भारतीय संस्कृति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

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bharatiy snskriti
bharatiy snskriti ke vibhinn roop
vivaran bharatiy snskriti bharat ke vistrit itihas, sahity, vilakshan bhoogol, vibhinn dharmon tatha unaki paramparaon ka sammishran hai. bharatiy snskriti ko 'dev snskriti' kahakar bhi sammanit kiya gaya hai.
mukhy bhashaen asamiya, bangla, gujarati, hindi, kannad, kashmiri, marathi, malayalam, udiya, pnjabi, snskrit, tamil, telugu, urdoo, sindhi, konkani, manipuri, bodo, dogari, maithili, snthali adi
sahity-darshan ved, upanishad, puran, gita, jain sahity, bauddh sahity, vaisheshik darshan, sankhy darshan, darshan shastr, jain darshan, bauddh darshan adi
dharm hindoo, islam, jain, bauddh, parasi, sikkh dharm, eesaee
kala sthapaty kala, moortikala, chitrakala, nrityakala, bharatiy sngit (gayan, vadan)
pratik Om, tulasi, gay, svastik, pipal, soory, dipak, tilak, shivaling, kamal, shnkh adi
mukhy tyohar dipavali, rakshabndhan, holi, eed-ul-fitar, lohadi, pongal, vaishakhi, vishu, bihoo
utsav aur mele kumbh mela, yam dvitiya, guru poornima, jagannath rathayatra, khajuraho nrity mahotsav, ambuvasi mela, pushkar mela adi
khan-pan bharatiy bhojan (niramish evn samish)
mukhy khel kabaddi, shatarnj, haauki, kriket, kho-kho, gulli dnda, nishanebazi, kushti, mukkebazi adi

bharat ke bahu-sansh‍kritik bhanh‍dar aur vishh‍vavikhh‍yat virasat ke satat anush‍marak ke roop men bharatiy itihas ke tin hazar se adhik varsh ki janakari aur anek sabhh‍yataon ke vishay men bataya gaya hai. bharat ke nivasi aur unaki jivan shailiyan, unake nrith‍y aur sngit shailiyan, kala aur hash‍takala jaise anh‍y anek vidhaen bharatiy snsh‍kriti aur virasat ke vibhinh‍n varnon ko prastut karati hain, jo desh ki rashtriyata ka sachh‍cha chitr prash‍tut karate hain. is khanh‍d men un sabhi tath‍von ko shamil kiya gaya hai jo bharat ki snsh‍kriti aur virasat ke pratik hain. bharat ki snskriti kee chizon ko mila-julakar banati hai jisamen bharat ka lamba itihas, vilakshan bhoogol aur sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ke dauran bani aur age chalakar vaidik yug men vikasit huee, bauddh dharm evn svarn yug ki shuruat aur usake astagaman ke sath phali-phooli apani khud ki prachin virasat shamil hain. isake sath hi padosi deshon ke rivaz, paramparaon aur vicharon ka bhi isamen samavesh hai. bharatiy snskriti vishv ki pradhan snskriti hai, yah koee garvokti nahin, balki vastavikata hai. hazaron varshon se bharat ki sanskritik prathaon, bhashaon, riti-rivazon adi men vividhata bani rahi hai jo ki aj bhi vidyaman hai aur yahi anekata men ekata bharatiy snskriti ki mahanh visheshata hai.

800 ee. se 1200 ee. ka kal arthik aur samajik jivan tatha dharm ke lie upayukt hai. arthik vyavastha, samaj, dharmik vishvas tatha manav vichar rajaniti se kahin kam parivartanashil hai. isilie aisi kee visheshataen jo nauvin shatabdi ke poorv payi jati thin, abhi bhi zari thin. par sath hi kuchh aisi bhi baten thin, jisase is kal ko pahale ke yug se bhinn mana jata hai. samanyatah is aitihasik kal men ne tatvon ke sath purane tattv bhi vidyaman rahate hain, par parivartan ki dishaen bhinn rahati hain.

vanijy aur vyapar

uttar kal men yah kal samanyatah jadata tatha hras ka kal mana jata hai. isaka mukhy karan yah tha ki satavin shatabdi aur dasavin shatabdi ke bich vanijy aur vyapar men gatirodh a gaya tha. isake parinamasvaroop is kshetr men nagaron tatha nagarik jivan ka hras hua. vanijy aur vyapar men gatirodh ka mukhy karan pashchim men roman samrajy ka patan tha. jisake sath bharat ka bade paimane par tatha munafe ka vyapar hota tha. bharat men kabhi bhi badi matra men sone aur chandi ke khanan ka kam nahin hua. sona aur chandi jisake lie bharat vikhyat tha, vah bharat ke labhakari vyapar ke karan tha kyonki munafe ke roop men yahan sona aur chandi ate the. islam ke uday se bhi, jisase sasanid (eerani) jaise prachin samrajyon ka patan ho gaya, bharat ke vyapar aur vishesh kar zamin ke raste hone vale vyapar par bahut asar pada. parinamasvaroop uttari bharat men athavin aur dasavin shatabdi ke bich nee svarn mudraon ki bahut kami ho gee. pashchim eshiya tatha uttari aphrika men vistrit aur shaktishali arab samrajy men aise kee kshetr shamil the jinamen badi matra men khanon se svarn nikala jata tha. arab svayn bhi samudr premi vyakti the. bharatiy kapadon, masalon tatha loban ke lie amir arab shasakon ki mang ke karan bharat aur dakshin-poorv eshiya ke dvipon ko masalon ke dvip ke nam se jana jata tha. nauvin aur dasavin shatabdi ke bich kee arab yatri pashchimi tat ke nagaron men ae aur unhonne desh ki tatkalin sthiti ka vivaran kiya hai. dasavin shatabdi ke bad uttar bharat men videsh vyapar aur vanijy men dhire-dhire phir vriddhi huee. vyapar ke is punarutthan se sabase adhik labh malava aur gujarat ko pahuncha. gujarat men chnpaner aur ankileshvar jaise kee nagaron ki ninv isi kal men padi. un dinon bharat ki janasnkhya das karod se bhi kam thi, arthath aj ki tulana men, chhate hisse se bhi kam thi. desh ka ek bada bhag jngalon se dhaka tha jinamen jngali pashuon ke alava aise qabile the jo rahagiron ko loot lete the. nadiyon par pul nahin the aur barasat ke mausam men sadaken bahut kharab ho jati thin. in karano se un dinon yatra, chahe vyapar ho ya phir shauq ke lie, kabhi bhi khatare se khali nahin thi. suraksha ke dhyan se vyapari tatha any log karavon men chalate the jisaki suraksha unake apane sainik karate the. isake bavajood kabhi-kabhi sahasi lutere unhen loot lete the.
bachche ke sath mahila, mon, nagalaind

