भारत का भूगोल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
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bharat ganarajy
Republic of India
India-Flag.jpg Emblem-of-India.png
bharat ka dhvaj bharat ka kulachihn
rashtravaky: "satyamev jayate" (snskrit) saty hi vijayi hota hai[1]
rashtragan: jan gan man
bharat ki sthiti
rajadhani nee dilli
28° 34′ N 77° 12′ E
sabase bade nagar dilli, mumbee, kolakata aur chennee
rajabhasha(en) hindi sngh ki rajabhasha hai,
angrezi "sahayak rajabhasha" hai.
any bhashaen bangla, gujarati, kannad, malayalam, marathi aur any
sarakar prakar ganarajy
ramanath kovind
venkaiya nayadoo
sumitra mahajan
narendr modi
dipak mishra
vidhayika
-upari sadan
-nichala sadan
bharatiy snsad
rajy sabha
lok sabha
svatntrata
tithi
ganarajy
snyukt rajashahi se
15 agast, 1947
26 janavari, 1950
kshetraphal
 - kul
 
 - jaliy (%)
 
32,87,263 kimi² (satavan)
12,22,559 mil² 
9.56
janasnkhya
 - 2011
 - 2001 janaganana
 - janasnkhya ghanatv
 
1,21,01,93,422[2] (dvitiy)
1,02,70,15,248
382[2]/kimi² (27 van)
954[3]/ mil² 
sakal ghareloo utpad (pipipi)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$4,824 arab[4] 
$3,944[4] 
sakal ghareloo utpad (sanketik)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$1,779 arab[4] 
$1,454[4] 
manav vikas snketank (echadiaee) 0.547 (134 vin) – madhyam
mudra bharatiy rupaya Rupee-symbol.gif (aienar (INR))
samay mandal
 - grishm ritu (delait seving taim)
aiesati (IST) (UTC+5:30)
anusaran nahin kiya jata (UTC+5:30)
intaranet tieladi .in
vahan chalate hain baen
doorabhash kod ++91
any mahatvapoorn janakari
simaon men sthit desh uttar pashchim men afaganistan aur pakistan, uttar men bhootan aur nepal; poorab men myanmar, bangladesh. shrilnka bharat se samudr ke snkirn nahar dvara alag kiya jata hai jo palk stret aur mannar ki khadi dvara nirmit hai.
samudr tat 7,516.6 kilomitar jisamen mukhy bhoomi, lakshadvip aur andaman aur nikobar dvipasamooh shamil hain.
jalavayu sardi (disambar-faravari); garmi (march-joon); dakshin pashchim manasoon ka mausam (joon-sitambar); manasoon pashch mausam (aktoobar-navambar)
bhoo-bhag mukhy bhoomi men char kshetr hain- gret maunten jon, gnga aur sindhu ka maidan, registan kshetr aur dakshini peninsula.
prakritik snsadhan koyala, lauh ayask, maiganij ayask, maika, baauksait, petroliyam, taitaniyam ayask, kromait, prakritik gais, maiganesait, choona patthar, arabal lend, dolomait, maoolin, jipsam, apadait, phosaphorait, stitail, phlorait adi.
prakritik apada manasooni badh, phlesh badh, bhookamp, sookha, zamin khisakana.
janasnkhya vriddhi dar ausat varshik ghatanki vriddhi dar varsh 2001-2011 ke dauran 1.64 pratishat hai.
ling anupat 1000:940 (2011)
dharm varsh 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar 1,028 miliyan desh ki kul janasnkhya men se 80.5 pratishat ke sath hinduon ki adhikanshata hai doosare sthan par 13.4 pratishat ki janasnkhya vale muslim isake bad eesaee, sikh, bauddh, jain aur any ate hain.
saksharata 74.04% (2011) purush- 82.14% mahilaen- 65.46%
sambhavit jivan dar 65.8 varsh (purush); 68.1 varsh (mahila)[5]
jatiy anupat sabhi panch mukhy prakar ki jatiyan- aaustreliyad, mongolaauyad, yooropaauyad, kokosin aur nigroid.
karyapalika shakha bharat ka rashtrapati desh ka pradhan hota hai, jabaki pradhanamntri sarakar ka pramukh hota hai aur mntriparishadh ki sahayata se shasan chalata hai jo mntrimndal mntralay ka gathan karate hain.
nyayapalika shakha bharat ka sarvochch nyayalay bharatiy kanoon vyavastha ka shirsh nikay hai isake bad any uchch nyayalay aur adhinasth nyayalay ate hain.
any janakari bharat ka rashtriy dhvaj ayatakar tirnga hai jisamen kesariya oopar hai, bich men safed, aur barabar bhag men niche gahara hara hai. safed patti ke kendr men gahara nila chakr hai jo saranath men ashok chakr ko darshata hai.
bahari kadiyan bharat ki adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

prachin kal men aryon ki bharat nam ki shakha dvara himalay parvat ke dakshini bhag ke anaryon athava aryo ko parajit karake us bhoobhag ka nam bharat shakha ke nam par hi bharatavarsh rakha gaya tatha isake uttar-pashchim men pravahit hone vali nadi ko sindhu nam diya gaya. kalantar men eeraniyon ne ise hindoo tatha desh ko hindustan kaha, jabaki yoonaniyon ne sindhu nadi ko indas aur us desh ko, jahan yah nadi pravahit hoti hai. 'indiya' nam diya. vartaman samay men yahi desh vishv men 'bharat' evn 'indiya' donon namon se jana jata hai.

kas pathar

bharat ke mukhh‍y bhoobhag men char kshetr hain, namat: mahaparvat kshetr, gnga aur sindhu nadi ke maidani kshetr aur maroosh‍thali kshetr aur dakshini prayadvip. himalay ki tin shrinkhalaen hain, jo lagabhag samanantar phaili huee hain. isake bich bade - bade pathar aur ghatiyan hain, inamen kashmir aur kulloo jaisi kuchh ghatiyan upajaoo, vish‍trit aur prakritik saundary se bharapoor hain. snsar ki sabase oonchi chotiyon men se kuchh inh‍hin parvat shrinkhalaon men hain. adhik oonchaee ke karan ana -jana keval kuchh hi darron se ho pata hai, jinamen mukhh‍y hain -

parvatiy divar lagabhag 2,400 ki.mi. ki doori tak phaili hai, jo 240 kimi se 320 kimi tak chaudi hai. poorv men bharat tatha myanmar aur bharat evn bangladesh ke bich men pahadi shrinkhalaon ki oonchaee bahut kam hai. lagabhag poorv se pashchim tak phaili huee garo, khasi, jaintiya aur naga pahadiyan uttar se dakshin tak phaili mizo tatha rakhain pahadiyon ki shrinkhala se ja milati hain.

marush‍thali kshetr ko do bhagon men banta ja sakata hai bada marush‍thal kachh‍chh ke ran ki sima se luni nadi ke uth‍tari or age tak phaila hua hai. rajasthan sindh ki poori sima isase hokar gujarati hai. chhota marush‍thal luni se jaisalamer aur jodhapur ke bich uth‍tari bhoobhag tak phaila hua bade aur chhote marush‍thal ke bich ka kshetr bilh‍kul hi bnjar hai jisamen choone ke path‍thar ki parvat mala dvara prithakh kiya hua patharila bhoobhag hai.

parvat samooh aur pahadi shrinkhalaen jinaki oonchaee 460 se 1,220 mitar hai, prayadvipiy pathar ko gnga aur sindhu ke maidani kshetron se alag karati hain. inamen pramukh hain aravali, vindhh‍y, satapuda, maikala aur ajanh‍ta. is prayadvip ki ek or poorv ghat doosari or pashchimi ghat hai jinaki oonchaee samanh‍yat: 915 se 1,220 mitar hai, kuchh sh‍thanon men 2,440 mitar se adhik oonchaee hai. pashchimi ghaton aur arab sagar ke bich ek snkirn tatavarti patti hai jabaki poorv ghat aur bngal ki khadi ke bich ka vish‍trit tatavarti kshetr hai. pathar ka dakshini bhag nilagiri pahadiyon dvara nirmit hai jahan poorvi aur pashchimi ghat milate hain. isake age ilayachi ki pahadiyan pashchimi ghat ke vish‍taran ke rup men mani ja sakati hain.

bhoogarbhiy snrachana

bhoo‍vaigyanik kshetr vh‍yapak rup se bhautik visheshataon ka palan karate hain aur inh‍hen tin kshetron ke samooh men rakha ja sakata hai:

uth‍tar men himalay parvat kshetr aur poorv men nagalushaee parvat, parvat nirman gatividhi ke kshetr hai. is kshetr ka adhikansh bhag jo vartaman samay men vishh‍v ka sarvadhik sundar parvat drishh‍y prash‍tut karata hai, 60 karod varsh pahale samudri kshetr men tha. 7 karod varsh pahale shuroo hue parvat-nirman gatividhiyon ki shrinkhala men talachhaten aur adhar chattanen kafi oonchaee tak pahunch gee. aj ham jo in par ubhar dekhate hain, unako uth‍panh‍n karane men apakshay aur aparadak ne kary kiya. bharat-gnga ke maidani kshetr ek jalodh bhoobhag hain jo dakshin ke prayadvip se uth‍tar men himachal ko alag karate hain.

prayadvip sapeksh sthirata aur kabhi-kabhar bhooknpiy pareshaniyon ka kshetr hai. 380 karod varsh pahale ke prarnbhik kal ki ath‍yadhik kayantarit chattanen is kshetr men payi jati hain, baqi kshetr gondavana ke tatavarti kshetr se ghira hai, dakshin men sidhidar rachana aur chhoti talachhaten lava ke pravah se nirmit hain.

bhaugolik sthiti

prithvi ke uttari golarddh men 804‘ uttari akshansh 3706 uttari akshansh tatha 6807‘ poorvi deshantar se 97025‘ poorvi deshantar ke bich 32,87,782 varg kimi kshetraphal par vistrit bharat hind mahasagar ke uttari men sthit hai. is prakar isaka akshanshiy tatha deshantariy vistar lagabhag 300 hai. bharat ki mukhy bhoomi se door andaman evn nikobar dvip samooh ka dakshinatam bindu 'indira pvaint' 6030‘ uttari akshansh par gret nikobar men sthit hai.

