भारत का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
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Home-icon.png vistar men padhen itihas prangan (portal)
bharat ka itihas
pashan yug- 70000 se 3300 ee.poo
meharagadh snskriti 7000-3300 ee.poo
sindhu ghati sabhyata- 3300-1700 ee.poo
hadappa snskriti 1700-1300 ee.poo
vaidik kal- 1500–500 ee.poo
prachin bharat - 1200 ee.poo–240 ee.
mahajanapad 700–300 ee.poo
magadh samrajy 545–320 ee.poo
satavahan samrajy 230 ee.poo-199 ee.
maury samrajy 321–184 ee.poo
shung samrajy 184–123 ee.poo
shak samrajy 123 ee.poo–200 ee.
kushan samrajy 60–240 ee.
poorv madhyakalin bharat- 240 ee.poo– 800 ee.
chol samrajy 250 ee.poo- 1070 ee.
gupt samrajy 280–550 ee.
pal samrajy 750–1174 ee.
pratihar samrajy 830–963 ee.
rajapoot kal 900–1162 ee.
madhyakalin bharat- 500 ee.– 1761 ee.
dilli saltanat
gulam vnsh
khilaji vnsh
tugalaq vnsh
saiyyad vnsh
lodi vnsh
mugal samrajy
1206–1526 ee.
1206-1290 ee.
1290-1320 ee.
1320-1414 ee.
1414-1451 ee.
1451-1526 ee.
1526–1857 ee.
dakkan saltanat
bahamani vnsh
nizamashahi vnsh
1490–1596 ee.
1358-1518 ee.
1490-1565 ee.
dakshini samrajy
rashtrakoot vnsh
hoyasal samrajy
kakatiya samrajy
vijayanagar samrajy
1040-1565 ee.
736-973 ee.
1040–1346 ee.
1083-1323 ee.
1326-1565 ee.
adhunik bharat- 1762–1947 ee.
maratha samrajy 1674-1818 ee.
sikh rajyasngh 1716-1849 ee.
aupanivesh kal 1760-1947 ee.

bharat men manaviy karyakalap ke jo prachinatam chihn ab tak mile hain, ve 4,00,000 ee. poo. aur 2,00,000 ee. poo. ke bich doosare aur tisare him-yugon ke sndhikal ke hain aur ve is bat ke sakshy prastut karate hain ki us samay patthar ke upakaran kam men lae jate the. jivit vyakti ke aparivartit jaivik gunasootron ke pramanon ke adhar par bharat men manav ka sabase pahala praman keral se mila hai jo sattar hazar sal purana hone ki snbhavana hai. is vyakti ke gunasootr afriqa ke prachin manav ke jaivik gunasootron (jins) se poori tarah milate hain.[1]isake pashchath ek lambe arase tak vikas mand gati se hota raha, jisamen antim samay men jakar tivrata aee aur usaki parinati 2300 ee. poo. ke lagabhag sindhu ghati ki alishan sabhyata (athava navinatam namakaran ke anusar hadappa snskriti) ke roop men huee. hadappa ki poorvavarti snskritiyan hain: baloochistani pahadiyon ke ganvon ki kulli snskriti aur rajasthan tatha pnjab ki nadiyon ke kinare base kuchh gram-samudayon ki snskriti.[2] yah kal vah hai jab afriqa se adi manav ne vishv ke anek hisson men basana prarambh kiya jo pachas se sattar hazar sal pahale ka mana jata hai.

prachin bharatiy itihas ke srot

bharatiy itihas janane ke srot ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hain-

  1. sahityik sakshy
  2. videshi yatriyon ka vivaran
  3. puratattv sambandhi sakshy

sahityik sakshy

sahityik sakshy ke antargat sahityik granthon se prapt aitihasik vastuon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. sahityik sakshy ko do bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-
dharmik sahity aur laukik sahity.

dharmik sahity

dharmik sahity ke antargat brahman tatha brahmanettar sahity ki charcha ki jati hai.

  • brahman granthon men-

ved, upanishad, ramayan, mahabharat, puran, smriti granth ate hain.

  • brahmanettar granthon men jain tatha bauddh granthon ko sammilit kiya jata hai.
laukik sahity

laukik sahity ke antargat aitihasik granth, jivani, kalpana-pradhan tatha galp sahity ka varnan kiya jata hai.

dharm-granth

prachin kal se hi bharat ke dharm pradhan desh hone ke karan yahan prayah tin dharmik dharayen- vaidik, jain evn bauddh pravahit hueen. vaidik dharm granth ko brahman dharm granth bhi kaha jata hai.

brahman dharm-grnth

brahman dharm - grnth ke antargat ved, upanishadh, mahakavy tatha smriti grnthon ko shamil kiya jata hai.