upajatiyon ka roop

us samay ki kahaniyon ki kitabon men yatra ke khataron ka bada rochak varnan milata hai. ganvon men jivan aur sampatti ki asuraksha se yatra aur bhi kathin thi aur is karan bhi vanijy aur vyapar ka hras hua. isase ek naye samaj ka uday hua jisamen gramin kshetr arthik drishti se adhik atm-nirbhar hote ge. kuchh log samaj ke is vikas ko samntavad ke vikas ke sath jodate hain. antarik vyapar ke hras se uttar bharat men vyapar sngh, jinhen shreni aur sngh kaha jata tha, bhi kamazor pade. in vyapar snghon men adhikatar vibhinn jati ke log the par shreniyon ke acharan ke apane niyam the jo isake sabhi sadasyon ko manane padate the. ve paison ke len-den tatha dan prapt karane ka bhi adhikar rakhate the. vanijy aur vyapar ke hras ke sath-sath in snghon ka mahattv bhi kam ho gaya. is kal men in snghon dvara dan prapt karane ki bahut kam charcha upalabdh hai. kalantar men kuchh purani shreniyon ne upajatiyon ka roop dharan kar liya, udaharanarth - das, vaishyon ki ek upajati ban gaya. vyapari varg adhikatar jain dharm ke samarthak the, isalie unake sath jain dharm bhi kamazor pad gaya.

vanijy aur vyapar ke hras ki jhalak is kal ki vicharadhara men bhi milati hai. is kal men rachit kuchh dharmashastron ne videsh yatra ko nishiddh mana hai. unake anusar us jagah nahin jana chahie jahan munj ghas nahin ugati ho aur jahan kale hiran vicharan nahin karate hon. kahane ka tatpary yah hai ki bharat ke bahar ki yatra nahin karani chahie. inake anusar namakin samudr ki yatra karane se adami dooshit ho jata hai. yah avashy tha ki in pratibandhon ko sabhi poori tarah nahin manate the. bharatiy vyapariyon, darshanikon, chikitsashastriyon tatha hastakala visheshgyon ke vrittant milate hain jinhonne pashchim eshiya men bagadad tatha any shaharon ki yatra kin. dharmashastron ka pratibandh shayad brahmanon ke lie hi tha ya phir ve is bhay se lagae ge the ki kahin bharatiy badi snkhya men videsh jakar aise virodhi dharmik vichar ya samajik samanata ke vichar bharat men n le aen jo brahmanon aur shasak varg ko amany hon.

dharmashastron dvara samudr yatra par pratibandh

samudr yatra par dharmashastron dvara lagae ge pratibandhon ka dakshin-poorv eshiya tatha chin ke sath hone vale vyapar par koee asar nahin pada. bharat aur dakshin-poorv eshiya ke deshon ke bich chhathi shatabdi se hi bade paimane par vyapar arambh ho gaya tha. us kshetr ke deshon ka vistrit bhaugolik gyan us samay ke sahity men parilakshit hai. 'harisen' ki 'vrihatakatha kosh' jaisi us kal ki kitabon men is kshetr ke pahanave aur bhashaon adi ke bare men vistrit charcha ki hai. is kshetr men chamatkari samudron men bharatiy vyapariyon ki kee romanchakari kahaniyan hain jo bad men vikhyat 'sindabad ki kahaniyon' ka adhar bani. anek bharatiy vyapari in deshon men bas tak ge aur kuchh logon ne sthaniy logon se shadi-vivah bhi kar liya. vyapariyon ke pichhe-pichhe dharm pracharak bhi ae aur is prakar is kshetr men bauddh tatha hindoo dharmon ka pradurbhav hua. java men borobodur ke bauddh tatha ankoravat ke hindoo mandiron se hamen is kshetr men in dharmon ke prachar ke bare men pata chalata hai. is kshetr ke kuchh shasak hindoo dharm se bahut prabhavit hue aur unhonne bharat ke sath vyaparik tatha sanskritik sambandhon ka svagat kiya. is prakar bharatiy aur sthaniy snskritiyon ke sammishran se nayi sanskritik aur sahityik dharaon ka janm hua.

java aur sumatra adi ki yatra ke lie mukhy bharatiy bndaragah bngal ka tamralipti tha. is kal ki kee kahaniyon men hamen bharatiy vyapariyon ki tamralipti se suvarnadvip (adhunik indoneshiya) aur kataha (malaya men kedah) ki yatra ke lie ravana hone ki charcha milati hai. java ke chaudahavin shatabdi ke ek lekhak ke anusar vahan badi snkhya men jamboodvip (bharat), karnatak (dakshin bharat) tatha gaud (bngal) ke log bade-bade jahajon men ate the. is vyapar men gujarat ke vyapari bhi bhag lete the.

bharat aur chin ka vyapar

bharat ka dakshin poorv eshiya ke sath vyapar svayn men mahattvapoorn to tha hi isake sath-sath vah bharat aur chin ke vyapar ke lie kendr ka kary bhi karata tha. amataur par chini jahaz molaska dvipon ke age nahin ate the. udhar bharat aur chin ke bich ka sadak marg us kal men turk, arab tatha chiniyon ke bich sngharsh ke karan surakshit nahin rah gaya tha. isake sthan par bharat aur chin ke bich ka samudri marg adhik mahattv ka hota ja raha tha. chin ke videsh vyapar ke lie vahan ka pramukh bndaragah kaitan, ya jaisa ki arab yatri pukarate the, qaphu tha. bharat se bauddh vidvanh bhi samudr marg se chin jate the. chini itihasakaron ne likha hai ki dasavin shatabdi ke ant tatha gyarahavin shatabdi ke arambh men chini rajadarabar men jitane bharatiy bhikshu the, utane chin ke itihas men pahale kabhi nahin rahe. kuchh aur pahale ke kal ke chini vrittant ke anusar kaitan nadi bharat, faras aur arab se ane vale jahajon se bhari rahati thi. isake alava kaitan men tin hindoo mandir the jinamen bharatiy brahman rahate the. chini samudr men bharatiyon ki upasthiti ke bare men hamen japani sootron se bhi pata chalata hai. inake anusar japan men kapas ke parichay ka shrey do bharatiyon ko hai. jo apani samudri yatra ke dauran laharon ke zor se galati se japan pahunch ge the. bharatiy shasakon, visheshakar bngal ke pal, sen tatha dakshin ke pallav aur chol vnsh ke shasakon ne chini samraton ke darabaron men apane rajadoot bhej kar is vyapar ko aur utsahit karane ki cheshta ki. chin ke sath bharat ke vyapar men badha dalane vale malaya tatha any padosi deshon ke viruddh chol shasak rajendr pratham ne apani nausena bheji. chin ke sath vyapar karane vale deshon ko itana labh hota tha ki terahavin shatabdi men chini sarakar ne vahan se sone aur chandi ke niryat par pratibandh lagane ki cheshta ki. dhire-dhire bharat ka vyapar arabon aur chiniyon ke muqabale kam hota gaya kyonki in vyapariyon ke jahaz bharatiy jahajon se bade aur adhik tez the. kaha jata hai ki chini jahaz kee mnzil hote the aur unamen char sau sainikon ke alava chhah sau yatri chal sakate then chini jahajon ke vikas men kutubanuma ki badi mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi. yah avishkar chin se dasavin shatabdi men pashchim pahuncha. ab tak bharatiy vigyan tatha takanik pichhe padate ja rahe the.

