भारत में शिक्षा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
parichay    itihas    bhoogol    snvidhan    dharm   krishi    vany jivan    bhasha    shiksha    kala    snskriti    khanapan    raksha    rajy    paryatan    alekh

bharat men shiksha ka uttaradayitv moolat: rajy sarakaron par hai. kendriy sarakar shiksha ki suvidhaon men talamel sthapit karati hai, vishvavidyalay anudan ayog ke madhyam se uchch shiksha ka star nishchit karati hai aur anusndhan tatha vaigyanik evn pravidhiki shiksha ki vyavastha karati hai. shiksha ki vikas yojanaon ka kam kendr tatha rajy sarakaren milakar karati hain. pichhale 15 varsho men shiksha ke kshetr men bahut pragati huee thi. sanh 1950-51 men prathamik shiksha ke kshetr men bahut pragati huee thi. sanh 1950-51 men prathamik shiksha ke manyata-prapt vidyalayon ki snkhya 2.1 lakh thi, jo 1962-63 men badhakar 3.67 lakh ho gee aur isi avadhi men vidyarthiyon ki snkhya lagabhag 183 lakh se badhakar 313 lakh ho gee. madhyamik shiksha ki pragati ka anuman isase lagaya ja sakata hai ki jahan sanh 1950-51 men kul 20,844 madhyamik vidyalay, lagabhag 52.3 lakh vidyarthi aur 2.1 lakh adhyapak the, vahan sanh‌ 1962-63 men vidyalayon ki snkhya 82,846 vidyarthiyon ki snkhya 226.70 lakh tatha adhyapakon ki snkhya 7.89 lakh ho gee. sanh 1964 men bharat men 62 vishvavidyalay the, jinamen lagabhag 12 lakh vidyarthi the.

saksharata ki paribhasha

1911 men bharatiy janaganana ke samay saksharata ko paribhashit karate hue kaha gaya hai ki ek patr padh-likhakar usaka uttar de dene ki yogyata saksharata hai.

prachin kal

bharat men lambe samay se likhit bhasha ka astitv hai, kintu pratyaksh soochana ke abhav ke karan isaka sntoshajanak vikas nahin hua. hadappa aur mohanajodado ki lekhan chitralipi tin hazar varsh eesa poorv aur bad ki hai. yadyapi abhi tak is lipi ko padha nahin ja saka hai, tathapi isase yah spasht hai ki bharatiyon ke pas kee shatabdiyon pahale se hi ek likhit bhasha thi aur yahan ke log padh aur likh sakate the. hadappa aur ashok ke kal ke bich men pandrah sau varshon ka aisa samay raha hai, jisamen ki koee likhit praman nahin milata. lekin panini ne us samay bharatiyon ke dvara boli jane vali vibhinn bhashaon ka ullekh kiya hai. buddh ke samay men aur unase bhi pahale is desh men bhasha ke 60 se bhi adhik roopon ko jana jata tha tatha shakyamuni ne lekhan ki ek paddhati ki shiksha di thi. bharat ke ek rashtr ke roop men vikasit hone se pahale snskrit bhasha ekata ka mahattvapoorn karak thi.

yadi yah man bhi liya jae ki us samay desh ki sampoorn abadi ki ek tihaee se zyada oonchi jatiyon ki abadi nahin thi to bhi yah mana ja sakata hai ki ashok ke samay men bharat men do karod se zyada log shikshit the (yah manate hue ki us samay ki janasnkhya men lagabhag 1/5 chhoti ayu vale bachche the tatha sabhi ladakiyan shiksha prapt nahin kar rahi thin). yah snkhya bahut adhik pratit nahin hoti, kyonki us bharat ki janasnkhya poori manavata ke ek-tihaee ke lagabhag thi. atah us samay ke shikshit logon ki snkhya isase adhik rahi hogi aur yah us samay ki sabase kam snkhya hi mani ja sakati hai. arambh men mahilaon ke lie bhi shiksha anivary thi, lekin samay ke sath unaki vivah ayu kam hoti gee aur is vajah se mahilaon ki shiksha men badha aee, use pratibandhit kar diya gaya.[1]

saltanat kal

Blockquote-open.gif ham yah spasht kar dena chahate hain ki bharat ne jitana rin grahan kiya hai, utana hi athava usase bhi adhik usane pradan kiya hai. bharat ke prati vishv ke rin ka saransh is prakar hai-