ved

ved ek mahattvapoorn brahman dharm-grnth hai. ved shabd ka arth ‘gyan‘ mahatgyan arthath ‘pavitr evn adhyatmik gyan‘ hai. yah shabd snskrit ke ‘vidh‘ dhatu se bana hai jisaka arth hai janana. vedon ke snkalanakarta 'krishn dvaipayan' the. krishn dvaipayan ko vedon ke prithakkaran-vyas ke karan 'vedavyas' ki sngya prapt huee. vedon se hi hamen aryo ke vishay men prarambhik janakari milati hai. kuchh log vedon ko apaurushey arthath daivakrit manate hain. vedon ki kul snkhya char hai-

  • rigved- yah richaon ka sngrah hai.
  • samaved- yah richaon ka sngrah hai.
  • yajurved- isamen yaganushthan ke lie viniyog vakyon ka samavesh hai.
  • atharvaved- yah tntr-mntron ka sngrah hai.

brahman grnth

ygyon evn karmakandon ke vidhan evn inaki kriyaon ko bhali-bhanti samajhane ke lie hi is brahman grnth ki rachana huee. yahan par 'brahm' ka shabdik arth hain- ygy arthath ygy ke vishayon ka achchhi tarah se pratipadan karane vale grnth hi 'brahman grnth' kahe gaye. brahman granthon men sarvatha ygyon ki vaigyanik, adhibhautik tatha adhyatmik mimansa prastut ki gayi hai. yah grnth adhikatar gady men likhe hue hain. inamen uttarakalin samaj tatha snskriti ke sambandh ka gyan prapt hota hai. pratyek ved (snhita) ke apane-apane brahman hote hain.

aranyak

arayankon men darshanik evn rahasyatmak vishayon yatha, atma, mrityu, jivan adi ka varnan hota hai. in grnthon ko arayank isalie kaha jata hai kyonki in grnthon ka manan arany arthath van men kiya jata tha. ye granth aranyon (jngalon) men nivas karane vale sannyasiyon ke margadarshan ke lie likhe ge thai. aranyakon men aitarey aranyak, shankhayant aranyak, brihadaranyak, maitrayani upanishad aranyak tatha tavalakar aranyak (ise jaiminiyopanishad brahman bhi kahate hain) mukhy hain. aitarey tatha shankhayan rigved se, brihadaranyak shukl yajurved se, maitrayani upanishad aranyak krishn yajurved se tatha tavalakar aranyak samaved se sambaddh hain. atharvaved ka koee aranyak upalabdh nahin hai. aranyak granthon men pran vidya ki mahima ka pratipadan vishesh roop se milata hai. inamen kuchh aitihasik tathy bhi hain, jaise- taittiriy aranyak men kuru, pnchal, kashi, videh adi mahajanapadon ka ullekh hai.

upanishad

upanishadon ki kul snkhya 108 hai. pramukh upanishad hain- eesh, ken, kath, mandooky, taittiriy, aitarey, chhandogy, shvetashvatar, brihadaranyak, kaushitaki, mundak, prashn, maitraniy adi. lekin shnkarachary ne jin 10 upanishadon par spana bhashy likha hai, unako pramanik mana gaya hai. ye hain - eesh, ken, mandooky, mundak, taittiriy, aitarey, prashn, chhandogy aur brihadaranyak upanishad. isake atirikt shvetashvatar aur kaushitaki upanishad bhi mahattvapoorn hain. is prakar 103 upanishadon men se keval 13 upanishadon ko hi pramanik mana gaya hai. bharat ka prasiddh adarsh vaky 'satyamev jayate' mundopanishad se liya gaya hai. upanishad gady aur pady donon men hain, jisamen prashn, mandooky, ken, taittiriy, aitarey, chhandogy, brihadaranyak aur kaushitaki upanishad gady men hain tatha ken, eesh, kath aur shvetashvatar upanishad pady men hain.

vedang

vedon ke arth ko achchhi tarah samajhane men vedang kafi sahayak hote hain. vedang shabd se abhipray hai- 'jisake dvara kisi vastu ke svaroop ko samajhane men sahayata mile'. vedango ki kul snkhya 6 hai, jo is prakar hai-
1- shiksha, 2- kalp, 3- vyakaran, 4- nirookt, 5- chhand evn 6- jyotish

brahman granthon men dharmashastr ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai.

  • dharmashastr men char sahity ate hain- 1- dharm sootr, 2- smriti, 3- tika evn 4- nibandh.

smritiyan

smritiyon ko 'dharm shastr' bhi kaha jata hai- 'shrastu ved vigyeyon dharmashastrn tu vaismritiah.' smritiyon ka uday sootron ko bad hua. manushy ke poore jivan se sambndhit anek kriya-kalapon ke bare men asnkhy vidhi-nishedhon ki janakari in smritiyon se milati hai. sambhavatah manusmriti (lagabhag 200 ee.poorv. se 100 ee. madhy) evn yagyvalky smriti sabase prachin hain. us samay ke any mahattvapoorn smritikar the- narad, parashar, brihaspati, katyayan, gautam, snvart, harit, angira adi, jinaka samay sambhavatah 100 ee. se lekar 600 ee. tak tha. manusmriti se us samay ke bharat ke bare men rajanitik, samajik evn dharmik janakari milati hai. narad smriti se gupt vnsh ke sndarbh men janakari milati hai. medhatithi, maruchi, kullook bhatt, govindaraj adi tikakaron ne 'manusmriti' par, jabaki vishvaroop, aparark, vigyaneshvar adi ne 'yagyvalky smriti' par bhashy likhe hain.