pashchim ke sath bharat ka vyapar dasavin shatabdi ke bad hi tez ho saka, par dakshin-poorv eshiya tatha chin ke sath usaka vyapar barahavin shatabdi tak dhire-dhire badhata hi gaya. is vyapar men bharat tatha bngal ki mukhy bhoomika thi. in kshetron ki sampatti aur samriddhi ka bhi yahi pramukh karan tha.

samaj

bharatiy snskriti ke vibhinn drishy

is kal men bharatiy samaj men kee mahattvapoorn parivartan hue. inamen se ek yah tha ki vishisht varg ke logon ki shakti bahut badhi jinhen samnt, ranak athava rautt (rajapoot) adi pukara jata tha. in vargon ki utpatti vibhinn tarikon se huee thi. inamen se kuchh aise sarakari adhikari the jinako vetan mudra ki jagah gramon men diya jata tha, jisase ye kar prapt karate the. kuchh aur aise parajit raja the jinake samarthak simit kshetron ke kar ke abhi bhi adhikari bane baithe the. kuchh aur vnshagat sthaniy saradar ya bahadur sainik the, jinhonne apane kuchh hathiyaraband samarthakon ki sahayata se adhikar kshetr sthapit kar liya tha. in logon ki haisiyat bhi alag-alag thi. inamen se kuchh keval gramon ke pramukh the aur kuchh ka adhikar kuchh gramon par tha aur kuchh aise bhi the jo ek sare kshetr par apana prabhutv sthapit karane men saphal ho sake the. is prakar in saradaron ki nishchit shreniyan thi. ye apane adhikar kshetr ko badhane ke lie apas men lagatar sngharsh kiya karate the. aise 'lagan' vale kshetr[1] jo raja apane adhikariyon ya samarthakon ko deta tha, ve asthayi the aur jinhen raja apani marji se jab chahe, vapas le sakata tha. lekin bade vidroh athava vishvasaghat ke mamalon men chhodakar raja dvara zamin shayad hi vapas li jati thi. samasamayik vicharadhara ke anusar parajit naresh ki bhoomi ko bhi lena pap mana jata tha.

samntavadi vyavastha

parinamasvaroop is kal ke rajyon men kee aise kshetr shamil the jin par parajit athava adhin rajaon ka prabhutv tha aur ve apani svadhinata ki ghoshana karane ki tak men lage rahate the. isake alava rajyon ke kee kshetron men aise adhikari the, jo adhin bhoomi ko pushtaini jayadad manate the. kalantar men in adhikariyon ka pad bhi vnshagat ho gaya. bngal ke ek parivar se char pushton ke sadasy mahamntri the. isi prakar sarakar ke kee pad kuchh hi adhikariyon ke lie surakshit ho ge. in vnshagat adhikariyon ne dhire-dhire prashasane ke kee kary apane hathon men le lie. yah n keval lagan nirdharit tatha vasool karane ka kary karate the, balki inhonne adhik se adhik prashasanik adhikariyon ko bhi apane hathon men liya aur ye nyayadhish bhi ban baithe aur apane hi bal par aise mamalon men zurmana tak karane lage, jo pahale raja ki or se visheshadhikar ke roop men die ge the. ye apane kshetr men pae ge khazanon par bhi apane adhikar ka dava karate the, jabaki qayade se in par raja ka adhikar hona chahie tha. inhonne apani bhoomi ko raja ki anumati ke bina apane samarthakon ke bich bant dene ke adhikar ko bhi svayn hi grahan kar liya. is prakar aise logon ki snkhya badhati gee jo zamin par bina kam kie hi isase kamate the. aisi samaj vyavastha ko 'samntavadi vyavastha' kaha ja sakata hai. samntavadi samaj ki pramukh visheshata yah hai ki isamen aise log adhik shaktishali hote hain jo zamin par bina kam kie us par adhikar rakhate hain.

samnti saradaron dvara suraksha

bharat men samntavadi samaj ke vikas se bade dooragami prabhav pade. isase raja ki shakti kam ho gee aur vah aise samnti saradaron par adhik nirbhar rahane laga, jinake pas apani svayn ki senaen thi, jinase ve apane rajaon ka virodh kar sakate the. bharatiy rajyon ki antarik kamazori aur matabhed, bad men turkon se unake sngharsh men ghatak siddh hue. ye chhote rajy vyapar ko nirutsahit karate the tatha gramon men aisi arthavyavastha ko protsahit karate the jisase ve adhik se adhik atmanirbhar ban saken. in samnti saradaron ke prabhav se gram ka svashasan bhi kamazor ho gaya. isake bavajood samntavadi vyavastha ke kuchh labh bhi the. hinsa tatha ashanti ke yug men adhik shaktishali samnti saradaron ne kisanon tatha any logon ke jivan tatha unaki sampatti ko suraksha pradan ki. jisake bina rozamarra ki jivan bahut kathin ho jata. kuchh samnton ne krishi ke vistar aur vikas men bhi ruchi dikhaee.

jivan star

bharatiy janajivan

is kal men bhi bharatiy dastakari tatha khanan kary uchch star ka bana raha tatha krishi bhi unnatishil rahi. bharat ane vale kee arab yatriyon ne yahan ki zamin ki urvarata aur bharatiy kisanon ki kushalata ki charcha ki hai. is kal ki sabhi sahityik kritiyon men mntriyon, adhikariyon tatha samnton ki shan-shauqat tatha dikhave ka varnan milata hai. unhonne raja ke rahane ke rng-dhng ki naqal ki aur rahane ke lie tin se panch mnzili imaraten banavaee. ye chini resham tatha ayatit oon se bane videshi kapade pahanate the tatha bahoomooly javaharaton aur sone-chandi ke abhooshan dharan karate the. inake gharon men badi snkhya men striyan hoti thin aur unaki dekh-rekh ke lie utani hi snkhya men ghareloo naukar hote the. ye jab bhi bahar jate the to inake sath poora qafila chalata tha. ye 'mahasamntaradhipati' jaisi badi-badi padaviyan svayn grahan kar lete the aur vyaktigat pratik ke roop men jhande, naqqashi ki huee chhatariyan tatha chnvar rakhate the. us samay ki ek kriti men ek rajakiy adhikari ke yuva-putr ka varnan hai, jo rajakiy adhikariyon tatha chhote samnton ke varg ka pratik mana ja sakata hai. is kriti men usaka varnan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki vah vishesh prakar ki angoothiyan tatha kundal dharan karata hai aur gale men sone ki jnjir pahanata hai. vah apane sharir par kastoori laga kar rakhata hai. jisase usamen pilapan a jata hai. usake joote bhi nakqashidar hain tatha usake vastr kastoori rng se rnge hue hain jinamen sone ka baaurdar hai. jab bhi vah am janata ke bich ata hai, usake sath kee sevak chalate hain jinamen se panch chhah hathiyaraband hote hain tatha ek sevak ke hath men panadan rahata hai.