8201/2 poorvi deshantar isake lagabhag madhy se hokar gujarati hai, jo ki desh ka manak samay bhi hai. poorv se pashchim tak isaki lambaee 2,933 kimi tatha uttar se dakshin tak lambaee 3,214 kimi hai. isaki sthaliy sima ki lambaee 15,200 kimi tatha dvip sahit jaliy sima ki lambaee 7516,6 kimi hai. mukhy dharataliy bhag ki samudri sima ki lambaee 6100 kimi hai. yadi andaman-nikobar tatha lakshadvip dvip samoohon ko bhi sammilit kiya jae to bharat ki tatiy sima 7516.6 kimi ho jati hai. kshetraphal ki drishti se bharat vishv ka satavan bada desh hai. isase bade 6 desh hain - roos, kanada, chin, snyukt rajy amarika, brajil tatha astreliya. isake viparit bharat pakistan se 4 guna, phrans se 6 guna, jarmani se 9 guna tatha bangladesh se 23 guna bada hai. bharat ka dhur dakshini bhag bhoomadhy rekha se matr 876 kimi door hai.

bhoo-akriti

vishv men kshetraphal evn janasnkhya ki drishti se sabase bade mahadvipiy eshiya men sthit bharat ki akriti poornatah tribhujakar n hokar chatushkoniy he evn yah bhoomadhyarekh ke uttar men sthit hai. kark rekha isake lagabhag madhy bhag se hokar gujarati hai. kark rekha jin pradeshon se hokar gujarati hai ve hain - gujarat, rajasthan, madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, bihar, jharakhand, pashchim bngal, tripura tath mijoram. desh ka manak samay grinavich taim se 5 ghnten 30 minat age hai.

arunachal pradesh tatha saurashtr ke bich sthaniy samay ka antar 30x40=120 minat arthath do ghante ka hai kyonki arunanchal pradesh saurashtr ke poorv men hai, isalie sooryoday vahan pahale hoga. poora bharat uttari golarddh men sthit hai.

bharat men uttar-pashchim men indira kaaul par desh ki sthaliy sima afaganistan, pakistan, tajakistan aur chin se milati hai jabaki sudoor uttari-poorvi kone par bharatiy sima ke sath chin aur myanmar ki simaen apas men milati hain. isaka sabase dakshini bindu andaman-nikobar dvip samooh men sthit hai, jisako vartaman men indira pvaint ke nam se jana jata hai. isake poorv nam hain - la hi ching, pigameliyam pvaauint tatha parasan pvaauint. dvipon samep desh ki samudri sima ki kul lambaee 7516,6 kimi. hai.

desh samprati 28 rajyon tatha 7 kendr shasit pradeshon ka ek sngh hai. isaki pradeshik jal sima adhar par rekha se mape gaye 12 samudri mil ki doori tak hai jabaki snlagn kshetr ki doori pradeshik jal sima ke age 24 samudri mil tak hai. is kshetr men bharat ko svachchhata ka prabandh karane, sima shulk ki vasooli karane adi ka adhikar prapt hai. desh ka ekantik arthik kshetr snlagn kshetr ke age 200 samudri mil tak hain, jisamen vaigyanik shodhakaryon ko karane tatha kritrim dvipon ka nirman evn prakritik snsadhanon ka vidohan karane ki chhoot mili huee hai.

kshetraphal

yadyapi desh ka kshetraphal vishv ke kul kshetraphal ka matr 2.42 pratishat hi hai, kintu yahan par vishv ki lagabhag 16 pratishat janasnkhya nivas karati hai. yahan ki prakritik banavat, snsadhan kshamata adi ko dekhate hue jarj bi. krainsi. ne apani bhaugolik pustak 'eshiya ki bhoomi evn nivasi' men likha hai ki 'bharat ko mahadvip kahalane ka utana hi adhikar hai jitana ki yoorop ko.'

desh ki simaen

desh ki simaen prakritik evn manav nirmit donon prakar ki hai. bharat ki sthaliy simaen uttar men tajakistan, chin v nepal, uttar pashchim men afaganistan, pashchim men pakistan, poorv men bangladesh evn myanmar tatha uttar-poorv men bhootan se milati hai. pashchim men pakistan aur poorv men bangladesh ke sath bharat ki simaen kritrim athava manav nirmit hain jabaki any 6 deshon - afaganistan, tajakistan, chin, nepal, bhootan tatha myanmar ke sath bharat ki simaen prakritik hain. ye prakritik simaen samanyatah oonchi parvat shrinkhalaon ke roop men hai. uttar men himalay parvat hamari sima banata hai. isaki mustagh, agol, kunalun tatha karakoram shreniyan jammoo kashmir ki sima par hai. yahan par eshiya ke char pramukh deshon:

  1. chin
  2. bharat
  3. afaganistan
  4. pakistan ki sima akar milati hai.

bharat ke poorv ki or uchch himalay ka bhag hai jo bharat tatha chin ke bich antarrashtriy sima ka kary karata hai. ise maikamohan rekha ke nam se jana jata hai. bharat ke sudoor uttari poorvi kone par uttari-poorvi trisandhi hai jahan par bharat, chin tatha myanmar ki simaen apas men milati hai. pakistan evn bharat ki sima ko sparsh karane vale bharatiy rajy hain - jammoo-kashmir, pnjab, rajasthan tatha gujarat; jabaki afaganistan ki sima matr jammoo kashmir rajy ko sparsh karati hai. bharat evn chin ki sima se sate rajy hain - jammoo kashmir rajy ko sparsh karati hai. bharat evn chin ki sima se sate rajy hain - jammoo-kashmir rajy ko sparsh karati hai. bharat evn chin ki sima se sate rajy hain - jammoo-kashmir, himachal pradesh, uttarakhand, sikkim tatha arunachal pradesh. arunachal pradesh, nagalaind, manipur tatha mijoram ki simaen uttar-poorv men sthit myanmar ko sparsh karati hain. bangladesh evn bharat ki sima se lage bharatiy rajy hain - mijoram, tripura, asam, meghalay tatha pashchim bngal.

vartaman men bharat ke 9 rajyon v 5 kendrashasit pradeshon ki simaen samudri tatarekha se lage hain. ye rajy hain - karnatak, maharashtr, gova, keral, tamilanadu, andhr pradesh, udisa aur pashchim bngal. kendrashasit pradeshon men puducheri, lakshadvip, andaman aur nikobar dvip samooh, dadara evn nagar haveli tatha daman evn div ki simaen bhi samudr se lagati hai. bharat ki sabase lambi sima sthaliy sima chin ke sath lagati hai jabaki sabase chhoti sthaliy sima bhootan ke sath snlagn hai. is prakar bharat ki sthiti kafi mahattvapoorn hai evn himalay parvatamala tatha hind mahasagar ke shirsh par bharat ki kendriy sthiti hai. bharat ke nikatatam padosi desh hain - pakistan, afaganistan, chin, nepal, myanmar tatha bangladesh. pak jalasandhi dvara alag hua shrilnka bhi hind mahasagar men sthit pados desh hai. bhootan jaisa padosi desh ek vishesh sandhi dvara bharat par nirbhar karata hai evn isaki pratiraksha, vikas adi karyon ka uttaradayitv bharat par hai. samudr par bharat ka sabase nikatatam padosi shrilnka hai, jise pak jaladamaroomadhy bharat se prithakh karata hai. isi prakar bharat ka doosara sabase nikatatam padosi desh indoneshiya hai. indoneshiya ke sumatra dvip aur bharat ke gret nikobar dvip ko gret chainal prithakh karata hai. maladiv bharat ka ek any padosi desh hai jo lakshadvip ke dakshin men sthit hai.