mahakavy

'ramayan' evn 'mahabharat', bharat ke do sarvadhik prachin mahakavy hain. yadyapi in donon mahakavyon ke rachanakal ke vishay men kafi vivad hai, phir bhi kuchh upalabdh sakshyon ke adhar par in mahakavyon ka rachanakal chauthi shati ee.poo. se chauthi shati ee. ke madhy mana gaya hai.

ramayan

ramayan ki rachana maharshi balmiki dvara pahali evn doosari shatabdi ke dauran snskrit bhasha men ki gayi . balmiki krit ramayan men moolatah 6000 shlok the, jo kalantar men 12000 hue aur phir 24000 ho gaye . ise 'chaturvishiti sahastri snhita' bhri kaha gaya hai. balmiki dvara rachit ramayan- balakand, ayodhyakand, aranyakand, kishkindhakand, sundarakand, yuddhakand evn uttarakand namak sat kandon men bnta hua hai. ramayan dvara us samay ki rajanitik, samajik evn dharmik sthiti ka gyan hota hai. ramakatha par adharit grnthon ka anuvad sarvapratham bharat se bahar chin men kiya gaya. bhooshundi ramayan ko 'adiramayan' kaha jata hai.

mahabharat

maharshi vyas dvara rachit mahabharat mahakavy ramayan se brihad hai. isaki rachana ka mool samay eesa poorv chauthi shatabdi mana jata hai. mahabharat men moolatah 8800 shlok the tatha isaka nam 'jayasnhita' (vijay snbndhi grnth) tha. bad men shlokon ki snkhya 24000 hone ke pashchath yah vaidik jan bharat ke vnshajon ki katha hone ke karan ‘bharat‘ kahalaya. kalantar men gupt kal men shlokon ki snkhya badhakar ek lakh hone par yah 'shatasahastri snhita' ya 'mahabharat' kahalaya. mahabharat ka prarambhik ullekh 'ashvalay grihasootr' men milata hai. vartaman men is mahakavy men lagabhag ek lakh shlokon ka snkalan hai. mahabharat mahakavy 18 parvo- adi, sabha, van, virat, udyog, bhishm, dron, karn, shaly, sauptik, stri, shanti, anushasan, ashvamedh, ashramavasi, mausal, mahaprasthanik evn svargarohan men vibhajit hai. mahabharat men ‘harivnsh‘ nam parishisht hai. is mahakavy se tatkalin rajanitik, samajik evn dharmik sthiti ka gyan hota hai.

puran

prachin akhyanon se yukt grnth ko puran kahate hain. sambhavatah 5vin se 4thi shatabdi ee.poo. tak puran astitv men a chuke the. brahm vaivart puran men puranon ke panch lakshan bataye ye hain. yah hain- sarp, pratisarg, vnsh, manvantar tatha vnshanucharit. kul puranon ki snkhya 18 hain- 1. brahm puran 2. padm puran 3. vishnu puran 4. vayu puran 5. bhagavat puran 6. naradiy puran, 7. markandey puran 8. agni puran 9. bhavishy puran 10. brahm vaivart puran, 11. ling puran 12. varah puran 13. skand puran 14. vaman puran 15. koorm puran 16. matsy puran 17. garud puran aur 18. brahmand puran

bauddh sahity

bauddh sahity ko ‘tripitak‘ kaha jata hai. mahatma buddh ke parinirvan ke uparant ayojit vibhinn bauddh sngitiyon men snkalit kiye gaye tripitak (snskrit tripitak) sambhavatah sarvadhik prachin dharmagrnth hain. vular evn rij devidj mahoday ne ‘pitak‘ ka shabdik arth tokari bataya hai. tripitak hain-
suttapitak, vinayapitak aur abhidhammapitak.

inhen bhi dekhen: jain sahity evn laukik sahity

jain sahity

aitihasik janakari hetu jain sahity bhi bauddh sahity ki hi tarah mahattvapoorn hain. ab tak upalabdh jain sahity prakrit evn snskrit bhasha men milaten hai. jain sahity, jise ‘agam‘ kaha jata hai, inaki snkhya 12 batayi jati hai. age chalakar inake 'upang' bhi likhe gaye . agamon ke sath-sath jain grnthon men 10 prakirn, 6 chhnd sootr, ek nndi sootr ek anuyogadvar evn char moolasootr hain. in agam grnthon ki rachana sambhavatah shvetambar sampraday ke acharyo dvara mahavir svami ki mrityu ke bad ki gayi.

videshiyon ke vivaran

videshi yatriyon evn lekhakon ke vivaran se bhi hamen bharatiy itihas ki janakariyan milati hai. inako tin bhagon men bant sakate hain-

  1. yoonani-roman lekhak
  2. chini lekhak
  3. arabi lekhak

puratattv

puratatvik sakshy ke antargat mukhyatah abhilekh, sikke, smarak, bhavan, moortiyan chitrakala adi ate hain. itihas nimarn men sahayak puratattv samagri men abhilekhon ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. ye abhilekh adhikanshatah stambhon, shilaon, tamrapatron, mudraon patron, moortiyon, guhaon adi men khude hue milate hain. yadyapi prachinatam abhilekh madhy eshiya ke ‘bogajakoee‘ nam sthan se qarib 1400 ee.poo. men paye gaye jinamen anek vaidik devataon - indr, mitr, varun, nasaty adi ka ullekh milata hai.

chitrakala

chitrakala se hamen us samay ke jivan ke vishay men janakari milati hai. ajnta ke chitron men manaviy bhavanaon ki sundar abhivyakti milati hai. chitron men ‘mata aur shishu‘ ya ‘maranashil rajakumari‘ jaise chitron se guptakal ki kalatmak parakashtha ka poorn praman milata hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: moorti kala mathura evn abhilekh

pashan kal

samast itihas ko tin kalon men vibhajit kiya ja ekata hai-

  1. prakhitihas ya pragaitihasik kal (Prehistoric Age)
  2. ady aitihasik kal (Proto-historic Age)
  3. aitihasik kal (Historic Age)

bharat ki adim (prarnbhik) jatiyan

prarambhik kal men bharat men kitane prakar ki jatiyan nivas karati thin, unamen apasi sambangh kis star ke the, adi prashn atyant hi vivadit hain. phir bhi navinatam sarvadhik manyataon men 'daau. bi.es. guha' ka mat hai. bharatavarsh ki prarambhik jatiyon ko chhah bhagon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. -

  1. nigriton
  2. proto-aaustreliyaeed
  3. mngolayad
  4. bhoomadhy sagariy
  5. pashchimi breki sephal
  6. naaurdik

sindhu ghati sabhyata

aj se lagabhag 70 varsh poorv pakistan ke 'pashchimi pnjab prant' ke 'mantagomari zile' men sthit 'hariyana' ke nivasiyon ko shayad is bat ka kinchitmatr bhi abhas nahin tha ki ve apane as-pas ki zamin men dabi jin eeton ka prayog itane dhadalle se apane makanon ka nirman men kar rahe hain, vah koee sadharan eeten nahin, balki lagabhag 5,000 varsh purani aur poori tarah vikasit sabhyata ke avashesh hain. isaka abhas unhen tab hua jab 1856 ee. men 'jaaun viliyam brantam' ne karachi se lahaur tak relave lain bichhavane hetu eeton ki apoorti ke in khandaharon ki khudaee prarambh karavayi. khudaee ke dauran hi is sabhyata ke pratham avashesh prapt hue, jise is sabhyata ka nam ‘hadappa sabhyata‘ ka nam diya gaya.

hadappa lipi

hadappa lipi ka sarvadhik purana namoona 1853 ee. men mila tha par spashtatah yah lipi 1923 tak prakash men aee. sindhu lipi men lagabhag 64 mool chihn evn 205 se 400 tak akshar hain jo selakhadi ki ayatakar muharon, tanbe ki gutikaon adi par milate hain. yah lipi chitratmak thi. yah lipi abhi tak gadhi nahin ja saki hai. is lipi men prapt sabase bade lekh men qarib 17 chihn hain. kalibnga ke utkhanan se prapt mitti ke thikaron par utkirn chihn apane parshvavarti dahine chihn ko katate hain. isi adhar par 'brajavasi lal' ne yah nishkarsh nikala hai - 'saindhav lipi dahini or se bayin or ko likhi jati thi.'

mrinmoortiyan

hadappa sabhyata se prapt mrinmoortiyon ka nirman mitti se kiya gaya hai. in mrinmoortiyon par manav ke atirikt pashu pakshiyon men bail, bhainsa, bakara, bagh, suar, gainda, bhaloo, bandar, mor, tota, battakh evn kabootar ki mrinamoortiyan mili hai. manav mrinmoortiyan thos hai par pashuon ki khokhali. nar evn nari mrinmoortiyan men sarvadhik nari mrinmoortiyan thos hain, par pashuon ki khokhali. nar evn nari- mrinmoortiyan men sarvadhik nari mrinmoortiyan mili hain.

hadappa sabhyata ke nagaron ki visheshataen

hadappa snskriti ki sarvadhik mahattvapoorn visheshata thi- isaki nagar yojana. is sabhyata ke mahattvapoorn sthalon ke nagar nirman men samaroopata thi. nagaron ke bhavano ke bare men vishisht bat yah thi ki ye jal ki tarah vinyast the.

hadappa janajivan

hadapppa snskriti ki vyapakata evn vikas ko dekhane se aisa lagata hai ki yah sabhyata kisi kendriy shakti se snchalit hoti thi. vaise yah prashn abhi vivad ka vishay bana hua hai, phir bhi choonki hadappavasi vanijy ki or adhik akarshit the, isalie aisa mana jata hai ki sambhavatah hadappa sabhyata ka shasan vanik varg ke hath men tha.