rahan-sahan

raja ke rahan-sahan ke dhng ki naqal bade vyapariyon ne bhi ki. chaluky samrat ke ek kotishvar vyapari ke bare men kaha gaya hai ki usake bhavan ke oopar bade-bade jhande phaharate the jinamen ghantiyan lagi rahati thi tatha usake pas badi snkhya men hathi aur ghode the. usake mukhy bhavan men jane ke lie sphatik ki sidhiyan thin. usake mandir men bhi sphatik ka farsh aur sphatik ki divaren thin, jin par kee dharmik chitr bane hue the. mandir men pratishthapit pratima bhi sphatik ki thi. gujarat ke vastupal tatha tejapal namak mntriyon ke bare men kaha jata hai ki ve apane samay ke sabase dhani vyapari the. aisa nahin tha ki charon taraph samriddhi aur khushahali chhaee thi. anaj sasta avashy tha lekin isake bavajood shaharon men aise garib log the jinako bharapet khana bhi nahin mil pata tha. rajatarngini[2] ke lekhak ke man men inhin logon ki bat hai, jab vah hamen batata hai ki ek or darabari log bhuna gosht khate the aur thandi aur sugandhit sharab pite the to doosari or am adami ko chaval tatha utpalasek[3] se santosh kar lena padata tha.

samnton dvara lagan vasooli

is samay ke nirdhan logon ke vishay men kee kahaniyan milati hain. kee log garibi se tng akar dakoo tatha lutere ban jate the. jahan tak gramon ka saval hai, jinamen adhikatar abadi basati thi, hamen kisanon ke jivan ke bare men sahityik kritiyon tatha bhoomi anudan se sambandhit abhilekhon se pata chalata hai. dharmashastron ke vyakhyakaron ke anusar, pahale ki tarah lagan ki dar abhi bhi kul utpadan ka chhatha hissa thi. lekin kud anudanon se hamen pata chalata hai ki isake alava bhi kee prakar ke kar the. jaise talab-kar aur charagah-kar. kisanon ko nirdharit lagan ke alava ye kar bhi dene padate the. kuchh anudanon se zamin ke malik ko yah adhikar mil jata tha ki vah us zamin par uchit athava anuchit arthath apani ichchha se kar laga sakata tha jo garib kisanon ko lagan ke alava chukana hi padata tha. kisanon ko begar bhi karani padati thi. madhy bharat tatha udisa ke kuchh mamalon men to ham pate hain ki madhyayugin yoorop ke krishi dason ki bhanti yahan bhi ganvon ke sath-sath vahan base hue kisan, charavahe tatha dastakar bhi dan men de diye jate the. sahityik kritiyon men hamen aise samnton ke bare men padhane ko milata hai jo paisa vasoolane ka koee bhi mauqa chookate nahin the. bataya jata hai ki rajapoot saradar to bateron, mrit pakshiyon, sooar ki lid tatha mrit vyaktiyon ke qafan se bhi paisa banaya karate the. ek any samnt ki charcha hai ki jisake atyacharon se trast hokar ganv ki sari ki sari abadi ne ganv ko hi chhod diya tha.
bharat ke sanskritik paridhan

saradaron ke ye atyachar to the hi phir isake oopar yuddh aur badh ka prakop bhi tha. yuddh men naharon aur talabon ko tod dena, ganv ke ganv hi jala dena, zabardasti sare anaj aur sare pashuon ko qabze men kar lena am bat thi. yahan tak ki samntavadi vyavastha ke lekhakon ne is prakar ke karyon ko uchit mana hai.

varn vyavastha

pahale se chali a rahi varn vyavastha is yug men bhi qayam rahi. smritiyon ke lekhakon ne brahmanon ke visheshadhikaron ke bare men badha-chadha kar to kaha hi, shoodron ki samajik aur dharmik ayogyata ko uchit thaharane men to ve pichhale lekhakon se kahin age nikal ge. ek lekhak, parashar ke anusar shoodr ke sath bhojan, usake sath milana-julana, shoodr ke sath ek hi asan par baithana tatha shoodr se shiksha grahan karana aise kary hain jo uchchatam vyakti ka nich bana dete hain. yahan tak ki shoodron ki chhaya tak dooshit thi. yah kahana kathin hai ki smritiyon ke rachanakaron ke vicharon ka vyavaharik jivan men kitana palan kiya jata tha, par isamen koee sndeh nahin ki nichi samajhi jane vali jatiyon ki is kal men sthiti aur bhi kharab ho gayi. antarjatiy vivah ko bhi nichi drishti se dekha jata tha. yadi koee uchch jati purush nimn jati ki stri se vivah karata tha to usake bachchon ki jati man ki jati ke anusar tay ki jati thi. isake viparit yadi uchch kul ki stri nich kul ke purush se vivah karati thi to bachche ki jati bap ki jati se tay ki jati thi. samasamayik lekhakon ne us samay ki kee jatiyon ki charcha ki hai. jinamen kumhar, bunakar, sunar, sngitgy, naee, chamar, byadh tatha machhere shamil the. inamen se kuchh ne to apane rojagar ke hisab se sngh bana lie the, par unaki ginati bhi ek jati ke roop men hi hoti thi. mahattvapoorn bat yah hai ki smriti lekhakon ne dastakari ko nich jati ko pesha mana hai. is prakar adhikatar mazadoor aur bholon jaise adivasi, achhooton ki shreni men gine jane lage the.

rajapooton ka uday

is yug men hamen ek nayi jati, rajapooton ki charcha bhi milati hai. rajapooton ki utpatti ko lekar vidvanon men bada matabhed hai. kee rajapoot apane ko mahabharat ke soory vnsh aur chandr vnsh ke kshatriyon ka vnshaj manate the. kuchh aur apani utpatti ka srot us ygy ko batate the jo rishi vasishth ne aboo pahad par kiya tha. kintu aboo ygy ka ullekh hamen pahali bar solahavin shatabdi men milata hai. in kathaon se ham keval itana nishkarsh nikal sakate hain ki vibhinn rajapoot vnshon ki utpatti vibhinn prakar se huee thi. kuchh vidvan, jinamen videshi bhi shamil hain, yah manate hain ki kuchh rajapoot vnshon ki utpatti un hoon aur sithiyaee logon se huee hogi jo harsh ke kal ke bad bharat men bas ge. kuchh any vnshon ki utpatti bharatiy qabilon se hi huee. vibhinn kalon men kshatriyon ke alava brahman tatha vaishy vnshon ne bhi shasan kiya. aisa pratit hota hai ki kalantar men shasan karane vale sabhi vnshon ko ek jati ka mana jane laga aur ye 'rajapootr' athava 'rajapoot' kahe jane lage aur kshatriy vnsh men shamil ho ge.