sampoorn dakshin-poorv eshiya ko apani adhikansh snskriti bharat se prapt huee. eesa poorv panchavin shatabdi ke prarambh men pashchimi bharat ke upaniveshi lnka men bas gaye, jinhonne ashok ke rajyakal men bauddh dharm svikar kar liya. is samay tak kuchh bharatiy vyapari sambhavataya malaya, sumatra tatha dakshin-poorv eshiya ke any bhagon men ane jane lage the. dhire dhire unhonne sthayi apanivesh sthapit kar lie. isamen sndeh nahin ki pray: unhonne sthaniy striyon se vivah kiye. vyapariyon ke pashchath vahan brahman tatha bauddh bhikshuk pahunche aur bharatiy prabhav ne shanai: shanai: vahan ki svadeshi snskriti ko jagrat kiya. yahan tak ki chauthi shatabdi men snskrit us kshetr ki rajabhasha ho gayi aur vahan aisi mahanh sabhyataen vikasit hueen jo vishal samudratatiy samrajyon ka sngathan karane tatha java men borobudur ka buddh stoop athava kambodiya men angakor ke shaiv mndir jaise ashcharyajanak smarak nirmit karane men samarth huee. dakshin-poorv eshiya men any sanskritik prabhav chin evn islami snsar dvara anubhav kie gaye parantu sabhyata ki prarambhik prerana bharat se hi prapt huee

bharatiy itihasakar jo apane desh ke atit par garv karate hain pray: is kshetr ko 'vrihattar bharat' ka nam dete hain tatha bharatiy upaniveshon ka varnan karate hain. apane samany arth men 'upanivesh' shabd yuktisngat nahin jan padata hai phir bhi yah kaha jata hai ki pauranik ary vijeta vijay ne talavar ke bal se lnka dvip par vijay prapt ki thi. isake atirikt bharat ki sima ke bahar kisi sthayi bharatiy vijay ka koee vastavik praman upalabdh nahin hai. bharatiy upanivesh shantipriy the aur un kshetron ke bharatiy nripati svadeshi senapati the. jinhonne bharat se hi sari shiksha grahan ki thi.- basham [2] Blockquote-close.gif

alag-alag bhashaon aur lipiyon men likhe ge ashok ke prasiddh shasanadesh bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men shilalekh ke roop men the. ye shasanadesh janata ko sambodhit the, jisaka matalab hai ki janata unhen padh evn samajh sakati thi.

uttar bharat ki muslim vijay bhi ek nishchit sima tak saksharata aur shiksha men kami ane ke lie uttaradayi hai. yadi ham yuddhon ke evn tanavon ke ghatak parinamon ka ullekh n karen to bhi bharat men islam ki vijay se ek sima tak janata ki shiksha men giravat aee, jo pahale mahilaon ke karan likh evn padh sakate the. vaidik yug men ek kanya ki vivah ki ayu 16 se 18 varsh thi; 12vin sadi men yah ayu 12-14 ho gee aur age chalakar to yah 7-9 ho gee, isaka parinam yah hua ki mahilaon ke lie to shiksha ke daravaze band hi kar diye ge.

aupanivesh kal

shiksha ki yooropiy shaili sthapit karane ke bad desh ke bajat ka keval 1.7% shiksha par kharch kiya gaya. yah upaniveshakalin bharat men shiksha ki sthiti ko batane ke lie paryapt hai ki us samay lokapriy shiksha ka star kya tha. "turki sarakar ke apavad ko chhodakar yoorop men ek bhi sarakar aisi nahin thi, jo lok-shiksha par itani kam rashi vyay karane vali ho."

gova vishvavidyalay

kramavar vikas

bharat men shiksha ke prati rujhan prachin kal se hi dekhane ko milati hai. prachin kal men gurukulon, ashramon tatha bauddh mathon men shiksha grahan karane ki vyavastha hoti thi. tatkalin shiksha kendron men nalanda, takshashila evn vallabhi ki ganana ki jati hai. madhy kal men shiksha madarason men pradan ki jati thi. mugal kal men prathamik shiksha ‘maqatav’ men di jati thi aur uchch shiksha madarason men di jati thi. shiksha ke yahi do roop the, prathamik aur uchch arthath madhyamik shiksha nahin thi. mugal shasakon ne dilli, ajamer, lakhanoo evn agara men madarason ka nirman karavaya.