  • hnilar ne sindhu pradesh ke logon ke shasan ko 'madhyam vargiy janatnntratmak shasan' kaha aur usamen dharm ki mahatta ko svikar kiya.
  • stuart piggaaut mahoday ne kaha 'mohanajodadon ka shasan rajatantratmak n hokar janatntratmak' tha.
  • maike ke anusar ‘mohanajodadon ka shasan ek pratinidhi shasak ke hathon tha.

pragaitihasik kal

bharat ka itihas pragaitihasik kal se arambh hota hai. 3000 ee. poorv tatha 1500 ee. poorv ke bich sindhu ghati men ek unnat sabhyata vartaman thi, jisake avashesh mohan jodado (muan-jo-dado) aur hadappa men mile hain. vishvas kiya jata hai ki bharat men aryon ka pravesh bad men hua. aryon ne paya ki is desh men unase poorv ke jo log nivas kar rahe the, unaki sabhyata yadi unase shreshth nahin to kisi riti se nikrisht bhi nahin thi. aryon se poorv ke logon men sabase bada varg dravidon ka tha.

inhen bhi dekhen: ary, aryavart evn dravid nivasi

mahajanapad yug

prachin bharatiyon ne koee tithi kramanusar itihas nahin surakshit rakha hai. sabase prachin sunishchit tithi jo hamen gyat hai, 326 ee. poo. hai, jab maqadooniya ke raja sikandar ne bharat par akraman kiya. is tithi se pahale ki ghatanaon ka taratamy jod kar tatha sahity men surakshit aitihasik anushrutiyon ka upayog karake bharat ka itihas satavin shatabdi ee. poo. tak pahunch jata hai. is kal men bharat qabul ki ghati se lekar godavari tak shodash janapadon men vibhajit tha.

inhen bhi dekhen: brahman, andhak sngh, krishn evn braj

prachin bharat

1200 ee.poo se 240 ee. tak ka bharatiy itihas, prachin bharat ka itihas kahalata hai. isake bad ke bharat ko madhyakalin bharat kahate hain jisamen mukhyatah muslim shasakon ka prabhutv raha tha.

maury aur shung

inhen bhi dekhen: ashok, ashok ke shilalekh, buddh, bauddh darshan, bauddh dharm, fahyan, pataliputr evn takshashila

shak, kushan aur satavahan

inhen bhi dekhen: rabatak lekh, kushan, kanishk, kambojika evn kalhan

gupt

madhyakalin bharat

tin samrajyon ka yug (8vin - 10vin shatabdi)

sat sau pachas aur ek hazar eesvi ke bich uttar tatha dakshin bharat men kee shaktishali samrajyon ka uday hua. naunvin shatabdi tak poorvi aur uttari bharat men pal samrajy tatha dasavin shatabdi tak pashchimi tatha uttari bharat men pratihar samrajy shaktishali bane rahe. rashtrakooton ka prabhav dakkan men to tha hi, kee bar unhonne uttari aur dakshin bharat men bhi apana prabhutv qayam kiya. yadyapi ye tinon samrajy apas men ladate rahate the tathapi inhonne ek bade bhoo-bhag men sthirata qayam rakhi aur sahity tatha kalaon ko protsahit kiya.

inhen bhi dekhen: pal samrajy, rashtrakoot samrajy, prithviraj chauhan, gurjar pratihar samrajy, rajapoot kal evn chol samrajy

islam ka pravesh

is bich 712 ee. men bharat men islam ka pravesh ho chuka tha. muhammad-ibn-qasim ke netritv men musalaman arabon ne sindh par hamala kar diya aur vahan ke brahman raja dahir ko hara diya. is tarah bharat ki bhoomi par pahali bar islam ke pair jam gaye aur bad ki shatabdiyon ke hindoo raja use phir hata nahin sake. parantu sindh par arabon ka shasan vastav men nirbal tha aur 1176 ee. men shahabuddin muhammad gori ne use asani se ukhad diya. isase poorv subuktagin ke netritv men musalamanon ne hamale karake pnjab chhin liya tha aur gazani ke sultan mahamood ne 997 se 1030 ee. ke bich bharat par satrah hamale kiye aur hindoo rajaon ki shakti kuchal dali, phir bhi hindoo rajaon ne musalamani akraman ka jis anavarat riti se prabal virodh kiya, usaka mahattv kam karake nahin ankana chahie.

inhen bhi dekhen: chngez khan, mahamood gazanavi, muhammad bin qasim, muhammad gori, gor ke sultan, chndabaradaee, prithviraj raso evn qutubuddin aibak

arthik samajik jivan, shiksha tatha dharm 800 ee. se 1200 ee.

is kal men bharatiy samaj men kee mahattvapoorn parivartan hue. inamen se ek yah tha ki vishisht varg ke logon ki shakti bahut badhi jinhen 'samnt', 'ranak' athava 'rautt' (rajapoot) adi pukara jata tha. is kal men bharatiy dastakari tatha khanan kary uchch star ka bana raha tatha krishi bhi unnatishil rahi. bharat ane vale kee arab yatriyon ne yahan ki zamin ki urvarata aur bharatiy kisanon ki kushalata ki charcha ki hai. pahale se chali a rahi varn vyavastha is yug men bhi qayam rahi. smritiyon ke lekhakon ne brahmanon ke visheshadhikaron ke bare men badha-chadha kar to kaha hi, shoodron ki samajik aur dharmik ayogyata ko uchit thaharane men to ve pichhale lekhakon se kahin age nikal ge.

dilli saltanat

dilli saltanat ki sthapana bharatiy itihas men yugantakari ghatana hai. shasan ka yah navin svaroop bharat ki poorvavarti rajavyavasthaon se bhinn tha. is kal ke shasak evn unaki prashasanik vyavastha ek aise dharm par adharit thi, jo ki sadharan dharm se bhinn tha. shasakon dvara satta ke abhootapoorv kendrikaran aur krishak varg ke shoshan ka bharatiy itihas men koee udaharan nahin milata hai. dilli saltanat ka kal 1206 ee. se prarambh hokar 1562 ee. tak raha. 320 varshon ke is lambe kal men bharat men muslimon ka shasan vyapt raha. yah kal sthapaty evn vastukala ke liye bhi vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hai.

mamalook athava gulam vnsh

gulam vnsh dilli men kutubaddin aibak dvara 1206 ee. men sthapit kiya gaya tha. yah vnsh 1290 ee. tak shasan karata raha. isaka nam gulam vnsh is karan pada ki isaka snsthapak aur usake iltutamish aur balaban jaise mahanh uttaradhikari prarambh men gulam athava das the aur bad men ve dilli ka sinhasan prapt karane men samarth hue.

iltutamish/altamash

iltutamish dilli saltanat men gulam vnsh ka ek pramukh shasak tha. vnsh ke snsthapak aibak ke bad vo un shasakon men se tha jisase dilli saltanat ki ninv mazaboot huee. vah aibak ka damad bhi tha.

raziya sultan

raziya ka poora nam-raziya alh-din (1205 – 1240), sultan jalalat ud-din raziya tha. vah iltutamish ki putri tatha bharat ki pahali muslim shasika thi.

balaban ka yug

gayasuddin balaban (1266-1286 ee.) ilbari jati ka vyakti tha, jisane ek naye rajavnsh ‘balabani vnsh’ ki sthapana ki thi. gayasuddin balaban gulam vnsh ka navan sultan tha.

khilaji vnsh (1290-1320 ee.)

khilaji kaun the? is vishay men paryapt vivad hai. itihasakar 'nizamuddin ahamad' ne khilaji ko chngez khan ka damad aur kulin khan ka vnshaj, 'barani' ne use turkon se alag evn 'fakharuddin' ne khilajiyon ko turkon ki 64 jatiyon men se ek bataya hai. fakharuddin ke mat ka adhikansh vidvanon ne samarthan kiya hai. choonki bharat ane se poorv hi yah jati afaganistan ke helamand nadi ke tatiy kshetron ke un bhagon men rahati thi, jise khilaji ke nam se jana jata tha. sambhavatah isilie is jati ko khilaji kaha gaya. mamalook athava gulam vnsh ke antim sultan shamasuddin kyoomars ki hatya ke bad hi jalaluddin firoj khilaji sinhasan par baitha tha, isalie itihas men khilaji vnsh ki sthapana ko khilaji kranti ke nam se bhi jana jata hai.

tugalaq vnsh (1320-1414)

gayasuddin ne ek naye vnsh arthath tugalaq vnsh ki sthapana ki, jisane 1412 tak raj kiya. is vnsh men tin yogy shasak hue. gayasuddin, usaka putr muhammad bin tugalaq (1324-51) aur usaka uttaradhikari firoj shah tugalaq (1351-87).

inhen bhi dekhen: saiyad vnsh, lodi vnsh, taimoor lng, vijay nagar samrajy, bahamani vnsh, chngez khan, alauddin khilaji, kabir evn bhakti andolan

mugal

dilli ki saltanat vastav men kamazor thi, kyonki sultanon ne apani vijit hindoo praja ka hriday jitane ka koee prayas nahin kiya. ve dharmik drishti se atyant kattar the aur unhonne balapoorvak hinduon ko musalaman banane ka prayas kiya. isase hindoo praja unase koee sahanubhooti nahin rakhati thi. isak phalasvaroop 1526 ee. men babar ne asani se dilli ki saltanat ko ukhad phainka. usane panipat ki pahali ladaee men antim sultan ibrahim lodi ko hara diya aur mugal vnsh ki pratishthit kiya, jisane 1526 se 1858 ee. tak bharat par shasan kiya. tisara mugal badashah akabar asadharan roop se yogy aur dooradarshi shasak tha. usane apani vijit hindoo praja ka hriday jitane ki koshish ki aur vishesh roop se yuddh priy rajapoot rajaon ko apane paksh men karane ka prayas kiya.

babar (1526-1530)

mugal vnsh ka snsthapak "zahiruddin muhammad babar" tha. babar ka pita 'umar shekh mirza', 'faragana' ka shasak tha, jisaki mrityu ke bad babar rajy ka vastavik adhikari bana.

humayoon (1530-1540 aur 1555-1556)

'nasiruddin muhammad humayoon' ka janm babar ki patni ‘maham begam’ ke garbh se 6 march, 1508 ee. ko kabul men hua tha. babar ke 4 putron- humayoon, kamaran, askari aur hindal men humayoon sabase bada tha. babar ne use apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya tha.

sherashah soori

sherashah soori ke bachapan ka nam 'farid khan' tha. vah vaijavada (hoshiyarapur 1472 ee.) men apane pita 'hasan khan' ki afagan path‍ni se utpann tha. usaka pita hasan, bihar ke sasaram ka zamindar tha.

akabar (1556 - 1605)

akabar mahanh ne dharmik sahishnuta tatha mel-milap ki niti barati, hinduon par se jaziya utha liya aur rajy ke oonche padon par bina bhedabhav ke sirf yogyata ke adhar par niyuktiyan kin. inhen bhi dekhen: akabaranama, abul fazal, tanasen, birabal, rahim evn todaramal

jahangir (1605 - 1627)

'nooruddin salim jahangir' ka janm fatehapur sikari men sthit ‘shekh salim chishti’ ki kutiya men raja bharamal ki beti ‘mariyam-uzh-zamani’ ke garbh se 30 agast, 1569 ee. ko hua tha. akabar salim ko ‘shekhoo baba’ kaha karata tha. salim ka mukhy shikshak abdurrahim khanakhana tha.

shahajahan (1627 - 1658)

shahajahan ka janm jodhapur ke shasak raja udayasinh ki putri 'jagat gosaee' (jodhabaee) ke garbh se 5 janavari, 1592 ee. ko lahaur men hua tha. usaka bachapan ka nam khurram tha. khurram jahangir ka chhota putr tha, jo chhal−bal se apane pita ka uttaradhikari hua tha.

aurngazeb (1658 - 1707)

'muhiuddin muhammad aurngazeb' ka janm 4 navambar, 1618 ee. men gujarat ke ‘dohad’ namak sthan par mumataz ke garbh se hua tha. aurngazeb ke bachapan ka adhikansh samay noorajahan ke pas bita tha.

bahadur shah zafar (1837- 1858)

bahadur shah zafar ka janm 24 aktoobar sanh 1775 ee. ko dilli men hua tha. bahadur shah zafar mugal samrajy ke antim badashah the. inaka shasanakal 1837-58 tak tha. bahadur shah zafar ek kavi, sngitakar v khushanavis the aur rajanitik neta ke bajay saundaryanuragi vyakti adhik the.

inhen bhi dekhen: hemoo, tajamahal, fatehapur sikari evn chitrakala mugal shaili

adhunik kal

maratha

rajapooton aur mugalon ke yog se usane apana samrajy kandahar se asam ki sima tak tatha himalay ki talahati se lekar dakshin men ahamadanagar tak vistrit kar diya. usake putr jahangir jahan pautr shahajahan ke rajyakal men mugal samrajy ka vistar jari raha. shahajahan ne tajamahal ka nirman karaya, parantu kandahar usake hath se nikal gaya. akabar ke prapautr aurngazeb ke rajyakal men mugal samrajy ka vistar apane charam shikhar par pahunch gaya aur kuchh kal ke lie sara bharat usake antargat ho gaya. parantu aurngazeb ne jan-boojhakar akabar ki dharmik sahishnuta ki niti tyag di aur hinduon ko apane viruddh kar liya. usane hindustan ka shasan sirf musalamanon ke hit men chalane ki koshish ki aur hinduon ko zabardasti musalaman banane ka asaphal prayas kiya. isase rajapootana, bundelakhand tatha pnjab ke hindoo usake viruddh uth khade hue.

inhen bhi dekhen: shivaji, tanaji, ahilyabaee holkar, jaton ka itihas, vasko d gama, angrez evn sipahi kranti 1857

eest indiya kampani

atharahavin shatabdi ke shuroo men angrejon ki eest indiya kampani ne bambee (mumbee), madras (chennee) tatha kalakatta (kolakata) par qabza kar liya. udhar phransisiyon ki eest indiya kampani ne mahe, pandicheri tatha chndranagar par qabza kar liya. unhen apani senaon men bharatiy sipahiyon ko bharati karane ki bhi ijazat mil gayi. ve in bharatiy sipahiyon ka upayog n keval apani apasi ladaiyon men karate the balki is desh ke rajaon ke viruddh bhi karate the. in rajaon ki apasi pratidvandvita aur kamazori ne inaki rajanitik mahattvakanksha ko jagrat kar diya aur unhonne kuchh deshi rajaon ke viruddh doosare deshi rajaon se sndhiyan kar lin. 1744-49 ee. men mugal badashah ki prabhusatta ki poorn upeksha karake unhonne apas men karnatak ki doosari ladaee chhedi.