khana banati gramin mahila, gujarat

yah spasht hai ki jatiyon ka vargikaran itana pakka nahin tha, jaisa ki am taur par mana jata hai. vibhinn dal athava vyakti uchch varg ki sadasyata hasil kar sakate the, ve nichi jati men gir bhi sakate the. isaka ek udaharan hamen kayasth jati men milata hai. jisaka varnan sabase pahale isi kal men milata hai. arambh men vibhinn jatiyon, jinamen brahman aur shoodr bhi shamil the, ke aise log jo rajagharanon men kam karate the, unhen 'kayasth' kaha jata tha. kalantar men inhin ki ek vishisht jati ban gee. is kal men hindoo dharm ka prasar bahut tezi se hua. kee bauddh aur jainiyon ke alava kee videshi tatha bharatiy qabile hindoo dharm men ekatm ho ge. samay ke sath naye vargon ne, vibhinn jatiyon aur upajatiyon ka roop dharan kar liya. par unhonne vivah, apane vishisht devi-davataon ki pooja tatha any tyoharon ko manana jari rakha. is prakar dharm aur samaj vyavastha adhik jatil hoti chali gee.

striyon ki sthiti

pahale ki tarah is kal men bhi striyon ko manasik star par nicha mana jata tha. inaka kartavy moolatah bina kuchh soche samajhe apane pati ki agya ka palan tha. ek lekhak ne stri ke apane pati ke prati kartavy ke bare men kaha hai ki use apane pati ke pairon ko dhona chahie aur naukar ki tarah usaki poori seva karani chahie, lekin usane pati ke kartavy ke bare men bhi kaha hai ki use dharm ke path par chalana chahie aur apani patni ke prati ghrina tatha eershya ke bhav se mukt rahana chahie. matsy puran men galat rah par chalane vali patni ko pati ke dvara[4] rassi ya bent se marane ke adhikar die ge hain. striyan abhi bhi vedon ke adhyayan ke adhikar se vnchit thi. isake alava striyon ke vivah ki umr bhi bahut kam kar di gee thi. jisase unhen uchch shiksha prapt karane ka avasar mil hi n sake. is kal ki pustakon men mahila shikshakon ki koee charcha nahin hai. jisase striyon ke uchch shiksha se vnchit rahane ke bare men pata chalata hai. lekin isi kal ke natakon men hamen ranivas ki aisi maharani tatha unaki dasiyon ka havala milata hai jo snskrit aur prakrit men achchhi kavy rachana kar sakati thin. kee kahaniyon men, lalit kalaon, visheshakar sngit aur chitrakala men, unaki dakshata ka varnan milata hai. uchch adhikariyon ki ladakiyan, ganikaen tatha veshyaen bhi vibhinn kalaon, visheshakar kavy men parngat hoti thi.

punarvivah

vivah ke bare men smritiyon men kaha gaya ki man-bap ko apani ladakiyon ka vivah chhah aur ath varsh se bich ki ayu, arthath yauvanarambh, ke pahale hi kar dena chahie. pati dvara patni ke tyag[5], usaki (pati ki) mrityu, usake dvara sannyas grahan, samaj dvara bahishkar tatha usake napunsak hone jaisi kuchh vishesh sthitiyon men stri ko punarvivah ki svikriti thi. am taur par auraton ko bharose layaq nahin samajha jata tha. unako alag kar rakha jata tha aur un parivar ke purush sadasyon, pita, bhaee, pati, putr adi ka niyntran rahata tha. lekin ghar ke andar unako adar avashy hi diya jata tha. yadi koee purush apani patni ka tyag karata tha to bhale hi vah doshi kyon n ho, use patni ko rahan-sahan ka kharcha dena hi padata tha. bhoomi par vyaktigat adhikaron ke badhane ke sath stri ke sampatti-adhikar bhi badhate ge. parivar ki sampatti ko banae rakhane ke lie stri ko purush sadasy ki sampatti ke adhikar bhi die ge. yadi bina putr prapti ke kisi purush ki mrityu ho jati thi to kuchh mamalon men chhodakar usaki patni ko apane pati ki sari jayadad ka adhikar mil jata tha. kisi vidhava ki sampatti par usaki ladakiyon ka adhikar bhi ho sakata tha. is prakar samntavadi vyavastha se niji sampatti ke adhikar ki dharana mazaboot huee.

ghaghara pahane hue mahilayen

is kal ke kuchh lekhakon ne sati pratha ko avashyak mana, par kuchh auron ne isaki alochana ki. arabi lekhak suleman ke anusar raja ki mrityu par usaki raniyan usake sath sati ho jati thin. par yah svayn unaki ichchha par nirbhar karata tha. aisa lagata hai ki samnton dvara kee striyon ke rakhane aur sampatti par badhate hue jhagadon ke sath sati ki pratha bhi badhi.

pahanava, bhojan, manornjan

gujarati khane se saji huee thali

is kal men purushon aur striyon ke pahanave men koee vishesh parivartan nahin hua. pahale ki tarah ab bhi purush am taur par dhoti tatha striyan sadi pahanati thin. isake atirikt uttar bharat men purush jaiket tatha striyan choli pahanati thin. us samay ki moortiyon ko dekhane se pata chalata hai ki uttari bharat men uchch varg ke log lambe kot, paint tatha joote pahanate the. rajatarngini ke anusar harsh ne kashmir men rajasi pahanave ka prachalan arambh kiya. isamen ek lamba kot shamil tha. bataya jata hai ki raja apane mntri par isalie naraz ho gaya kyonki mntri ne chhota kot pahan rakha tha. jade men ooni kambalon ka istemal kiya jata tha. yadyapi amataur par sooti kapadon ka hi istemal hota tha. uchch varg ke log resham tatha malamal ke kapade bhi pahanate the. arab yatriyon ke anusar purush aur striyan, donon hi abhooshanon ke shauqin the. ve sone ke kade aur kanon men kabhi-kabhi qimati pattharon ke jhumake pahanate the. chini lekhak 'chaoo joo kva' hamen batate hain ki gujarat men purush tatha mahilaen donon, kanon men jhumake athava kundal pahanate the. ve dhile dhale vastr dharan karate the aur unake sar dhake rahate the. panvon men lal rng ke joote pahanate the.