bharat ki bhoo-akritik ikaeeyan

ikaiyan kshetraphal kul kshetraphal ka pratishat
uttari parvat shreniyan 5,78,000 17.9
vishal maidan 5,50,000 17.9
thar marusthal 1,75,000 5.4
madhyavarti uchch bhoomi 3,36,000 10.4
prayadvipiy pathar 12,41,000 38.5
tatiy maidan 3,35,000 10.4
dvipiy samooh 8,300 0.3
desh sima par avasthit bharatiy rajy
pakistan gujarat, rajasthan, pnjab aur jammoo kashmir
afaganistan jammoo kashmir
tajakistan jammoo kashmir
chin jammoo kashmir, himachal pradesh, uttarakhnd, sikkim aur arunachal pradesh
nepal uttarakhnd, uttar pradesh, bihar, sikkim aur pashchim bngal
bhootan sikkim, pashchimi bngal, asam aur arunachal pradesh
bangladesh pashchim bngal, asam, meghalay aur tripura
myanmar arunachal pradesh, nagalaind, manipur aur mijoram

bhautik svaroop

vrihat himalay ke pramukh shikhar
shikhar oonchaee (mi.)
evarest (sagar matha) 8,848 mi.
evarest dakshin 8,754 min.
knchanajnga 8,594 min.
lhotse 8,501 min.
makaloo 8,481 min.
knchanajnga (dakshin) 8,471 min.
knchanajnga (pashchim) 8,420 min.
lhotse madhy 8,410 min.
lhotse shar 8,384 min.
dhaulagiri 8,172 min.
manasloo 8,156 min.
chioyoo 8,153 min.
nnga parvat 8,126 min.
annapoorna 8,078 min.
gosaee nath 8,013 min.
makaloo (dakshin) 8,010 min.
nanda devi 7,817 min.
namachabarava 7,756 min.
haramosh 7,397 min.

bharat ka vishal kshetr bhautik drishti se sarvatr saman nahin hai balki isake uchchavachan men kafi vividhata payi jati hai. isamen kahin par to uchch parvat shreniyan hain aur kahin par vishal maidan. nadi ghantiyan evn pathari bhag bhi desh men vidyaman hain. yadi uttar men himalay jaisi navin parvat malaen sthit hain; to aravali, satapuda, vindhyachal jaisi prachin parvat shreniyan bhi hain. desh ke kul kshetraphal ke 10.7 pratishat bhag par uchch parvat shreniyon ka vistar paya jata hai, jinaki oonchaee samudr tat se 2,135 mi. ya isake adhik hai. samudr tat se 305 se 2,135 mi. tak ki oonchaee vali pahadiyan bhi desh ke 18.6 pratishat bhag par phaili hain. is prakar kul parvatiy bhag 29.3 pratishat hai. samudr tat se 305 se 915 min tak oonchaee vale pathari bhag ka vistar bhi desh ke 27.7 pratishat kshetr par hai, jabaki shesh 43.0 pratishat par vistrit maidan paye jate hain. uchchavachan ki drishti se bharat ko samanyatah char prakritik ya bhautik bhagon men vargikrit kiya jata hai, jo hain:

  1. uttar ka parvatiy evn pahadi pradesh
  2. uttar ka vishal maidan
  3. prayadvipiy pathari bhag
  4. samudr tatiy maidan. punah thar ka vishal marusthal tatha sagariy bhag men sthit dvip bhi ek vishesh prakar ka bhautik svaroop prastut karate hain.

uttar ka parvatiy evn pahadi pradesh

is pradesh ka himalay parvatiy pradesh ke roop men bhi jana jata hai, jo desh ki uttar sima par ek chap ke akar men 2400 kimi. ki lambaee men phaila hai. isaka kshetraphal lagabhag 5 lakh varg kimi hai. isaka udgam pamir ki ganth se hua hai. isaki utpatti vastutah ek bhoo-droni, jise tethis sagar kahate hain, se huee hai. himalay parvat shreni ki kul lambaee makaran tat par sthit gvadar se lekar poorv men mijon pahadiyon tak 2,400 kimi. hai, jabaki isaki chaudaee pashchim men 400 kimi aur poorab men 160 kimi. tak hai. himalay ki sthalakritiyon men mukhyatah tin lnbi aur ghumavadar shreniyan hain, jinaki oonchaee dakshin se uttar ki or kramashah badhati jati hai. mnd gati ke karan inhen vartaman oonchaee ko prapt karane men 70 lakh varsh lage hain. bhautik drishti se himalay me char samantar shreniyan milati hain jinamen, sabase uttar men trans athava tibbat himalay, usake dakshin men kramashah mahanh athava antarik himalay, laghu athava madhy himalay tatha up athava shivalik shreni sthit hain.

trans athava tibbat himalay shreni sabase uttar men sthit hain. isaki khoj sanh 1906 svain mahoday ne ki thi. isaki lambaee 100 kimi. tatha chaudaee poorvi tatha pashchimi kinaron par 40 kimi evn bich men 225 kimi tak payi jati hai. is shreni ki ausat oonchaee 3,100 se 3,700 mi tak payi jati hai. is shreni ki ausat oonchaee 3,100 se 3,700 min tak hai evn shit katibandhiy jalavayu ke karan is par vanaspatiyon ka poorn abhav paya jata hai. yah shreni bngal ki khadi men girane vali nadiyon tatha uttar disha men bhoo-aveshthit jhilon se nikalane vali nadiyon ke bich jal vibhajak ki bhoomika nibhati hai.

himalay tin samanantar parvat shrnkhalaon men avasthit hai jo pashchim men sindhu garj se poorv men brahmaputr garj tak vistrit hai. kashmir se arunachal pradesh tak himalay parvat shrnkhala ka vistar 2500 kimi. hai. is parvat shrinkhala ki poorv men chaudaee 150 kimi. tatha pashchim men 500 kimi tak hai. adhyayan ki suvidha ki drishti se himalay parvat shreni ko tin vrihath bhagon men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai.

mahan (vrihath) athava antarik himalay

mahan athava antarik himalay hi himalay parvatamala ki sabase pramukh tatha savochch tatha sarvochch shreni hai, jisaki lambaee uttar men sindhu nadi ke mod se poorv men brahmaputr nadi ke mod tak 2,500 kimi. hai. isaki chaudaee 120 se 190 kimi. tak tatha ausat oonchaee 6,100 min. hai. atyadhik oonchaee ke karan himalay sala bhar barf se dhnka rahata hain, atah ise himadri bhi kahate hain. is shreni men vishv ki sarvochch parvat chotiyan paee jati hain, jinamen pramukh hain - maunt evarest (8,848 mi.), knchanajnga (8,598 min.), makaloo (8,481 min.), dhaulagiri (8,172 mi.), manasaloo (8156 mi.), nnga parvat (8,126 min.), annapoorna (8,078 mi.), govaee than (8,013 mi.), nanda devi (7,817 mi.), namachabarava (7,756 mi.), haramosh (7,397 mi.), adi. is shreni men uttar pashchim ki or jaskar shreni ke uttar-dakshin men devasaee tatha roopashoo ke oonche maidan milate hain. sindhu, sataluj, dihang, gnga, yamuna tatha inaki sahayak nadiyon ki ghatiyan isi shreni men sthit hai.

laghu athava madhy himalay shreni

yah mahanh himalay ke dakshin ke usake samanantar vistrit hai. isaki chaudaee 80 se 100 kimi. tak ausat oonchaee 1,828 se 3,000 ke bich payi jati hai. is shreni men nadiyon dvara 1,000 min. se bhi adhik gahare khaddon athava garjon ka nirman kiya gaya hai. yah shreni mukhyatah chhoti-chhoti parvat shreniyon jaise - dhauladhar, nagativa, pirapnjal, mahabharat tatha masoori kasammilit roop hai. is shreni ke nichale bhag men desh ke prasiddh parvatiy svasthyavarddhak sthan - shimala, masoori, nainital, chakarata, ranikhet, darjiling adi sthit hai. vrihat tatha laghu himalay ke bich vistrit ghatiyan hain jinamen kashmir ghati tatha nepal men kathamandoo ghati prasiddh hai. is shreni ke dhalon par milane vale chhote-chhote ghas ke maidanon ko jammoo-kashmir men marg (jaise-sonamarg, gulamarg adi) tatha uttarakhand men bugyal evn payar kaha jata he.

up himalay ya shivalik shreni

yah himalay ki sabase dakshini shreni hai evn isako ‘vahm himalay’ ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah himalay parvat ki dakshinatam shreni hai jo laghu himalay ke dakshin men isake samanantar poorv-pashchim disha men phaili huee hai. isaki ausat oonchaee 900 se 12,00 mitar tak ausat chaudaee 10 se 50 kimi hai. isaka vistar pakistan ke potavar pathar se poorv men kosi nadi tak hai. gorakhapur ke samip ise doondava shreni tatha poorv ki or chooriyamooriya shreni ke sthaniy nam se bhi pukara jata hai. yah himalay parvat ka sabase navin bhag hai. laghu tatha vahm himalay ke bich payi jane vali vistrit ghatiyon ko pashchim men ‘doon’ tatha poorv men ‘dvar’ kaha jata hai. deharadoon, ketharidoon tatha patalidoon aur haridvar isake pramukh udaharan hai.

