiyan shamil hain.

gova
  • gova rajh‍y ko kala evn snsh‍kriti nideshalay dvara aeeeso 9001-2000 pramanapatr diya gaya hai.
  • gova men tait akadami ki sh‍thapana ki gee hai.
tamilanadu

bharat ki ek pramukh shastriy nrity shaili bharatanatyam aur karnatak sngit, donon ka rajy men vyapak prachalan hai. yadyapi chitrakala evn moortikala kam vikasit hai, phir bhi yahan patthar evn kanse ki moortiyan banane ki kala ki shiksha ke lie vidyalay hain. tamil sahity ne tezi se laghu kathaon v upanyason ke pashchimi sahityik svaroop ko apanaya hai. subrahamanyam si. bharati (1882-1921) parnparik tamil kavita ko adhunik banane vale prarnbhik kaviyon men ek the. 1940 ke dashak se chalachitr jan manornjan ka sarvadhik lokapriy madhyam bana hua. yahan chalate-phirate aur sthayi, donon prakar ke sinemaghar hain. bhavanatmak aur bhavy filmon, jinamen prayah halka-phulka sngit aur nrity hota hai, ka nirman adhikatar chennee ke as-pas sthit stoodiyo men hota hai.

dilli

vastukala
dilli ke vaividhyapoorn itihas ne virasat men ise samriddh vastukala di hai. shahar ke sabase prachin bhavan saltanat kal ke hain aur apani snrachana v alnkaran men bhinnata lie hue hain. prakritik rupaknnon, sarpakar belon aur quran ke aksharon ke ghumav men hindoo rajapoot karigaron ka prabhav spasht nazar ata hai. madhy eshiya se ae kuchh karigar kavi aur vastukala ki seljuk shaili ki visheshataen meharab ki nichali kor par kamal- kaliyon ki pnkti, utkirn alnkaran aur bari-bari se adi aur khadi eeton ki chinaee hai. khilazi shasan kal tak islami vastukala men prayog tatha sudhar ka daur samapt ho chuka tha aur islami vastukala men ek vishesh paddhati aur upashaili sthapit ho chuki thi jise pakhtoon shaili ke nam se jana jata hai. is shaili ki apani lakshanik visheshataen hain. jaise ghode ke nal ki akriti vali meharaben, jalidar khidakiyan, alnkrit kinare bel booton ka kam (barik vistrit roop rekhaon men) aur preranadayi, adhyatmik shabdankan bahar ki or adhikanshat: lal pattharon ka tatha bhitar safed sngamaramar ka upayog milata hai.

pashchim bngal

sngit
paramparik sngit bhakti aur sanskritik giton ke roop men hai. rabindranath thakur dvara likhit evn snyojit ‘rabindr sngit’, jise vishuddh bharatiy shastriy sngit ke sath-sath paramparik lokagiton men piroya gaya hai, bngaliyon ke sanskritik jivan par sashakt prabhav chhodata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh