भारतीय राष्ट्रीय काँग्रेस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg kangres ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- kangres (bahuvikalpi)
bharatiy rashtriy kangres
bharatiy rashtriy kangres ka dhvaj
poora nam bharatiy rashtriy kangres
snkshep nam kangres (INC)
gathan 28 disambar, 1885
snsthapak e.o. hyoom
pratham adhyaksh vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji
vartaman adhyaksh soniya gandhi
mukhyalay 24, akabar rod, nee dilli
vicharadhara lokalubhavanavad, alpasnkhyak tushtikaran, janatantrik samajavad, samajik lokatntr
chunav chihn hath ka pnja
samachar patr kangres sndesh
gathabndhan snyukt pragatishil gathabndhan (snprag)
yuva sngathan indiyan yooth kangres
mahila sngathan mahila kangres
shramik sngathan indiyan neshanal tred yooniyan kangres
vidyarthi sngathan neshanal stoodent yooniyan aauph indiya
snbndhit lekh dadabhaee nauroji, firojashah mehata, surendranath banarji, motilal neharoo, bal gngadhar tilak
rng asamani
any janakari 'bharatiy rashtriy sngh' (kangres ki poorvagami snstha) ki sthapana ka vichar sarvapratham laaurd dafarin ke dimag men aya tha. 1916 ee. men lala lajapat ray ne 'yng indiya' men ek lekh men likha, 'kangres laaurd dafarin ke dimag ki upaj hai.'
snsad men siton ki snkhya
lokasabha 44/543
rajyasabha 72/245
adhikarik vebasait bharatiy rashtriy kangres
adyatan‎

bharatiy rashtriy kangres bharat ka sabase prachin rajanitik dal hai. is dal ki vartaman adhyaksh soniya gandhi hai. kangres dal ka yuva sngathan 'bharatiy yuva kangres' hai. 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ki sthapana 28 disambar, 1885 ee. men dopahar barah baje bambee men 'gokuladas tejapal snskrit kaaulej' ke bhavan men ki gee thi. isake snsthapak 'e.o. hyoom' the aur pratham adhyaksh vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji banaye ge the. 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' men kul 72 sadasy the, jinamen mahattvapoorn the- dadabhaee nauroji, firojashah mehata, dinasha edalaji vacha, kashinatha tailng, vi. raghavachary, en.ji. chandravarakar, es.subramanyam adi. isi sammelan men dadabhaee nauroji ke sujhav par 'bharatiy rashtriy sngh' ka nam badalakar 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' rakh diya gaya tha. 'bharatiy rashtriy sngh' (kangres ki poorvagami snstha) ki sthapana ka vichar sarvapratham laaurd dafarin ke dimag men aya tha. kangres ke pratham adhiveshan men surendranath banarji ne hissa nahin liya. 1916 ee. men lala lajapat ray ne 'yng indiya' men ek lekh men likha, 'kangres laaurd dafarin ke dimag ki upaj hai.'

uddeshy

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke mahattvapoorn uddeshyon men kuchh nimnalikhit the-

  • deshahit ki disha men prayatnashil bharatiyon men paraspar sampark evn mitrata ko protsahan dena.
  • desh ke andar dharm, vnsh evn prant sambandhi vivadon ko khatm kar rashtriy ekata ki bhavana ko protsahit karana.
  • shikshit varg ki poorn sahamati se mahattvapoorn evn avashyak samajik vishayon par vichar vimarsh karana.
  • yah nishchit karana ki ane vale varshon men bharatiy jan-kalyan ke lie kis disha men kis adhar par kary kiya jay.

itihas

'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' namak sngathan ka arnbh bharat ke angrezi padhe-likhe logon dvara kiya gaya, aur yah ashchary ki bat nahin hai ki isake pahale bad ke kuchh aise adhyaksh bhi huye, jinhonne vilayat men apani shiksha prapt ki thi. pahale tin adhyaksh, vyomesh chandr bainarji, dada bhaee nauroji tatha badaruddin taiyabaji, briten se hi bairistari padhakar aye the. jaaurj yul tatha sar viliyam baidaravarn to angrez hi the aur yahi bat unake kuchh any anuyayiyon, jaise ki elaphard beb tatha sar henari katan ke bare men bhi kahi ja sakati hai. unhonne unnisavin shatabdi ke us daur men shiksha prapt ki, jabaki inglaind men lokatantrik moolyon tatha svadhinata ka bolabala tha. kangres ke arnbhik netaon ka briten ke sudharavadi (redikal) tatha udaravadi (libaral) netaon men poora vishvas tha. bharatiy kangres ke snsthapak bhi ek angrez hi the, jo 15 varshon tak kangres ke mahasachiv rahe. ai. o. hyoom british snskriti ki hi den the. isalie kangres ka arnbh se hi prayas raha ki briten ke janamat ko prabhavit karane vale netaon se sada sampark banaye rakha jaye, taki bharatiy logon ke hit ke lie apekshit sudhar kar unhen unake rajanitik adhikar dilavane men sahayata mil sake. yahan tak ki vah neta, jinhonne inglaind men shiksha nahin paee thi, unaki bhi manyata thi ki angrez lokatntr ko bahut chahate hain.

madan mohan malaviy ne apane pahale bhashan men, jo ki unhonne 1886 ee. men kalakatta men huye doosare kangres adhiveshan men diya tha, kaha- "pratinidhik snsthaon ke bina angrez se bhala kya hoga. pratinidhik snsthan briten ka utana hi anivary ang hai, jitana ki usaki bhasha tatha sahity." kangres ka chautha adhiveshan ilahabad men jaaurj yul ki adhyakshata men hua, jisamen mang ki gee ki ek snsadiy samiti ki niyukti ki jaye, jo kangres ki 1858 ee. ki udghoshana ko lagoo karane tatha rajanitik sudhar svikar karane ki mangon par vichar kare. yah nirnay bhi kiya gaya ki snsad ke sadasy braidala se anurodh kiya jaye ki vah isake lie unhen apana samarthan den.

charls braidala ne 1889 ee. men 'bambee kangres adhiveshan' men bhag liya tatha sar viliyam bedaravarn ko adhyaksh chuna gaya. is adhiveshan men braidala ko ek manapatr bhent kiya gaya, jise sar viliyam redaravarn ne padha. isi adhiveshan men vah snkalp svikar kiya gaya, jisamen kaha gaya hai, "ki yah adhiveshan sar viliyam bedaravarn, bart tatha maisarj dablyoo es. keni, em. pi., dablyoo. es. braeet maikalarin em.pi., je.ee. iliyas em.pi., dadabhaee nauroji tatha jaaurj yul ki samiti, jisake pas apani snstha badhane ki shakti hogi, ke roop men niyukti ki pushti karata hai tatha yah samiti neshanal kangres ejensi ke kary snchalan tatha niyntran ke bare men disha-nirdesh deti rahegi tatha un mahanubhavon ka dhanyavad karati hai tatha unake sath hi dablyoo. digbe, si.aee.si. sachiv ka bharat ko di jane vali seva ke lie dhanyavad karati hai."

soniya gandhi
vartaman adhyaksh

is snkalp se pata chalata hai ki samiti kangres ke panchave adhiveshan se pahale bhi karyarat rahi hogi aur yah 20vin shatabdi ke doosare dashak tak karyarat rahi, jab tak ki mahatma gandhi, lala lajapat ray ki adhyakshata men kalakatta men 1920 ee. ke vishesh adhiveshan men apana asahayog andolan ka snkap parit karavane men saphal nahin ho gaye. yah samiti itani sashakt hoti chali gee ki dadabhaee nauroji ne, 1906 ee. men kalakatta men hone vale apane adhyakshiy bhashan men is tathy ka ullekh karate huye kaha ki "bharatiy snsadiy kameti ke sadasyon ki snkhya 200 tak pahunch gee hai." lebar sadasyon, ayarish neshanal sadasyon tatha redikal sadasyon ki hamare sath poorn sahanubhooti hai. ham ise bharat ka ek sashakt ang banana chahate hain. hamane dekha hai ki sabhi dalon ke log chahe vah lebar parti ke haren sar chhemarekretik parti ke hon, british neshanal parti ke, ya phir ugr-sudharavadi (redikal) ya udarabadi (libaral) sabhi bharat ke mamalon men gahari dilachaspi lete hain."[1]

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana se poorv sthapit kuchh rajanitik snsthayen
snstha sthapana varsh sthan snsthapak/sadasy uddeshy
hindoo kaaulej 1817 ee. kalakatta pashchim ke udaravadi darshan ka gyan prapt karana
sadharan gyan sabha 1838 ee. pashchim bngal sarakari vibhagon men ho rahe bhrashtachar, samachar-patron ki svatantrata adi ke bare men vichar vimarsh kar samasya ka hal karana.
bngal zamindar sabha (laind holdars sosaiti) 1838 ee. kalakatta dvaraka nath taigor ke prayason se jamindaron ke hiton ki dekhabhal karana. pashchim bngal, bihar aur udisa ke jamindaron ki yah snstha adhunik bharat ki pahali sarvajanik evn rajanitik snstha thi.
bngal british esosieshan 1843 ee. sarvajanik hiton ki raksha karana
british indiyan esosieshan 28 aktoobar, 1851 kalakatta rajendr lal mitr, radhakant dev (adhyaksh), devendr nath taigor (mahasachiv), harishchandr mukharji adi. bharat ke lie rajanitik adhikaron ki mang karana. yah snstha laind holdars sositi evn bngal british esosieshan ke apas men vilay ke bad bani. bharat ke rajanitik adhikaron ki mang karane vali yah pratham snstha thi.
indiyan esosieshan 26 julaee, 1876 ilbart hal, kalakatta surendr nath banarji, anand mohan bos shikshit madhyam varg ka pratinidhitv karana evn sarvajanik karyo men unaki dilachaspi paida karana. kangres ke poorvavarti sngathanon men yah sabase mahattvapoorn sngathan tha. is sngathan ne 1876 mennagarik seva pariksha ki ayu 21 varsh se ghatakar 19 varsh karane par british bharat sarakar ke khilaf ek bada andolan chalaya. pro. hiralal ke anusar surendr nath banarji ka rajanitik jivan ‘indiyan sivil andolan’ se arambh hua jo ki ‘indiyan neshanal kangres’ jaise adhik vyapak rajanitik andolan ka agrasar bana.
bambee presidensi esosieshan 1885 mumbee phirojashah mehata, badaruddin taiyabaji, ke.ti. tailng adi. bharat men sivil sarvis pariksha ko ayojit karana evn sarakari padon par bharatiyon ki niyukti karana adi. bambee presidensi esosieshan ko pahale ‘bambe esosieshan’ ke nam se jana jata tha. isaki sthapana 1852 ee. men ki gee thi.
eest indiya esosieshan 1866 ee. lndan dada bhaee nauroji tatkalin bharatiy samasyaon par vichar karana tatha british janamat ko prabhavit karana.
madras netiv esosieshan 1852 madras is snstha ne 1857 ee. ke vidrohon ki ninda ki. atah ise janasamarthan nahin prapt ho saka, jisase shighr hi isaka astitv samapt ho gaya.
madras mahajan sabha mee, 1884 madras sthaniy sngathanon v snsthaon ke karyo ko samanvit karana.
poona sarvajanik sabha 1876 ee. pune mahadev govind ranade janata men rajanitik chetana ka jagaran karana evn maharashtr men samaj sudhar karana adi.
indiya lig 1875 shishir kumar ghosh bharatiy janamanas men rashtrayata ki bhavana ko phailana vn unhen rajanitik shiksha pradan karana adi.

1838 men kalakatta men sthapit laind holdars sosaiti bharat ki pratham rajanitik snstha thi jo dvarakanath taigor ke prayason se sthapit huee. snstha ka uddeshy jamindaron ke hiton ki raksha karana tha. snstha ke any mukhy neta prasann kumar thakur, raja radhakant dev adi the.

bngal british esosieshan

isaki sthapana kalakatta men huee thi. isaki sthapana men dvarakanath taigor ki bhoomika agrani thi. is snstha ke sadasy angrez bhi the. angrez jarj thampasan ne snstha ki adhyakshata ki thi.

garam dal aur naram dal

bharat ki azadi se poorv 1941 tak kangres parti thodi ubhar chuki thi. lekin vah do khemon men vibhajit ho gee. jisamen ek kheme ke samarthak bal gngadhar tilak the aur dusare kheme men moti lal neharoo the. matabhed tha sarakar banane ko lekar. moti lal neharoo chahate the ki svatntr bharat ki sarakar angrejon ke sath koee snyojak sarakar bane. jabaki gngadhar tilak kahate the ki angrezon ke sath milakar sarakar banana to bharat ke logon ko dhokha dena hai. is matabhed ke karan lokamany tilak kangres se nikal ge aur unhonne garam dal banaya. aur is tarah kangres ke do hisse ho ge ek naram dal aur ek garam dal. garam dal ke neta the lokamany tilak jaise krantikari. ve har jagah vande mataram gaya karate the. aur naram dal ke neta the moti lal neharoo.[2] lekin naram dal vale jyadatar angrezon ke sath rahate the. unake sath rahana, unako sunana, unaki baithakon men shamil hona. har samay angrezon se samajhaute men rahate the. vande mataram se angrezon ko bahut chidh hoti thi. naram dal vale garam dal ko chidhane ke lie 1911 men likha gaya git "jan gan man" gaya karate the aur garam dal vale "vande mataram". naram dal vale angrezon ke samarthak the aur angrezon ko ye git pasnd nahin tha to angrezon ke kahane par naram dal valon ne us samay ek hava uda di ki musalamanon ko vande mataram nahin gana chahie kyon ki isamen butaparasti (moorti pooja) hai. musalaman moorti pooja ke kattar virodhi hai. us samay muslim lig bhi ban gee thi jisake pramukh mohammad ali jinna the.[3] inhen bhi dekhen: garam dal evn naram dal

sthapana divas

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ka dhvaj, 1931

bharatiyon ke sabase bade is rajanitik sngathan ki sthapana 28 disambar, 1885 ee. ko ki gayi. isaka pahala adhiveshan bambee men kalakatta haeekort ke bairestar umeshachandr banarji ki adhyakshata men hua. kaha jata hai ki vaisaray laaurd dafarin (1884-88 ee.) ne kangres ki sthapana ka apratyaksh riti se samarthan kiya. yah sahi hai ki ek avakash prapt angrez adhikari enal akteviyan hyoom kangres ka janmadata tha aur 1912 ee. men usaki mrityu ho jane par kangres ne use apana 'janmadata aur snsthapak' ghoshit kiya tha. gokhale ke anusar 1885 ee. men hyoom ke siva aur koee vyakti kangres ki sthapana nahin kar sakata tha. parantu vastusthiti yah pratit hoti hai, jaisa ki si.vaee. chintamani ka mat hai, rajanitik uddeshyon se rashtriy sammelan ka vichar kee vyaktiyon ke man men utha tha aur vah 1885 ee. men charitarth hua.

prastav

sammelan men laye gaye kul 9 prastavon ke dvara sngathan ne apani mange sarakar ke sammukh prastut ki. ye prastav nimnalikhit the-

  1. bharatiy shasan vidhan ki janch ke lie ek 'rayal kamishan' ko niyukt kiya jay.
  2. inglaid men karyarat 'indiya kaunsil' ko samapt kiya jay.
  3. prantiy tatha kendriy vyavasthapika ka vistar kiya jay.
  4. 'indiyan sivil sarvis' (bharatiy prashasanik seva) pariksha ka ayojan bharat evn inglaind donon sthanon par kiya jay.
  5. is pariksha ki umr sima adhikatam 19 se badhakar 23 varsh ki jay.
  6. sainy vyay men katauti ki jay.
  7. barma, jis par adhikar kar lene ki alochana ki gee thi, ko alag kiya jay.
  8. samast prastavon ko sabhi pradeshon ki sabhi rajanitik snsthaon ko bheja jay, jisase ve inake kriyanvayan ki mang kar saken.
  9. kangres ka agala sammalen kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men bulaya jay.

kangres ki sthapana ka sach

28 disambar, 1885 ee. ko bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana avakash prapt aee.si.es. adhikari skaautalaind nivasi ailan oktoviyan hyoom (e.o. hyoom) ne 'thiyosofikal sosaiti' ke matr 72 rajanitik karyakartaon ke sahayog se ki thi. yah akhil bharatiy star par rashtravad ki pahali suniyojit abhivyakti thi. akhir in 72 logo ne kangres ki sthapana kyon ki aur isake lie yahi samay kyon chuna? yah prashn ke sath ek mithak arase se juda hai, aur vah mithak apane ap men kafi mazabooti rakhata hai. 'sefti valt' (suraksha valv) ka yah mithak pichhali kee pidhiyon se vidyarthiyon evn rajanitik karyakartaon ke jehan men ghutti men pilaya ja raha hai. lekin jab itihas ki gaharaeeyon ko jhankate hain, to pata chalega ki is mithak men utana dam nahin hai, jitana ki amataur par isake bare men mana jata hai. mithak yah hai ki e.o. hyoom aur unake 72 sathiyon ne angrez sarakar ke ishare par hi bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana ki thi. us samay ke maujooda vaisaray laaurd dafarin ke nirdesh, margadarshan aur salah par hi hayoom ne is sngathan ko janm diya tha, taki 1857 ki kranti ki viphalata ke bad bharatiy janata men panapate asntosh ko hinsa ke jvalamukhi ke roop men bahalane aur phootane se roka ja sake, aur asatosh ki vashp’ ko saumy, surakshit, shantipoorn aur snvaidhanik vikas ya ‘saiphti valv’ upalabdh karaya ja saken. ‘yng indiya’ men 1961 prakashit apane lekh men garamapathi neta lalalajapat ray ne ‘suraksha valv’ ki is parikalpana ka istemal kangres ki naramapnthi paksh par prahar karane ke liye kiya tha. is par lnmbi charcha karate hue lala ji ne apane lekh men likha tha ki "kangres laaurd dafarin ke dimag ki upaj hai." isake bad apani bat age badhate hue unhonne likha tha ki "kangres ki sthapana ka uddeshy rajanitik azadi hasil karane se kahi zyada yah tha ki us samay british samrajy par asann khataro se use bachaya ja saken." yahi nahin udaravadi si. eph. endrooj aur giraja mukharji ne bhi 1938 ee. men prakashit ‘bharat men kangres ka uday aur vikas men surakshata balb’ ki bat poori tarah svikar ki thi.

1939 ee. men 'rashtriy svaynsevak sngh' ke snchalak em.es. golavalakar ne bhi kangres ki dharm-nirapekshata ke karan use gair-rashtravadi thaharane ke lie ‘suraksha valv’ ki is parikalpana ka istemal kiya tha. unhonne apane parache ‘vi’ (ham) men kaha tha ki hindoo rashtriy chetana ko un logo ne tabah kar diya, jo rashtravadi hone ka dava karate hain.' golavalakar ke anusar, hyoom kaautarn aur vedarabarn dvara 1885 ee. men tay ki gee nitiyan hi zimmedar thin- in logo ne us samay ubal rahe rashtravad ke khilaf suraksha valv ke taur par kangres ki sthapana ki thi.[4]

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke adhiveshan aur unake adhh‍yaksh

kr.sn. adhiveshan sh‍than adhh‍yaksh
1 1885 (28 disamh‍bar) bambee vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji
2 1886 (28 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta dadabhaee nauroji
3 1887 (27-28 disamh‍bar) madras saiyad badaruddin taiyabaji
4 1888 (28-29 disamh‍bar) ilahabad jaaurj yool
5 1889 (27-28 disamh‍bar) bambee sar viliyam vaidarabarn
6 1890 (28-29 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta phirojashah mehata
7 1891 (26-27 disamh‍bar) nagapur ananh‍d charloo
8 1892 (28-29 disamh‍bar) ilahabad vh‍yomesh chanh‍dr banarji
9 1893 (27-28 disamh‍bar) lahaur dadabhaee nauroji
10 1894 (27-28 disamh‍bar) madras alh‍phred veb
11 1895 (28-29 disamh‍bar) poona surendr nath banarji
12 1896 ()27-28 disamh‍bar kalakath‍ta em.e.sayani
13 1897 (28-29 disamh‍bar) amaravati em.si.shnkaran
14 1898 (27-28 disamh‍bar) madras annd mohan bos
15 1899 (27-28 disamh‍bar) lakhanoo ramesh chndr datt
16 1900 (27-28 disamh‍bar) lahaur en.ji.chanh‍dravarakar
17 1901 (27-28 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta dinasha ee.vacha
18 1902 (27-28 disamh‍bar) ahamadabad surenh‍dranath banarji
19 1903 (28-30 disamh‍bar) madras lal mohan ghosh
20 1904 (26-28 disamh‍bar) bamh‍bee sar henari kaautan
21 1905 (27-30 disamh‍bar) banaras gopalakrishn gokhale
22 1906 (26-29 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta dadabhaee nauroji
23 1907 (26-27 disamh‍bar) soorat rasabihari ghosh
24 1908 (29-30 disamh‍bar) madras rasabihari ghosh
25 1909 (27-29 disamh‍bar) lahaur madanamohan malaviy
26 1910 (28-29 disamh‍bar) ilahabad viliyam vedarabarn
27 1911 (26-28 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta bishan narayan dhar
28 1912 (27-28 disamh‍bar) bankipur ar.en.madhukar
29 1913 (26-28 disamh‍bar) karachi nabab saiyad muhamh‍mad
30 1914 (28-30 disamh‍bar) madras bhoopenh‍dranath basu
31 1915 (27-30 disamh‍bar) bamh‍bee es.pi.sinh‍ha
32 1916 (26-30 disamh‍bar) lakhanoo ambika charan majoomadar
33 1917 (28-29 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta eni besenh‍t
34 1918 (26-31 disamh‍bar) dilli madanamohan malaviy
35 1919 (27-28 disamh‍bar) amritasar motilal neharoo
36 1920 (26-31 disamh‍bar) nagapur si.vijayaraghavachary
37 1921 (27-28 disamh‍bar) ahamadabad si.ar.das
38 1922 (26-31 disamh‍bar) gaya si.ar.das
39 1923 (28-31 disamh‍bar) kakinada maulana muhamh‍mad ali
40 1924 (26-27 disamh‍bar) belaganv mahatma gandhi
41 1925 (26-28 disamh‍bar) kanapur sarojini nayadoo
42 1926 (26-28 disamh‍bar) guvahati es.shrinivas ayngar
43 1927 (26-27 disamh‍bar) madras em.e.ansari
44 1928 (28-31 disamh‍bar) kalakath‍ta motilal neharoo
45 1929 (29-31 disamh‍bar) lahaur javaharalal neharoo
46 1931 (29 march) karanchi valh‍labhabhaee patel
47 1932 (24 aprail) dilli amrit ranachhod das seth
48 1933 (1 aprail) kalakath‍ta shrimati en.sen guph‍ta
49 1934 (26-28 akh‍toobar) bamh‍bee daau rajenh‍dr prasad
50 1936 (12-14 disamh‍bar) lakhanoo javaharalal neharoo
51 1937 (27-28 disamh‍bar) phaijapur javaharalal neharoo
52 1938 (19-21 pharavari) haripura subhash chndr bos
53 1939 (10 march) tripura subhash chndr bos
54 1940 (17-19 march) ramagadh maulana abul kalam azad
55 1946 (23 navamh‍bar) merath je.bi.kripalani
56 1947 dilli daau rajenh‍dr prasad
57 1948 (18-19 disamh‍bar) jayapur daau pattabhi sitaramaiya


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adhar
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poornata
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy rashtriy kangres ka itihas (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatiy rashtriy kangres. abhigaman tithi: 30 disnbar, 2010.
  2. gandhiji us samay tak kangres ki ajivan sadasyata se istipha de chuke the, vo kisi taraph nahin the, lekin gandhi ji donon paksh ke lie adaraniy the kyonki gandhi ji desh ke logon ke adaraniy the
  3. vande mataram Vs jan gan man (hindi) ghar baithe samaj seva ke tarike (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 11 disambar, 2012.
  4. kangres ki sthapana ka sach (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) pravakta daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 30 disnbar, 2010.

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