himalay parvat shreniyon ki disha men asam se poorv se uttar poorv ho jati hai. namachabaracha ke age yah shreniyan dakshini disha men mudakar patakoee, naga, manipur, lushaee, arakanayoma, adi shreniyon ke roop men sthit hain jo bharat evn myanmar ke madhy sima banati hai.

shivalik ko jammoo men jammoo pahadiyan tatha arunachal pradesh men daphala, giri, avor aur mishami pahadiyon ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. aksaeechin, devasaee, dishasng tatha lingajitang ke uchch tarngit maidan in parvaton ke nirman se pahale hi kriteshash kal men ban chuke the jo aparadan dharatal ke praman hain.

uttar ka vishal maidan

himalay parvat ki utpatti ke pashchath usake dakshin tatha prachin shailon se nirmit prayadvipiy pathar ke uttar men, donon uchch sthalon se nikalane vali nadiyon, sindhu, gnga, brahmaputr, adi dvara jama ki gee jalodh mitti ke jamav se uttar ke vishal maidan ka nirman hua hai. is maidan ko sindhu-gnga brahmaputr ka maidan bhi kahate hain. yah maidan dhanushakar roop men 3200 kimi. ki lambaee men desh ke 7.5 lakh varg kimi. kshetr par vistrit hain. isaki chaudaee pashchim men 480 kimi tatha poorv men matr 145 kimi hai. pradeshik drishti se uttari rajasthan, pnjab, hariyana, uttar pradesh, bihar, pashchim bngal, udisa tatha asam men isaka vistar hain. in maidan ko pashchimi tatha poorvi do bhag men banta jata hai. pashchimi maidan ka adhikansh bhag vartaman pakistan ke sindh prant men padata hai, jabaki isaka kuchh bhag pnjab v hariyana rajyon men bhi milata hai. isaka nirman, satajal, vyas tatha ravi evn inaki sahayak nadiyon dvara kiya gaya hai. poorvi maidan ka vistan uttar pradesh, bihar tatha pashchim bngal rajyon men hain, jisaka kshetraphal 3.57 lakh varg kimi. hai. is maidan men dharataliy bhoo-akriti ke adhar par bangar tatha khadar namak do vishesh bhag milate hain. bangar prachinatam sngrahit purani jalodh mitti ke uchch maidani bhag hain, jahan kabhi nadiyon ki badh ka pani nahin pahunch pata. khadar ki ganana navinatam kachhari bhagon ke roop men ki jati hai. yahan par prativarsh badh ka pani pahunchane evn nayi mitti ka jamav hone se kafi oopajaoo mane jate hain.

uttar ke vishal maidan ka pradeshik vibhajan

uttar ke vishal maidan ko anek upavibhagon men banta gaya hai, jinamen pramukh hain - pnjab, hariyana ka maidan, rajasthan ka medan, gnga ka maidan evn brahmaputr nadi ki ghati. gnga ke maidan ko haridvar se aligadh tak oopari doab tatha aligadh se ilahabad tak madhy doab ke nam se jana jata hai. gnga tatha yamuna doab ke oottari-madhy uttar pradesh men sthit bhag ko roohelakhand ka maidan kaha jata hai. is maidan par ram gnga, sharada tatha gomati nadiyan pravahit hoti hai. uttar pradesh ke uttari poorvi bhag men avadh ka maidan sthit hain, jisamen ghaghara, rapti tatha gomati nadiyan bahati hai. gnga ke maidan ke uttari-poorvi bhag men asam tak brahmaputr nadi ka maidan sthit hai, jo ki garo pahadi, meghalay pathar tatha himalay parvat ke bich lambe evn patale roop men phaila hai. isaki chaudaee matr 80 kimi. hai. brahmaputr nadi ghati ki avanatiy snrachana me jama kiye gaye avasadon se is medan men miyandar, gokhur jhil, adi ka nirman ho gaya hai. is maidan ke dhal ki disha dakshin-pashchim ki or hai tatha isaki sima par taraee ev arddh-taraee kshetr milate hain, jo daladalo evn saghan vanon se achchhadit hain

uttar ke vishal maidan se sambandhit do pramukh shabdavaliyan hain - bhavar tatha taraee. ye avasadi jamav ki visheshataon ki paricharak bhi hain.

bhavar

yah kshetr himalay tatha gnga ke maidan ke bich paya jata hai. jisamen parvatiy bhag se niche ane vali nadiyon ne lagabhag 8 kimi ki chaudaee men knkadon evn pattharon ka jamav kar diya hai. yahi gnga maidan ki sabase uttari sima bhi hai. is patharile kshetr men himalay se nikalane vali nadiyan prayah vilin ho jati hai aur keval kuchh badi nadiyon ki dhara hi dharatal par pravahit hoti huee dikhati hai.

taraee

yah kshetr bhavar ke niche usake samanantar sthit hai, jisaki chaudaee 15 se 30 kimi tak payi jati hain. bhavar pradesh men vilin huee nadiyon ka jal taraee kshetr men oopar a jata he. yah vastav men nimn samatal maidani kshetr hain, jahan nadiyon ka jal idhar-udhar phail jane se daladalon ka nirman ho gaya hai. vartaman men yahan ki saghan vanaspatiyon ko katakar tatha daladalon ko sukhakar krishi kary ke lie upayogi bana liya gaya hai.

bangar

bangar pradesh bhi uttar ke vishal maidan ki ek visheshata hai. yah pradesh purani jalodh mitti ka bana hota hai jahan nadiyon ki badh ka jal nahin pahunchata hai. is pradesh men choonayukt sngrathanon ki adhikata hone ke karan yah krishi ke lie adhik upayukt nahin hota hai. pnjab men milane vale bangar ko dhaya kaha jata hai.

khadar

bangar ke viparit khadar pradesh men nadiyon ki badh ka jal prativarsh pahunchata hai. is pradesh ka nirman navin jalodh mitti dvara hota hai kyonki badh ke jal ke sath navin mitti yahan prati varsh bichhati rahati hai. yah pradesh krishi ke lie atyadhik upayukt hoti hai. pnjab men milane vale khadar ko ‘bet’ kaha jata hai.

delta

uttari vishal maidan men gnga tatha sindhu nadi ke delta milate hain. gnga ka delta rajamahal ki pahadiyon men sundaravan ke kinare tak 430 kimi ki lambaee men vistrit hai. isaki chaudaee 480 kimi hai. sindhu nadi ka delta 960 kimi lamba aur 160 kimi chauda hai.

prayadvipiy pathari bhag

gnga ke vishal maidan ke dakshin se lekar kashmir se kanyakumari tak tribhujakar akriti men lagabhag 16 lakh varg kimi. kshetr par prayadvipiy pathari bhag phaila hua hai. yah bhag dakshini-poorvi rajasthan, madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, jharakhand, udisa, maharashtr, gujarat, karnatak, andhr pradesh, tamilanadu evn keral rajyon men phaila hai. yah desh ka sarvadhik kshetraphal vala tatha prachin bhautik pradesh hai. yah desh ka sarvadhik kshetraphal vala tatha prachin bhautik pradesh hai. is par pravahit hone vali nadiyon ne isaka kee chhote-chhote patharon men vibhajit kar diya hai. isaki lambaee rajasthan se kumari antarip tak lagabhag 1,700 kimi. tatha gujarat se pashchim bngal tak chaudaee 1,400 kimi hai. is pathar ki ausat oonchaee samudr tal se 600 mitar tak hai. isaki uttari sima par aravali, kaimoor tatha rajamahal pahadiyan sthit hai. poorv men poorvi ghat tatha pashchim men pashchimi ghat pahadi isaki sima banate hain. yah kshetr vichchhinn pahadiyon, shikhar maidanon gabhirakrit, snkari evn adhivardhit ghatiyon, shrinkhalabaddh patharon, samapray maidanon evn avashisht khandon ka ek prakritik bhoodrishy hai. poorvi evn pashchimi ghat ka milan jis sthan par hota hai, vahan annamalaee pahadiyan sthit hai. narmada nadi ke uttar men malava pathar sthit hai. yah pathar lava nirmit hone ke karan kali mitti ka samaprayah ban gaya hai, jisaka dhal vishal maidan ki or hai. is par betava, parvati, nivaj, kali sindh, chambal tatha mahi nadiyan bahati hai. malava pathar ki uttari tatha uttari poorvi sima par bundelakhand tatha baghelakhand ke pathar sthit hain jabaki kaimoor tatha bharaner shreniyon ke poorv men baghelakhand ka pathar hai. is pathar ke uttar men sonapur pahadiyan tatha dakshin men ramagadh ki pahadiyan sthit hai.

samudratatiy maidan

dakshin ke prayadvipiy pathari bhag ke donon or poorvi ghat tatha pashchimi ghat parvatamalaon evn sagar tat ke bich samudratatiy maidanon ka vistar hai. yah tatiy maidan desh ke any prakritik vibhag se spasht bhinnata rakhata hai. sthit ke adhar par inhe pashchimi tatha poorvi tatiy maidanon men vibhajit kiya jata hai.