svarnabhooshanon ka prachalan

ek aur prasiddh yatri markopolo batata hai ki malabar men purush tatha mahilaen, yahan tak ki vahan ka raja bhi bas kamare men kapada bandh kar rahata tha aur darzi ke peshe se log anajan the. aisi hi veshabhoosha kuilaun men bhi prachalit thi. yadyapi kapade kam pahane jate the, dakshin ke naresh abhooshanon ke bade shauqin the. chaoo joo kva ke anusar malabar ka naresh apani praja ki tarah kamar men bas kapada bandhata tha aur nnge pair rahata tha. lekin jab vah hathi par shobha yatra men nikalata tha tab moti-javaharaton se jada svarn mukut dharan karata tha, tatha hathon aur panvon men svarnabhooshan pahanata tha. markopolo ke anusar raja svarn aur qimati pattharon ke jo gahane pahanata tha, unaki qimat ek poore shahar ki qimat se adhik thi. jahan tak bhojan ka saval hai, yadyapi adhikatar kshetron men log shakahari the, us samay ke pramukh smriti lekhak ne vistar men un avasaron ki charcha ki hai jab mans khana uchit mana jata tha. isase aisa lagata hai ki mor, ghode tatha jngali sooar aur murg ka mans uchit bhojy-padarth samajha jata tha. ashchary ki bat hai ki us samay ki ek pustak men mlechchh bhojan ko gehoon ka paryayavachi shabd bataya gaya hai. isaka arth yah hua ki us samay tak gehoon ko bharat men am bhojy padarthon men shamil nahin kiya gaya tha.

dhoti-kurte men ladake

arab lekhakon ne is bat ki prashnsa ki hai ki bharat men nashile padarthon ka sevan nahin hota tha. is kal ki sahityik kritiyon men hamen sharab pine ki charcha milati hai. kuchh samay vargon men vivah-bhoj aur tyoharon ke avasaron par sharab pina bahut lokapriy tha. yahan tak ki raja ke sath rahane vali auraten bhi khul kar sharab piti thin. kuchh smritiyon men tin uchch vargon men sharab par pabndi lagaee gee hai. lekin kuchh smritiyon men sharab ko keval brahmanon ke lie nishiddh bataya gaya hai aur kuchh apavadon ko chhodakar kshatriy aur vaishyon ko isaki svikriti di gee hai. samasamayik sahity se lagata hai ki nagaron ke nivasi manornjan-priy the. mele aur tyoharon ke alava tairaki tatha bagiche men ghoomana bahut lokapriy tha. bhedon, murgon aur any janavaron ke bich ladaee tatha kushti janasadharan ke manornjan ke priy sadhan the. uchch shreni ke logon men shikar tatha jua bade prachalit the aur ek vishesh prakar ke 'chaugan' ko rajasi khel mana jata tha.

shiksha aur gyan

shiksha ke kshetr men pahale se lekar ab tak jo vikas hua tha, vahi paripati bina adhik parivartan ke is kal men bhi qayam rahi. un dinon samoohik shiksha ki dharana ne janm nahin liya tha aur log vahi sikhate the jo unake jivan yapan ke lie avashyak tha. padhana-likhana kuchh hi logon men simit tha. jinamen adhikatar brahman ya uchch varg ke log the. ganv men padhana likhana vahan ka brahman sikhata tha. bachche adhikatar mandiron men padhate the jo bhoomi-anudan par nirbhar karate the. gyani brahmanon ko bhoomi dan men dena dharmik krity mana jata tha. us kal ke tamrapatr, jin par aise dan ka ullekh hai, hamen badi snkhya men prapt hain jinase hamen pata chalata hai ki is prakar ke anudan kafi prachalit the. kabhi-kabhi mandiron ki aur se hi uchch shiksha ka prabnndh kar diya jata tha. amataur par uchch shiksha ke prarambh ke lie vidyarthi ko apane shikshak ke ghar jakar usi ke sath rahana padata tha. aise mamale men use apane shikshak ko fis deni padati thi ya phir apani shiksha ke ant men vah shikshak ko gurudakshina deta tha. aise vidyarthi jo garibi ke karan fis nahin de sakate the, ve gurudakshina guru ki seva ke roop men chukate the. shiksha ke mukhy vishay ved tatha vyakaran the. yadyapi bachche ko akshar gyan ke sath ganit bhi sikhaya jata tha. un dinon bharatiyon ki dilachaspi vigyan men bahut kam ho gee thi. is kal men hamen shalyachikitsa ka vivaran nahin milata. pulon tatha bandhon ka nirman nimn shreni ka kam mana jata tha. aisa isalie tha ki is samay tak sharirik shram ko hey drishti se dekha jata tha. kisi kary ke prashikshan ki zimmedari am taur par snghon tatha kuchh parivaron par thi. udaharan ke lie ek vyapari dvara apane putr ko prashikshit karane ka hamen vistrit byaura milata hai. vigyan men uchch prashikshan tatha any prakar ki uchch shiksha prapt karane ke lie yatra ko protsahit kiya jata tha. ek lekhak ne kaha hai ki ve log jo doosare deshon ke pahanave, rahan-sahan aur unaki bhasha ka adhyayan nahin karate ve bina sing vale bailon ke saman hain. phir bhi bharat ke andar bhi yatra kharab sadakon aur chor-dakuon ke bhay se atyant simit rahati hongi. isake alava koee sadhan-sampann vyakti hi yatra par ja sakata tha.

shiksha ke kendr bauddh vihar

uchch shiksha men dharmik vishayon ke alava any vishay bhi shamil the, aur isaka kendr bauddh vihar hi tha. inamen se sabase prasiddh, bihar ka nalanda vishvavidyalay tha. any shiksha ke pramukh kendr vikramashila aur uddndapur the. ye bhi bihar men hi the. in kendron men door-door se, yahan tak ki tibbat se bhi, vidyarthi ate the. yahan shiksha ni:shulk pradan ki jati thi. in vishvavidyalayon ka kharch shasakon dvara di gee mudra aur bhoomi ke dan se chalata tha. nalanda ko do sau gramon ka anudan prapt tha.

shiksha ka ek any pramukh kendr kashmir tha. is kal men kashmir men shaiv mat tatha any matavalnbi shiksha kendr the. dakshin bharat men maduree tatha shrringeri men bhi kee mahattvapoorn mathon ki sthapana huee. in kendron men pramukh roop se dharm tatha darshan shastr par vichar-vimarsh hota tha. bharat ke vibhinn kshetron men sthapit mathon aur shiksha kendron ke karan vichar vinimay asani aur shighrata se desh ke ek bhag se doosare bhag tak ho sakate the. kisi darshan shastri ki vidya us samay tak poorn nahin mani jati thi jab tak vah desh ke vibhinn bhagon men jakar vahan ke logon se shastrarth n karata ho. is tarah desh men vicharon ke mukt aur shighratapoorn adan-pradan se bharat ki sanskritik ekata ko bahut bal mila, lekin isake bavajood is kal men shikshit varg ka drishtikon adhik snkirn hota gaya. ve naye vicharon ka pratipadan athava usaka svagat karane ke sthan par keval atit ke gyan par hi nirbhar karate the. ve bharat ke bahar panapane vale vaigyanik vicharon se bhi svayn ko alag rakhate the. is pravritti ki jhalak hamen madhy eshiya ke prasiddh vaigyanik aur vidvanh alaberooni ki rachanaon men milati hai. alaberooni gyarahavin shatabdi ke prarambh men qarib das varshon tak bharat men raha. yadyapi vah bharatiy gyan aur vigyan ka prashnsak tha, usane yahan ke shikshit vargon aur visheshakar brahmanon ki snkirnata ki charcha bhi ki haiah- 'ye ghamandi, garvile, dnbhi tatha snkirn pravritti ke hain. ye pravritti se hi apane gyan ko doosaron ko bantane ke mamale men knjoos hain aur is bat ka adhik se adhik khyal rakhate hain ki kahin aur koee jat ke kisi adami, visheshakar kisi videshi ko unaka gyan nahin mil jae. unaka vishvas hai ki unake alava aur kisi ko bhi vigyan ka koee gyan nahin hai.' gyan ko hi kuchh logon tak simit rakhane ki unaki is pravritti tatha ghamand ke karan tatha kisi aur srot se prapt gyan ko tuchchh samajhane ke karan bharatavarsh is mamale men pichhad gaya. kalantar men use is pravritti ka bahut bada mooly chukana pada.

dharmik vichar

is kal men bauddh aur jain dharm ka hras hua, yadyapi dakshin bharat men jain dharm ka prabhav dasavin shatabdi tak bana raha. isi kal men bauddh dharm apane janm ke desh men samapt prayah ho gaya par hindoo dharm ka purnajagaran aur usaka vistar hua. isane anekon roop apanae jisamen sabase pramukh shiv aur vishnu ki lokapriyata thi. in devon ki pooja ko pramukh manate hue kee sampraday uth khade hue par bauddh aur jain dharm ke siddhanton ko chunauti di gee.

kalantar men shiv tatha vishnu pramukh devata ban ge aur soory, brahma adi ki lokapriyata kam ho gee. poorvi bharat men pooja ki ek nee vidhi ka vikas hua. yah shakti pooja thi jisamen stri shakti ko srishti ka adhar siddhant mana gaya. is prakar bauddhon ne atit ke bodhisatvon ki patni ke roop men tara tatha hinduon ne durga aur kali ki pooja shuroo ki, jinhen shiv ki patniyan bataya gaya.

bauddh dharm ka pratik

is kal men bauddh dharm ka prabhav poorvi bharat tak simit raha. bngal ke pal shasak bauddh dharm ko manane vale the. dasavin shatabdi ke bad unake patan se bauddh dharm ko bhi dhakka pahuncha. lekin isase zyada gambhir bauddh dharm ke antarik matabhed the. buddh ne svayn ek vyavaharik darshan ka prasar kiya tha. jisamen pujari varg ki bhoomika nyoonatam thi tatha eeshvar tatha usake astitv ke bare men adhik atakalabazi ki gunjaish nahin thi. eesvin yug ke arambh ki shatabdiyon men mahayan mat ka vikas hua, jisamen buddh ko eeshvar ke roop men pooja jata tha. dhire-dhire inaki pooja paripati aur jatil tatha bhavy hoti gee. sath-sath yah vishvas mazaboot hota gaya ki poojak mntron ko padhakar apana lakshy prapt kar sakata hai. unaka yah bhi vishvas tha ki in karyakalapon tatha vibhinn prakar ke kasht sahane se unhen hava men udane aur adshy hone jaisi daivi shaktiyan prapt ho sakati thin. manushy is prakar se prakriti par niyntran ke lie hamesha se ichchhuk raha hai, par isaki ye ichchhaen keval adhunik vigyan ke vikas se poori huee hai. kee hindoo yogiyon ne bhi is prakar ki cheshta ki. inamen sabase prasiddh gorakhanath the. gorakhanath shishyon ko nathapnthi kaha jata hai tatha ek samay ye sare uttar bharat men lokapriy the. inamen se kee yogi nichi jati ke the aur unhonne varn-vyavastha tatha brahmanon ke visheshadhikar ki alochana ki. unake dvara pratipadit siddhant ko tantr kaha jata hai aur isaki sadasyata bina jatibhed ke sabhi ke lie khuli thi. is prakar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki bauddh dharm ka patan nahin hua, lekin usane kee aise roop dharan kar lie jo hindoo dharm se bahut bhinn nahin the.

lokapriy jain dharm

pashchim bharat men, visheshakar vyapari varg ke bich, jain dharm lokapriy bana raha. gujarat ke chaluky shasakon ne jain dharm ko protsahit kiya. unhin ke kal men aboo pahad par dilavada jaise bhavy mandiron ka nirman kiya gaya. malava ke paramar shasakon ne bhi jain tirthnkaron aur mahavir ki, badi-badi pratimaen banavayi jinhen ab eeshvar ke roop men pooja jane laga tha. unhonne vibhinn kshetron men bade-bade jainalay banavae, jo yatriyon ke vishram sthal ke roop men lokapriy hue.

dakshin bharat men jain dharm nauvin aur dasavin shatabdiyon men shikhar par pahunch gaya. karnatak ke gng shasak jain dharm ke bahut bade snrakshak the. is kal men vibhinn hisson men jain mandiron tatha mahastambhon ka nirman kiya gaya. shravan belagola men mahavir ki vishal pratima bhi isi kal men bani. yah moorti 18 mitar oonchi tatha ek hi chattan se katakar banaee gee hai. isamen mahavir ko tapasya ki mudra men khada dikhaya gaya hai. ve apane charon or ke vatavaran se anabhigy hain. unake panvon men sanp lipate hue hain tatha chitiyon ne mitti ke gharaunde bana die hain. jainiyon ke char varon (shiksha, ann, chikitsa aur avas) ke siddhant ne logon ke bich jain dharm ko lokapriy bana diya tha. kalantar men jainiyon ki snkirnata tatha rajasi protsahan ki kami se dhire-dhire isaka bhi hras hota gaya. isake alava isi kal men dakshin bharat men shiv tatha vishnu se sambandhit kee lokapriy andolan shuroo ho ge. jisake karan jainiyon ki lokapriyata ghatati chali gee. inamen se sabase pramukh bhakti andolan tha. jisaka netritv lokapriy santon ne kiya, jinhen 'nayanar' tatha 'alavar' pukara jata tha. inake mat men kathor tapasya ka koee sthan nahin tha. ve dharm ko riti-rivajon se jatil pooja, tatha keval siddhant matr nahin manate the. inake anusar dharm eeshvar tatha bhakt ke bich ek jivant sampark sadhan tha. ye sant tamil aur telugu men likhate the, jinhen sabhi samajh sakate hon. ye sant jagah-jagah svayn jakar logon ko bhakti aur prem ke siddhant batate the. inamen se kuchh nichi jati ke the, par kuchh brahman bhi the. inake alava is andolan men kuchh striyan bhi thin. qarib-qarib sabhi santon ne jati vyavastha ka virodh kie bina usase usase utpann hone vale bhedabhav ko galat bataya. nichi jati ke logon ko vaidik gyan tatha pooja se bahishkrit kiya gaya, lekin in santon dvara pratipadit bhakti marg sabhi ke lie khula tha, usamen jati vyavastha ka koee sthan nahin tha.