inhen bhi dekhen: maisoor yuddh, tipoo sultan, panipat yuddh, regyuleting ekt evn gavarnar-janaral

gavarnar-janaralon ka samay

kampani ke shasan kal men bharat ka prashasan ek ke bad ek baees gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. is kal ke bharatiy itihas ki sabase ullekhaniy ghatana yah hai ki kampani yuddh tatha kootaniti ke dvara bharat men apane samrajy ka uttarottar vistar karati rahi. maisoor ke sath char ladaiyan, marathon ke sath tin, barma (myanmar) tatha sikhon ke sath do-do ladaiyan tatha sindh ke amiron, gorakhon tatha afaganistan ke sath ek-ek ladaee chhedi gayi. inamen se pratyek ladaee men kampani ko ek ya doosare deshi raja ki madad mili.

pratham svatntrata sngram

is kal men sati pratha ka ant kar dene ke saman kuchh samajik sudhar ke bhi kary kiye gaye. raja ramamohan ray ne sati pratha jaisi amanaviy pratha ke viruddh nirantar andolan chalaya. unake poorn aur nirantar samarthan ka hi prabhav tha, jisake karan laaurd viliyam baintik 1829 men sati pratha ko band karane men samarth ho saka. angrezi ke madhyam se pashchim shiksha ke prasar ki disha men qadam uthaye gaye, angrezi desh ki rajabhasha bana di gayi, sare desh men saman zabta divani aur zabta faujadari qanoon lagoo kar diya gaya, parantu shasan svechchhachari bana raha aur vah poori tarah angrezon ke hathon men raha.

inhen bhi dekhen: jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tatya tope, raja ramamohan ray, sati pratha evn bharatiy rashtriy kangres

asahayog aur satyagrah

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke kuchh sudharon se purane kangresajan sntusht ho gaye, parantu nav yuvakon ka dal, jise mohanadas karamachnd gandhi ke roop men ek naya neta mil gaya tha, sntusht nahin hua. in sudharon ke antargat kendriy karyapalika ko kendriy vidhan mndal ke prati uttaradayi nahin banaya gaya tha aur vaisaray ko bahut adhik adhikar pradan kar diye gaye the. atev usane in sudharon ko asvikrit kar diya. usake man men jo ashnkaen thin, ve galat nahin thi, yah 1919 ke ekt ke bad hi pas kiye gaye raulat ekt jaise damanakari qanoonon tatha jaliyanvala bag hatyakannd jaise damanamoolak karyon se siddh ho gaya. jaliyanvala bag hatyakand ke 21 sal bad 13 march 1940 ko 'raauyal sentral eshiyan sosayati' ki lndan ke 'kaauksatan haaul' men baithak men oodhamasinh ne maikal o dayar par goliyan chala din. jisase usaki turant maut ho gee. chndrashekhar azad, rajaguru, sukhadev aur bhagatasinh jaise mahanh krantikariyon ne british shasan ko aise ghav diye jinhen british shasak bahut dinon tak nahin bhool pae. kangres ne 1920 ee. men apane nagapur adhiveshan men apana dhyey poorn svarajy ki sthapana ghoshit kar di aur apani mangon ko manavane ke lie usane ahinsak asahayong ki niti apanayi. choonki british sarakar ne usaki mangen svikar nahin ki aur damanakari niti ke dvara vah asahayog andolan ko daba dene men saphal ho gayi. isalie kangres ne disambar 1929 ee. men lahaur adhiveshan men apana lakshy poorn svidhinata nishchit kiya aur apani mang ka manavane ke lie usane 1930 men namak satyagrah andolan shuroo kar diya.

bharat ka vibhajan

kuchh british afasaron ne bharat ko svadhin hone se rokane ke lie antim durrabh sndhi ki aur musalamanon ke liye bharat vibhajan karake pakistan ki sthapana ki mang ka samarthan karana shuroo kar diya. isake phalasvaroop agast 1946 ee. men sare desh men bhayanak sampradayik dnge shuroo ho gaye, jinhen vaisaray laaurd vevel apane samast fauji anubhavon tatha sadhanon bavajood rokan men asaphal raha. yah anubhav kiya gaya ki bharat ka prashasan aisi sarakar ke dvara chalana sambhav nahin hai. jisaka niyntran mukhy roop se angrejon ke hathon men ho. atev sitambar 1946 ee. men laaurd vevel ne pndit javahar lal neharoo ke netritv men bharatiy netaon ki ek antarim sarakar gathit ki. british adhikariyon ki kripapatr hone ke karan muslim lig ke dimag kafi oonche ho gaye the. usane pahale to ek mahine tak antarim sarakar se apane ko alag rakha, isake bad vah bhi usamen sammilit ho gayi.

inhen bhi dekhen: bharat ka itihas (tithi kram), saradar patel evn mahatma gandhi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dekhen: shodh grnth vels, spensar (2002) a jenetik odisi (angrezi). prinsatan yoonivarsiti pras, nyoo jarsi, sn.ra.amarika. ISBN 0-691-11532-X.
  2. pustak 'bharat ka itihas' romila thapar) prishth snkhya-19

snbndhit lekh

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