pashchimi samudr tatiy maidan ka vistar gujarat men kachchh ki khadi se lekar kumari antarip tak paya jata hai. isaki ausat chaudaee 64 kimi. hai. is maidan ki sarvadhik chaudaee narmada tatha tapti nadiyon ke muhanon ke samip 80 kimi tak milati hai. is maidan ka dhal pashchim ki or atyadhik tivr hain, jis par tivragami evn chhoti nadiyan pravahit hoti hai. is maidan ko panch upakhandon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai:

  1. kachchh prayadvipiy tatiy maidan jo ki shushk evn arddhashushk retila maidan hai. isake madhy men giranar pahadiyan sthit hain.
  2. gujarat ka maidan, jisaka vistar kachchh evn saurashtr ke poorv men hain. is par mahi, sabaramati, narmada tatha tapti nadiyan pravahit hote hue arab sagar men milati hain.
  3. konkan ka maidan daman se gova tak 500 kimi lamba hain. is par sal, sagaun adi ke vanon ki adhikata hain.
  4. kanaratatiy maidan gova se mngalor tak paya jata hai. isaka nirman prachin kayantarit shailon se hua hai. is par balua stoopon ka jamav paya jata hai. yah tat garam masalon, supari, kela, am, nariyal, adi ki krishi ke lie prasiddh hain.
  5. malabar tatiy maidan keral ka tatiy maidan hain, jo ki mngalor se kanyakumari tak 500 kimi ki ln. men phaila hai. is par laigoon (kayal) namak chhoti-chhoti tatiy jhilen payi jati hain. is maidan ke tatiy bhagon men matsyayan kiya jata hai.

poorvi samudr tatiy medan pashchim bngal se lekar kumari antarip tak milata hai. isaki chaudaee pashchimi tatiy maidan ki apeksha adhik hain. is maidan par pravahit hone vali nadiyon- mahanadi, godavari, krishna, kaveri adi ne vistrit delta ka nirman kiya hai. is par chilka tatha pulikat jaisi vistrit laigoon jhilen bhi payi jati hain. is maidan ke uttari bhag ko uttari sarakar tatha dakshin bhag ko koramandal tat ke nam se jana jata hai. isake tin pramukh up vibhag hain:

  1. utkal ka maidan jo ki udisa tat ke sahare lagabhag 400 kimi ki lambaee men phaila hai. is maidan par mahanadi ka delta, chilka jhil tatha vishakhapatnam bandaragah sthit hain.
  2. andhr ka maidan andhr pradesh ke tatiy kshetr men sthit hain jis par godavari evn krishna nadiyon ne apane delta ka nirman kiya hai. in donon deltaon ke bich koleroo jhil sthit hain.
  3. tamilanadu ke maidan ka vistar tamilanadu tatha pandicheri ke tatiy kshetr men hain. pulikat jhil se kumari antarip tak isaki lambaee 675 kimi hai. isaki ausat chaudaee 100 kimi hai. pulikat ek laigoon jhil hai jisake age shriharikota dvip sthit hai. yah maidan sabase lamba hai.

nadiyan

rigvaidikakalin nadiyan
prachin nam adhunik nam
krubhu kurram
kubha kabul
vitasta jhelam
askini chinav
purushni ravi
shatudri satalaj
vipasha vyas
sadanira gndak
drishadvati ghagghar
gomati gomal
suvastu svat
sindhu sindh
sarasvati / drishadvarti ghaghghar / rakshi / chittag
sushoma sohan
maroodvridha maroovarman

bharat ki nadiyon ko char samoohon men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai jaise :-

  • himachal se nikalane vali nadiyan
  • dakshin se nikalane vali nadiyan
  • tatavarti nadiyan
  • antardeshiy nalon se droni kshetr ki nadiyan

himalay se nikalane vali nadiyan

himalay se nikalane vali nadiyan barf aur gh‍leshiyaron ke pighalane se bani hain at: inamen poore varsh ke dauran niranh‍tar pravah bana rahata hai. maaunasoon mah ke dauran himalay kshetr men bahut adhik vrishti hoti hai aur nadiyan barish par nirbhar hain at: isake ayatan men utar chadhav hota hai. inamen se kee ash‍thayi hoti hain. tatavarti nadiyan, visheshakar pashchimi tat par, lnbaee men chhoti hoti hain aur unaka simit jalagrahan kshetr hota hai. inamen se adhikansh ash‍thayi hoti hain. pashchimi rajasthan ke antardeshiy nala droni kshetr ki kuchhh‍ nadiyan hain. inamen se adhikansh ash‍thayi prakriti ki hain. himachal se nikalane vali nadi ki mukhh‍y pranali sindhu aur gnga brahmaputr meghana nadi ki pranali ki tarah hai.

sindhu nadi

vishh‍v ki mahan, nadiyon men ek hai, tibbat men manasarovar ke nikat se nikalati hai aur bharat se hokar bahati hai aur tath‍pashh‍chath pakistan se ho kar aur antat: karachi ke nikat arab sagar men mil jati hai. bharatiy kshetr men bahane vali isaki sahayak nadiyon men sataluj (tibh‍bat se nikalati hai), vh‍yas, ravi, chinab, aur jhelam hai.

varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat

gnga

brahmaputr meghana ek anh‍y mahath‍vapoorn pranali hai jisaka up droni kshetr bhagirathi aur alakannda men hain, jo devaprayag men milakar gnga ban jati hai. yah uttaranchal, uttar pradesh, bihar aur p.bngal se hokar bahati hai. rajamahal ki pahadiyon ke niche bhagirathi nadi, jo purane samay men mukhh‍y nadi hua karati thi, nikalati hai jabaki padbha poorab ki or bahati hai aur bangladesh men pravesh karati hai.

sahayak nadiyan

yamuna, ramagnga, ghaghara, gndak, kosi, mahanadi, aur son; gnga ki mahath‍vapoorn sahayak nadiyan hai. chnbal aur betava mahath‍vapoorn up sahayak nadiyan hain jo gnga se milane se pahale yamuna men mil jati hain. padma aur brahmaputr bangladesh men milati hai aur padma athava gnga ke rup men bahati rahati hai.

brahmaputr

brahmaputr tibbat se nikalati hai, jahan ise sangano kaha jata hai aur bharat men arunachal pradesh tak pravesh karane tatha yah kafi lnbi doori tay karati hai, yahan ise dihang kaha jata hai. pasi ghat ke nikat debang aur lohit brahmaputr nadi se mil jati hai aur yah snyukh‍t nadi poore asam se hokar ek snkirn ghati men bahati hai. yah ghubari ke anupravah men bangladesh men pravesh karati hai.

sahayak nadiyan

bharat men brahmaputr ki pramukh sahayak nadiyan subasiri, jiya bhareli, ghanasiri, puthibhari, pagaladiya aur manas hain. bangladesh men brahmaputr tish‍t adi ke pravah men mil jati hai aur antat: gnga men mil jati hai. meghana ki mukhh‍y nadi barak nadi manipur ki pahadiyon men se nikalati hai. isaki mahath‍vapoorn sahayak nadiyan makh‍koo, trang, tueevee, jiri, sonee, rukh‍vi, kacharaval, ghalarevari, langachini, mahuva aur jatinga hain. barak nadi bangh‍ladesh men bhairav bazar ke nikat gnga-‍brahmaputr ke milane tak bahati rahati hai. dakh‍kan kshetr men adhikansh nadi pranaliyan samanh‍yat poorv disha men bahati hain aur bngal ki khadi men mil jati hain. godavari, krishh‍na, kaveri, mahanadi, adi poorv ki or bahane vali pramukh nadiyan hain aur narmada, tapti pashchim ki bahane vali pramukh nadiyan hai. dakshini prayadvip men godavari ka doosari sabase badi nadi ka droni kshetr hai jo bharat ke kshetr 10 pratishat bhag hai. isake bad krishh‍na nadi ke droni kshetr ka sh‍than hai jabaki mahanadi ka tisara sh‍than hai. dekh‍kan ke oopari bhoobhag men narmada ka droni kshetr hai, yah arab sagar ki or bahati hai, bngal ki khadi men girati hain dakshin men kaveri ke saman akar ki hai aur paranh‍tu isaki visheshataen aur banavat alag hai.

kee prakar ki tatavarti nadiyan hain jo apekshakrit chhoti hain. aisi nadiyon men kafi kam nadiyan-poorvi tat ke delh‍ta ke nikat samudr men milati hai, jabaki pashchim tat par aisi 600 nadiyan hai.

rajasthan men aisi kuchh nadiyan hai jo samudr men nahin milati hain. ye khare jhilon men mil jati hai aur ret men samaph‍t ho jati hain jisaki samudr men koee nikasi nahin hoti hai. isake atirikh‍t kuchh marush‍thal ki nadiyan hoti hai jo kuchh doori tak bahati hain aur marush‍thal men luph‍t ho jati hai. aisi nadiyon men luni aur machh‍chh, sh‍pen, sarash‍vati, banas aur ghagh‍gar jaisi anh‍y nadiyan hain.