bhakti andolan aur katha-kahaniyan

bhakti andolan ne n keval kee bauddh tatha jain matabalambiyon ko hindoo dharm ki or akarshit kiya, varanh un kee qabilon ko bhi hindoo dharm men mil jane ko prerit kiya, jo ab tak isake bahar the. is prakar vibhinn qabile jati vyavastha men dhalakar hindoo ban ge the. am taur par ve apane qabilaee devi-devataon ki hi pooja karate the, lekin bad men unhen shiv tatha vishnu ke mitr athava patniyan bana diya gaya. is prakar ke sanskritik sammelan men katha-kahaniyon ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee.

vaidik parnpara

barahavin shatabdi ke dauran ek aur lokapriy andolan shuroo hua. jise lingayat kahate hain. isake pratishthata 'basav' aur unaka bhatija 'channabasav' the, jo karnatak ke kalachoori nareshon ke darabar men rahate the. inhonne jain matavalambiyon se kade virodh ke bad is mat ki sthapana ki. lingayat shiv ke poojak hote hain. inhonne jati vyavastha ki kadi alochana ki, tatha upavas, bali pratha aur tirthon ka bahishkar kiya. samajik kshetr men inhonne bal vivah ka virodh kiya tatha vidhava vivah ki svikriti di. is prakar dakshin tatha uttar bharat, donon sthanon men hindoo dharm ke vistar aur punarjagaran ne do roop apanae -

  1. ek or vedon tatha vaidik pooja aur unake sath-sath sahity tatha bauddhik andolanon par zor diya gaya.
  2. doosari or uttar bharat men tntr tatha dakshin bharat men bhakti jaise lokapriy andolanon ka arambh hua. tntr tatha bhakti ke andolanon men jati-bhed ka koee sthan nahin tha aur inake dvar sab ke lie khule the.

bauddhik star par bauddh tatha jain dharm ko sabase badi chunauti shnkar ne di, jinhonne hindoo darshan ki punahvyakhya ki. shnkar ka janm sambhavatah nauvin shatabdi men keral men hua tha. unake prarambhik jivan ke bare men hamen vishesh janakari nahin hai tatha unake bare men kee kahaniyan prachalit ho gee hain. kaha jata hai ki jain matavalambiyon ke virodh ke karan unhen maduree se bhagana pada aur usake bad unhonne uttar bharat ki yatra ki tatha shastrarth men bade se bade virodhiyon ko parajit kiya. jab ve maduree laute tab vahan ke naresh ne unaka bhavy svagat kiya tatha apane darabar se jainiyon ko nikal diya. isase spasht ho jata hai ki shnkar ko apane siddhant pratipadit karane ke dauran bauddh tatha jain matavalambiyon se kade virodh ka samana karana pada tha. shnkar ke darshan ko advaitavad ke nam se jana jata hai. isake anusar eeshvar tatha usaki srishti vastav men ek hai. usake anusar moksh ka marg isi bat ki anubhooti thi ki eeshvar tatha usaki srishti ek hi hai. is darshan ko vedant kaha jata hai. is prakar shnkar ne vedon ko uchchatam gyan ka srot bataya. shnkar dvara pratipadit gyan ka marg kuchh hi logon ki samajh men a sakata tha. isase janasamooh prabhavit nahin ho sakata tha. gyarahavin shatabdi men ek aur prasiddh vidvanh ramanuj ne bhakti tatha vedon ki parampara ke bich samanvay sthapit karane ka prayatn kiya. unake anusar moksh ke lie eeshvar ke gyan se adhik usaki kripadrishti avashyak thi. unhonne bhakti marg ka pratipadan kiya, jisake dvar bina jati bhed ke khule the. is prakar ramanuj ne bhakti ke lokapriy andolan tatha vedon par adharit uchch vargiy andolan ke bich setu ka kary kiya. ramanuj ke kee bauddhik anuyayi hue. inamen madhvachary (chaudahavin shatabdi) tatha uttar bharat men ramanand (pndrahavin shatabdi) pramukh hain. is prakar athavin aur barahavin shatabdiyon ke bich ke kal men n keval samaj men varanh dharmik vicharon men bhi anek mahattvapoorn parivartan hue.

rajyon ki snskriti
bihoo nrity
bihoo nrity, asam
kuchi pudi nrity
kuchi pudi nrity, andhr pradesh
arati
arati, gnga nadi, varanasi
arati kunbh mela
arati kunbh mela, haridvar
odisi nrity
odisi nrity, udisa
virupaksh mndir
viroopaksh mndir, hampi
nauka daud
nauka daud, keral
garaba nrity
garaba nrity, gujarat
gova tat
gova tat
boranadev mndir
boranadev mndir, chhattisagadh
kashmiri shaaul
kashmiri shaaul, jammoo aur kashmir
masanajor bandh
masanajor bandh, dumaka
mahabalipuram ke bazar ka ek drishy
mahabalipuram ke bazar ka ek drishy
mahila
mahila, tripura
lok git kalakar
lok git kalakar, dilli
nagalaind ka ek drishy
nagalaind ka ek drishy
bhangada nrity
bhangada nrity, pnjab
lepcha prajati ke log
lepcha prajati ke log, darjiling, pashchim bngal
kut th‍yohar
kut th‍yohar, manipur
khajuraho mandir
khajuraho mandir, madhy pradesh
ajnta ki gufaen
ajnta ki gufaen, aurngabad
ghoomar nrity
ghoomar nrity, rajasthan
buddh mndir
buddh mndir, sikkim
holi
holi
dipavali ki ratri men jalata hue dipak
dipavali ki ratri men jalata hue dipak
onam
onam
eed par namaz padhate log
eed par namaz padhate log
lohadi ka tyohar manate log
lohadi ka tyohar manate log
bhaee ko rakhi bandhati bahan
bhaee ko rakhi bandhati bahan



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jinako bhog kaha jata tha
  2. jisaki rachana kashmir men barahavin shatabdi men huee thi
  3. ek prakar ki khari sabji
  4. sir tatha chhati ko chhod kar
  5. arthath jab usaka kuchh ata-pata nahin chalata ho

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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