bharat ki pramukh nadiyon ki soochi

kram nadi lambaee (ki.mi.) udgam sthan sahayak nadiyan pravah kshetr (sambandhit rajy)
1 sindhu nadi 2,880 (709) manasarovar jhil ke nikat (tibbat) sataluj, vyas, jhelam, chinab, ravi, shingar, gilagit, shyok jammoo aur kashmir, leh
2 jhelam nadi 720 sheshanag jhil, jammoo-kashmir kishan, gnga, punchh, lidar, kareval, sindh jammoo-kashmir, kashmir
3 chinab nadi 1,180 baralacha darre ke nikat chandrabhaga jammoo-kashmir
4 ravi nadi 725 rohatang darra, kangada saho, suil himachal pradesh, jammoo-kashmir, pnjab
5 sataluj nadi 1440 (1050) manasarovar ke nikat rakasatal vyas, spiti, baspa himachal pradesh, pnjab
6 vyas nadi 470 rohatang darra tirthan, parvati, hurala himachal pradesh
7 gnga nadi 2,510 (2071) gngotri ke nikat gomukh se yamuna, ramagnga, gomati, bagamati, gndak, kosi, son, alakannda, bhagirathi, pindar, mndakini uttaranchal, uttar pradesh, bihar, pashchim bngal
8 yamuna nadi 1375 yamunotri gleshiyar chambal, betava, ken, tons, giri, kali, sindh, asan uttaranchal, uttar pradesh, dilli
9 ramagnga nadi 690 nainital ke nikat ek himanadi se khon uttaranchal, uttar pradesh
10 ghaghara nadi 1,080 mapsatung (nepal) himanad sharada, karanali, kuvana, rapti, chaukiya uttar pradesh, bihar
11 gndak nadi 425 nepal tibbat sima par mustag ke nikat kali, gndak, trishool, gnga bihar
12 kosi nadi 730 nepal men saptakoshiki (gonsaeedham) indravati, tamur, arun, kosi sikkim, bihar
13 chambal nadi 960 moo ke nikat janapav pahadi se kali, sindh, sipta, parvati, banas madhy pradesh
14 betava nadi 480 bhopal ke pas ubedulla gnj ke pas madhy pradesh
15 son nadi 770 amarakntak ki pahadiyon se rihand, kunahad madhy pradesh, bihar
16 damodar nadi 600 chhota nagapur pathar se dakshin poorv konar, jamuniya, barakar jharakhand, pashchim bngal
17 brahmaputr nadi 2,880 manasarovar jhil ke nikat (tibbat men sangpo) ghanasiri, kapili, suvanasiti, manas, lohit, nova, padma, dihang arunachal pradesh, asam
18 mahanadi 890 sihava ke nikat rayapur siyonath, hasadev, ung, eeb, brahmani, vaitarani madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, udisa
19 vaitarani nadi 333 kyonjhar pathar udisa
20 svarn rekha 480 chhota nagapur pathar udisa, jharakhand, pashchim bngal
21 godavari nadi 1,450 nasik ki pahadiyon se pranahita, penagnga, vardha, venagnga, indravati, mnjira, purana maharashtr, karnatak, andhr pradesh
22 krishna nadi 1,290 mahabaleshvar ke nikat koyana, yarala, varna, pnchagnga, doodhagnga, ghataprabha, malaprabha, bhima, tungaprabha, moosi maharashtr, karnatak, andhr pradesh
23 kaveri nadi 760 kerakara ke nikat brahmagiri hemavati, lokapavana, shimala, bhavani, amaravati, svarnavati karnatak, tamilanadu
24 narmada nadi 1,312 amarakntak choti tava, sher, shakkar, doodhi, barna madhy pradesh, gujarat
25 tapti nadi 724 multaee se (betool) poorana, betool, gnjal, gomee madhy pradesh, gujarat
26 sabaramati 716 jayasamnd jhil (udayapur) vakal, hathamati rajasthan, gujarat
27 looni nadi nag pahad sukadi, janaee, bandi rajasthan, gujarat, miroodi, jojari
28 banas nadi khamanaur pahadiyon se sodra, mausi, khari karnatak, tamilanadu
29 mahi nadi mehad jhil se som, jokham, anas, soran madhy pradesh, gujarat
30 hugali nadi navadvip ke nikat jalangi
31 uttari pennar 570 nndi durg pahadi paadhani, chitravati, sagileroo
32 tungabhadra nadi pashchimi ghat men gomantak choti kumudavati, vardha, hagari, hind, tunga, bhadra
33 mayoosa nadi asonora ke nikat medeee
34 sabari nadi 418 sueekaram pahadi sileru
35 indravati nadi 531 kalahandi, udisa narngi, kotari
36 kshipra nadi kakari baradi pahadi, indaur chambal nadi
37 sharada nadi 602 milam himanad, himalay, kumayoon ghaghara nadi
38 tava nadi mahadev parvat, pnchamadhi narmada nadi
39 hasado nadi saraguja men kaimoor pahadiyan mahanadi
40 kali sindh nadi 416 bagalo, zila devas, vindhyachal parvat yamuna nadi
41 sindh nadi siroj, guna zila chambal nadi
42 ken nadi vindhyachal shreni yamuna nadi
43 parvati nadi vindhyachal, madhy pradesh chambal nadi
44 ghagghar nadi kalaka, himachal pradesh
45 banagnga nadi 494 bairath pahadiyan, jayapur yamuna nadi
46 som nadi bichha menda, udayapur jokham, gomati, sarani
47 ayad ya bedach nadi 190 gomunda pahadi, udayapur banas nadi
48 dakshin pinakin 400 chenna keshav pahadi, karnatak
49 dakshini tons 265 tamasa kund, kaimoor pahadi
50 daman gnga nadi pashchim ghat
51 girana nadi pashchim ghat, nasik

bharat ke rajyon ka bhoogol

arunachal pradesh

arunachal pradesh ka adhikatar bhag himalay se dhaka hai, lekin lohit, changalang aur tirap patakaee pahadi़yon men sthit hain. kangto, nyegi kangasang, mukhy gorichan choti aur poorvi gorichan choti is rajy men himalay ki sabase oonchi chotiyan hain. tavang ka 'bumala darra' sanh 2006 men 44 varshon men pahali bar vyapar ke lie khola gaya tha aur vyapariyon ko ek doosare ke kshetr men pravesh karane ki anumati di gee thi.

asam

bhoo-akriti: maidani ilaqon evn nadi ghatiyon vale asam ko tin pramukh bhautik kshetron men vibhajit kiya gaya hai- uttar men brahmaputr nadi ghati, dakshin men barak nadi ghati evn karbi tatha alng zilon ke parvatiy kshetr aur in donon ghatiyon ke madhy sthit uttari kachhar ki pahadiyan.

  • brahmaputr nadi ghati asam ka pramukh bhautik kshetr hai. yah nadi asam ke poorvottar sire par sadiya ke pas pravesh karati hai, phir pashchim men poore asam men lagabhag 724 kimi. lnbe marg men pravahit hokar dakshin ki or mudakar bangladesh ke maidani ilaqon men chali jati hai. brahmaputr nadi ghati, chhoti ekal pahadiyon aur maidani ilaqon men achanak uthate shikharon, jinaki chaudaee 80 kimi. se zyada nahin hai, se bhari huee hai. pashchim disha ko chhodakar baqi sabhi dishaon men yah parvatton se ghiri huee hai. pados ki pahadiyon se nikali kee jaladharaon evn upanadiyon ka jal isamen samahit hota hai.
  • barak nadi ghati dakshin-poorv disha men vistrit nimn bhoomi ke kshetr ki snrachana karati hai, jo krishi ke lie mahattvapoorn hai evn isase apekshakrit saghan basi janasnkhya ko madad milati hai, halanki is ghati ka ek chhota sa hi hissa rajy ke simakshetr men hai.
andhr pradesh

andhr pradesh rajy men tin pramukh bhautik-bhaugolik kshetr hain:-

  1. poorv men tatiy maidan, jo bngal ki khadi se lekar parvatashreniyon tak phaila hai;
  2. parvatashreniyan arthath poorvi ghat, jo tatiy maidanon ka pashchimi parshv banate hain;
  3. ghat ke pashchim se poorv men pathar.
odisha

udisa rajy 17.780 aur aur 22.730 akshansh aur 81.37poorv aur 81.53 poorv deshantar ke bich padata hai. bhaugolik roop se yah rajy uttar-poorv men pashchim bngal, uttar men jharakhnd, pashchim men chhattisagadh aur dakshin men andhr pradesh aur poorv men bngal ki khadi se ghira hua hai.

uttar pradesh

uttar pradesh ke pramukh bhoogoliy tatv is prakar se hain-

  • bhoo-akriti - uttar pradesh ko do vishisht bhaugolik kshetron, gnga ke madhyavarti maidan aur dakshini uchchabhoomi men banta ja sakata hai. uttar pradesh ke kul kshetraphal ka lagabhag 90 pratishat hissa gnga ke maidan men hai. maidan adhikanshat: gnga v usaki sahayak nadiyon ke dvara lae ge jalodh avasadon se bane hain. is kshetr ke adhikansh hisson men utar-chadhav nahin hai, yadyapi maidan bahut upajaoo hai, lekin inaki oonchaee men kuchh bhinnata hai, jo pashchimottar men 305 mitar aur sudoor poorv men 58 mitar hai. gnga ke maidan ki dakshini uchchabhoomi atyadhik vichchhedit aur visham vindhy parvatamala ka ek bhag hai, jo samanyat: dakshin-poorv ki or uthati chali jati hai. yahan oonchaee kahin-kahin hi 305 se adhik hoti hai.
uttarakhand

uttarakhand rajy ka kshetraphal 53,484 varg kimi. aur janasnkhya 8,479,562 (2001 ki janaganana ke anusar) hai. uttarakhand bharat ke uttar - madhy bhag men sthit hai. yah poorvottar men tibbat, pashchimottar men himachal pradesh, dakshin - pashchim men uttar pradesh aur dakshin - poorv men nepal se ghira hai. uttarakhand ka kul bhaugolik kshetraphal 28° 43’ u. se 31°27’ u. aur rekhansh 77°34’ poo. se 81°02’ poo ke bich men 53,483 varg kimi hai, jisamen se 43,035 ki.mi. parvatiy hai aur 7,448 ki.mi. maidani hai, tatha 34,651 ki.mi. bhoobhag vanachchhadit hai. rajy ka adhikansh uttari bhag vrihadtar himalay shrinkhala ka bhag hai, jo oonchi himalayi chotiyon aur himanadiyon se dhka hua hai, jabaki nimn talahatiyan saghan vanon se dhaki huee hain jinaka pahale angrez lakadi vyapariyon aur svatantrata ke bad van anubandhakon dvara dohan kiya gaya.

karnatak

bhautik roop se karnatak ko char bhinn kshetron men banta gaya hai- samudratatiy maidan, parvat shreniyan (pashchim ghat), poorv men sthit karnatak ka pathar aur pashchimottar men kapas utpak kali mitti ka kshetr. samudratatiy maidan malabar tat ka vistar hain aur yahan joon se sitnbar tak dakshin-pashchim maaunasoon se bhari varsha hoti hai. tat par sthit ret ke tile bhoomi ki or badhate hue chhote jalodh maidanon men badal jate hain, jinamen nariyal ke vrikshon se ghire anoop(laigoon) hain. samudr ke alava any kisi bhi marg se tat par pahunchana mushkil hai. poorv men pashchimi ghat ki dhalanon ke roop bhoomi tezi se uthati hai, jahan samudr tal se ausat oonchaee 760- 915 mitar hai.

keral
  • keral ke poorv men oonche pashchimi ghat aur pashchim men arab sagar ke madhy men sthit is pradesh ki chaudaee 35 kimi se 120 kimi tak hai.
  • bhaugolik drishti se keral parvatiy kshetron, ghatiyon, madhh‍yavarti maidanon tatha samudr ka tatavarti kshetr hain.
  • keral nadiyon aur talabon ke sambndh men bahut hi samriddh hai.
gujarat

gujarat ko tin bhaugolik kshetron men banta gaya hai jaise-

  1. saurashtr prayadvip- jo moolatah ek pahadi kshetr hai, bich-bich men madhyam oonchaee ke parvat hain.
  2. kachchh- jo poorvottar men ujad aur chattani hai. vikhyat kachchh ka ran isi kshetr men hai.
  3. gujarat ka maidan- jo kachchh ke ran aur aravali ki pahadiyon se lekar daman gnga tak phaili hai.

gujarat ki sabase oonchi choti girinar pahadiyon men sthit gorakhanath ki choti hai, jo 1117 mitar oonchi hai. gujarat ki jalavayu ooshn pradeshiy aur manasooni hai. varsha ki kami ke karan is pradesh men retili aur baluee mitti payi jati hai. pradesh men poorv ki or uttari gujarat men varsha ki matr 50 semi tak hoti hai. isake dakshin ki or madhy gujarat men mitti kuchh adhik upajaoo hai tatha jalavayu bhi apekshayata ardr hai. varsha 75 semi tak hoti hai. narmada, tapti, sabaramati, sarasvati, mahi, bhadar, banas, aur vishvamitr is pradesh ki suparichit nadiyan hain. kark rekha is rajy ki uttari sima se hokar gujarati hai, atah yahan garmiyon men khoob garmi tatha sardiyon men khoob sardi padati hai. shaharikaran ki prakriya ne rajy ke vibhinn kshetron men vibhinn kuchh svaroop dharan kie hain. rajy ka sarvadhik shaharikrit kshetr ahamadabad-vadodara audyogik patti hai. rashtriy rajamarg snkhya-8 ke kinare uttar men oonjha se dakshin men vapi ke audyogik maidan men ek vrihadanagariy kshetr[6] ubhar raha hai. saurashtr krishi kshetr men kramik basav pranali ko dekha ja sakata hai, jabaki uttar aur poorv ke bahy kshetron men bikhari huee chhoti-chhoti bastiyan hain, jo shushk, parvatiy ya vanachchhadit kshetr hain. adivasi janasnkhya inhin simant anutpadak kshetron men kendrit hai.

gova

105 kilomitar samudri tat vale gova men retile tat, muhane v antarip hain. isake bhitari hisse men nichale pathar aur lagabhag 1,220 mitar oonche pashchimi ghaton (sahyadri) ka ek hissa hai. gova ki do pramukh nadiyan, mandovi v juari, ke muhane men gova ka dvip (ilhas) sthit hai. is trikoniy dvip ka shirsh antarip ek chattani muhana hai, jis par do lngaragah hain. yahan par tin shahar marmagav ya marmugav (vasko d gama sahit) madaganv aur panaji (navagova) hain.

chhattisagadh
  • chhattisagadh rajy madhy pradesh ke dakshin-poorv men 17°46' uttari akshansh se 24°5' uttari akshansh tatha 80°15' poorvi deshantar se 84°15' poorvi deshantar rekhaon ke madhy sthit hai.
  • chhattisagadh ka kul bhaugolik kshetraphal 1,35,194 varg kimi. hai. isaki uttari-dakshin lambaee 360 kimi. tatha poorv-pashchim chaudaee 140 kimi. hai.
  • chhattisagadh ke uttar men uttar pradesh, uttari-poorvi sima men jharakhand, dakshin-poorv men odisha rajy sthit hai. dakshin men andhr pradesh, dakshin-pashchim men maharashtr tatha uttari-pashchim bhag men madhy pradesh sthit hai.
jammoo aur kashmir

jammoo aur kashmir poorvattar men sinkyang ka svayatt kshetr v tibbati svayatt kshetr (donon chin ke bhag) se, dakshin men himachal pradesh v pnjab rajyon se, pashchim men pakistan aur pashchimottar men pakistan adhikrit bhoobhag se ghira hai.
sthiti: jammoo aur kashh‍mir rajh‍y 32-15 aur 37-05 uttari akshansh aur 72-35 tatha 83-20 poorvi deshantar ke bich sthit hai. bhaugolik roop se is rajh‍y ko char kshetron men banta ja sakata hai.

  1. pahadi aur arddh-pahadi maidan jo kndi patti ke nam se prachalit hai;
  2. parvatiy kshetr jisamen shivalik pahadiyan shamil hain;
  3. kashmir ghati ke pahad aur pir panchal parvatamala tatha
  4. tibh‍bat se laga laddakh aur karagil kshetr.
jharakhand
  • jharakhand 21°58'10" uttari akshansh se 25°19'15" uttari akshansh tatha 83°20'50" poorvi deshantar 88°4'40" poorvi deshantar ke madhy vistrit hai.
  • jharakhand ka kul kshetraphal 79,714 varg kimi. jo bharat ke kul kshetraphal ka 2.4 pratishat hai.
  • jharakhand ke poorv men pashchim bngal, pashchim men uttar pradesh aur chhattisagadh, uttar men bihar tatha dakshin men udisa se ghira hua hai.
tamilanadu

tamilanadu rajy prakritik roop se poorvi tat par samatal pradesh tatha uttar aur pashchim men pahadi kshetron ke bich vibhajit hai. poorvi maidan ka sabase chauda hissa upajaoo kaveri ke delta par hai aur age dakshin men ramanathapuram aur madurai ke shushk maidan hain. rajy ke samooche pashchimi simant par pashchimi ghat ki oonchi shrinkhala phaili huee hai. poorvi ghat ki nichali pahadiyan aur simant kshetr, jo sthaniy taur par javadi, kalarayan aur shevaraauy kahalate hain, pradesh ke madhy bhag ki or phaile hain.

tripura

madhy evn uttari tripura ek pahadi kshetr hai, jise poorv se pashchim ki or char pramukh ghatiyan, dharmanagar, kailashahar, kamalapur aur khovaee, katati hain. ye ghatiyan uttar ki or bahane vali nadiyon (joori, manu v dev, dhalaee aur khovaee) dvara nirmit hain. pashchim v dakshin ki nichali ghatiyan khuli v daladali hain, halanki dakshin men bhoobhag bahut adhik kata hua aur ghane jngalon se dhaka hai. uttar se dakshin ki or unmukh shreniyan ghatiyon ko alag karati hain.

dilli

dilli ek jalasnbhar par sthit hai. jo gnga tatha sindhu nadi pranaliyon ko vibhajit karata hai. dilli ki sabase mahattvapoorn sthalakriti visheshata parvat skndh (rij) hai, jo rajasthan prant ki prachin aravali parvat shreniyon ka charam bindu hai. aravali snbhavat: duniya ki sabase purani parvat mala hai, lekin ab yah poori tarah vriksh vihin ho chuki hai. pashchimottar pashchim tatha dakshin men phaila aur tikone parakot ki do bhujaon jaisa lagane vala yah skndh kshetr 180 varg kilomitar kshetr men phaila hai. kachhari mitti ke maidan ko akriti ki vividhata deta hai tatha dilli ko kuchh utkrisht jiv v vanaspatiyan upalabdh karata hai. yamuna nadi tribhujakar parakote ka tisara kinara batati hai. isi trikon ke bhitar dilli ke prasiddh sat shaharon ki utpatti ee.poo. 1000 se 17 vin shatabdi ke bich huee.

nagalaind
  • nagalaind ka lagabhag samoocha hissa parvatiy hai.
  • uttar men naga pahadiyan brahmaputr ghati se achanak lagabhag 610 mitar ki oonchaee tak uthati hain aur usake bad dakshin-poorv disha men inaki oonchaee 1,800 mitar tak ho jati hai, myanmar sima ke pas ye pahadiyan patakee shrinkhala se mil jati hain aur yahan inaki sabase oonchi choti maunt saramati hai, jisaki oonchaee 3,826 mitar hai.
pnjab

bhoo-akriti: pnjab ka adhikansh hissa samatal maidani hai, jo poorvottar men samudr tal se lagabhag 275 mitar se dakshin-pashchim men lagabhag 168 mitar ki oonchaee ki anuvarti dhalan vala hai. bhautik roop se is pradesh ko tin hisson men banta ja sakata hai. poorvottar men 274-914 mitar ki oonchaee par sthit shivalik pahadiyan rajy ka bahut hi chhota hissa hain. dakshin men shivalik pahadiyan snkare aur laharadar taraee kshetr ke roop men phaili huee hain, jinase hokar kee mausami dharaen bahati hain.

pashchim bngal

pashchim bngal rajh‍y ke poorv men bangladesh, pashchim men nepal, uttar-poorv men bhootan, uttar men sikkim, pashchim men bihar, jharakhnd, dakshin-pashchim men udisa tatha dakshin men bngal ki khadi hai. pashchim bngal rajy men bharat ke hugali nadi par kolakata se 22 mil uttar chaubis paragana zile men neehati nagar sthit hai.

bihar
  • bhoo-akriti: prakritik roop se yah rajy gnga nadi dvara do bhagon men vibhajit hai, uttar bihar maidan aur dakshin bihar maidan. sudoor pashchimottar men himalay ki taraee ko chhodakar gnga ka uttari maidan samudr tal se 75 mitar se bhi kam ki oonchaee par jalodh samatali kshetr ka nirman karata hai aur yahan badh ane ki snbhavana hamesha bani rahati hai. ghaghara, gndak, bagamati, kosi, mahannda aur any nadiyan nepal men himalay se niche utarati hain aur alag-alag jalamargon se hoti huee gnga men milati hain.
manipur
  • bharat ke poorvi sire par manipur rajy sthit hai.
  • isake poorv men mh‍yanmar (barma) aur uttar men nagalaind rajh‍y hai, pashchim men asam rajh‍y aur dakshin men mizoram rajh‍y hai.
  • manipur ka kshetraphal 22,327 varg kilomitar hai. bhaugolik roop se manipur ke do bhag hain, pahadiyan aur ghatiyan.
  • ghati madhh‍y men hai aur usake charon taraph pahadiyan hain.
madhy pradesh

madhh‍y pradesh doosara sabase bada bharatiy rajh‍y hai. bhaugolik drishti se yah desh men kenh‍driy sh‍than rakhata hai. isaki rajadhani bhopal hai . madhy ka arth bich men hai, madhy pradesh ki bhaugolik sthiti bharatavarsh ke madhy arthath bich men hone ke karan is pradesh ka nam madhy pradesh diya gaya, jo kabhi 'madhy bharat' ke nam se jana jata tha. madhy pradesh hriday ki tarah desh ke thik bichonbich men sthit hai.

maharashtr

maharashtr men kee prakar ki akarshak bhoo- akritiyan hain. narmada nadi, jo vibhrnsh ghati se hokar bahati huee arab sagar men girati hai, rajy ki uttari sima ke ek hisse ka nirman karati hai. arab sagar men hi milane vali tapti nadi ki vibhrnsh ghati isaki uttari sima ke doosare hisse ko chihnit karati hai. ye do nadi ghatiyan satapuda shrinkhala namak utkhnd se vibhakt hoti hain. tapti ghati ke dakshin men arab sagar ke kinare konkan ka tatiy kshetr hai, jisake poorv men pashchimi ghat ya sahyadri pahadiyon ke nam se vikhyat kagar sthit hai.

mizoram

bhoogarbhashastriy drishti se mizo pahadiyan arakan ark ka hissa hai jo susngathit samanantar parvataskndhon ki uttar-dakshin disha men sthit shrinkhala hai, jisaka nirman tritiyak balua patthar, choona-patthar aur slet-patthar[7] se hua hai. snkari nadi ghatiyon se vibhakt parvataskndhon ki oonchaee 2,157 mitar hai. dakshin men kaladan aur isaki sahayak nadiyan dakshin disha men bahati huee myanmar men pravesh karati hain, jabaki dhaleshvari (tlavng) aur sonaee (tuirel) nadiyan uttar disha men asam ki aur bahati hain.

meghalay

meghalay dakkan ke pathar se rajamahal darre dvara alag kiya hua ek uchch bhookhnd hai. yahan ki chattanen aur bhoo-vaigyanik snrachana bihar aur bngal ke chhota nagapur kshetr jaisi hai. chattanen poorv kainbriyan kal ki ady mahakalpi shail aur grenait, nimn-purajivi shilang samooh, apar gondavana, silahat traip aur tisare yug ke kathor avasadi jamavon se bani huee hai. isake shikharon ki oonchaee 1,220 se 1,830 mitar ke bich hai.

rajasthan

bhoomi: aravali pahadiyan rajy ke dakshin-pashchim men 1,722 mitar oonche guru shikhar[8] se poorvottar men khetadi tak ek rekha banati huee guzarati hain. rajy ka lagabhag 3/5 bhag is rekha ke pashchimottar men v shesh 2/5 bhag dakshin-poorv men sthit hai. rajasthan ke ye do prakritik vibhajan hain. behad kam pani vala pashchimottar bhoobhag retila aur anutpadak hai. is kshetr men vishal bharatiy registan (thar) nazar ata hai. sudoor pashchim aur pashchimottar ke registani kshetron se poorv ki or badhane par apekshakrit utpadak v nivas yogy bhoomi hai.

sikkim
  • sikkim rajy ka kul kshetraphal 7,096 varg kilo mitar hai.
  • isaka bhoo bhag uttar se dakshin tak 112 kilo mitar tatha poorv se pashchim tak 64 kilomitar men phaila hua hai.
  • yah uttar-poorv himachal men 27 digri 00'46" se 28 digri 07'48" uttari akshansh aur 88 digri 00'58" se 88 digri 55'25" poorv deshantar ke madhy sthit hai.
  • vishv ki tisari sabase badi aur oonchi choti 'knchanajnga', jise sikkim ki raksha devi mana jata hai, apani prakritik saundary ki chhata bikherati hai.
hariyana

hariyana men do bade bhoo-kshetr hai, rajy ka ek bada hissa samatal jalodh maidanon se yukt hai aur poorvottar men tikhe dhal vali shivalik pahadiyan tatha snkara pahadi kshetr hai. samudr ki satah 210 mitar se 270 mitar oonche maidani ilakon se pani bahakar ekamatr barahamasi nadi yamuna men ata hai, yah rajy ki poorvi sima se hokar bahati hai. shivalik pahadiyon se nikali anek mausami nadiyan maidani bhagon se guzarati hai. inamen sabase pramukh ghagghar (rajy ki uttari sima ke nikat) nadi hai.

himachal pradesh

himachal pradesh pashchimi himalay ke madhy men sthit hai, ise dev bhoomi kaha jata hai. himachal pradesh uttar men jammoo aur kashmir, pashchim tatha dakshin-pashchim men dakshin men hariyana evn uttar pradesh, dakshin-poorv men uttarakhnd tatha poorv men tibbat se ghira hai. himachal pradesh men devi aur devataon ka nivas sthan mana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. satyamev jayate nanritn satyen pntha vitato devayanah.
    yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatr satsatyasy paramn nidhanamh॥

    mundakopanishadh tritiy mundak shlok 6
  2. 2.0 2.1 India : Census 2011
  3. Population Density per Square Mile of Countries
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (angrezi) (e.es.pi) International Monetory Fund. abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2012.
  5. sitambar 2006-2011 ki sthiti ke anusar
  6. megalopolis, arthath kee bade shaharon vala ek satat shahari kshetr
  7. 16 se 664 lakh varsh purani chattanen
  8. maunt aboo

bahari kadiyan

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