  • bharat men adhunik v pashchaty shiksha ki shuruat british eest indiya kampani ke shasan kal se huee. 1813 ee. ke chartar men sarvapratham bharatiy shiksha ke prachar-prasar ke lie ek lakh rupaye ki vyavastha ki gee.
  • lok shiksha ke lie sthapit samany samiti ke das sadasyon men do dal ban gaye the. ek angl ya pashchaty vidya ka samarthak tha to doosara prachy vidya ka. prachy vidya ke samarthakon ka netritv lok shiksha samiti ke sachiv ech.ti. prinsep ne kiya jabaki inaka samarthan samiti ke mntri ech.ech. vilsan ne kiya. ‘adhomukhi nisyndan siddhant’, jisaka arth tha- shiksha samaj ke uchch varg ko di jaye, ko sarvapratham sarakari niti ke roop men akalaind ne lagoo kiya. ‘vud dispaich’ ke pahale tak is siddhant ke tahat bharatiyon ko shikshit kiya gaya.
  • bord aauf kantrol ke pradhan charls vud ne 19 julaee, 1854 ko bharatiy shiksha par ek vyapak yojana prastut ki jise ‘vud ka dispaich’ kaha jata hai.
  • vud ke ghoshana patr dvara shiksha ke kshetr men huee pragati ki samiksha hetu 1882 ee. men sarakar ne dablyoo. hntar ki adhyakshata men 'hantar ayog' ki niyukti ki. is ayog men 8 sadasy bharatiy the. ayog ko prathamik evn madhyamik shiksha ki samiksha tak hi simit kar diya gaya tha.
  • 1917 ee. men kalakatta vishvavidyalay ki samasyaon ke adhyayan ke lie daau. em.ee. saidalar ke netritv men 'saidalar ayog' gathit kiya gaya.
  • 1929 ee. men 'bharatiy pariniti ayog' ne sar philip hartog ke netritv men shiksha ke vikas par riport hetu ek sahayak samiti ka gathan kiya. samiti ne prathamik shiksha ke mahattv ki bat ki. hartog samiti ki sipharish ke adhar par 1935 men ‘kendriy shiksha salahakar bord’ ka punargathan kiya gaya.
  • vardha yojana ko kee namon se jana jata hai yatha- buniyadi shiksha, besik shiksha adi. gandhiji dvara 1937 ee. men vardha namak sthan par is yojana ka sootrapat hua. isamen shiksha ke madhyam se hast utpadan karyon ko mahattv diya gaya. isamen balak apani matribhasha ke dvara 7 varsh tak adhyayan karata tha.
  • 1944 ee. men kendriy shiksha salahakar mandal ne ‘sarjent yojana’ (sarjent bharat sarakar men shiksha salahakar the) ke nam se ek rashtriy shiksha yojana prastut ki. isamen 6 se 11 varsh ke bachchon ke lie ni:shulk anivary shiksha diye jane ki vyavastha ki gee thi.
  • daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan ki adhyakshata men sanh 1948-1949 men uchch shiksha ke sujhav ke lie 'radhakrishnan ayog' ka gathan kiya gaya.
  • 1953 ee. men radhakrishnan ayog ki sipharishon ko kriyanvit karane ke lie vishvavidyalay anudan ayog ki sthapana ki gayi.
  • 'mudaliyar ayog' ya 'madhyamik shiksha ayog' ka gathan sanh 1952-1953 men hua. isane madhyamik shiksha ke lie sujhav die.
  • daau. di.es. kothari ki adhyakshata men julaee 1964 ee. men kothari ayog ki niyukti ki gee. isane prathamik shiksha, madhyamik shiksha aur uchch arthath vishvavidyalay shiksha ke lie mahattvapoorn snstutiyan ya sujhav diye.
bharatiy itihas ke vibhinn yugon men saksharata[1]
kal kul janasnkhya (das lakh men) shikshit (das lakh men) kul pratishat shikshit purush % shikshit mahila %
prachin bharat
(300 ee.poo. se 300 eesavi)
120 20 17 27 7
madhyakalin bharat
(1200 eesavi)
100 9 9 15 3
upaniveshakakal bharat
(1900 tak)
300 18 6 11 0.6
adhunik bharat (1961) 439 105 24 34 13
adhunik bharat (1971) 548 161 29 40 18
adhunik bharat (1981) 634 238 36 47 25
upaniveshakalin janagananaon men das varsh se adhik ayu varg men shiksha ankade[1]
janaganana varsh kul janasnkhya purush mahilaen
1891 6.1 11.4 0.5
1901 6.2 11.5 0.7
1911 7.0 12.6 1.1
1921 8.3 14.2 1.9
1931 9.2 15.4 2.4


bharat ke pramukh shiksha snsthan

bharat ke pramukh snsthan evn unake mukhyalay
shiksha snsthan mukhyalay
vaigyanik evn takaniki paribhashik shabdavali ayog nee dilli
kendriy angrezi evn videshi bhasha snsthan haidarabad
rashtriy snskrit snsthan nee dilli
rashtriy snskrit vidyapith tirupati
shri lal bahadur shastri rashtriy snskrit vidyapith nee dilli
rashtriy bal bhavan nee dilli
kendriy bharatiy bhasha snsthan maisoor
bharatiy darshanik anusndhan parishad lakhanoo
bharatiy uchchatar anusndhan parishad shimala
bharatiy samaj vigyan anusndhan parishad nee dilli
bharatiy darshanik anusndhan parishad nee dilli
bharatiy vigyan snsthan bngaluroo
bharatiy soochana praudyogiki evn prabandhan snsthan gvaliyar
bharatiy soochana praudyogiki snsthan ilahabad
kendriy hindi snsthan agara
paryavaran snsthan mukhyalay
shushk bhoomi anusndhan snsthan jodhapur
kendriy pradooshan niyntran bord dilli
kendriy chidiyaghar pradhikaran nee dilli
samajik vaniki aur paristhitiki punarsthapana snsthan ilahabad
van anusndhan snsthan deharadoon
ji. bi. pnt himalay paryavaran evn vikas snsthan almoda
himalayan van anusndhan kendr shimala
bharatiy van anusndhan evn shikshan parishad deharadoon
bharatiy van prabandhan snsthan bhopal
bharatiy plaeevud udyog anusndhan snsthan bngaluroo
van anuvnshiki tatha vriksh prajanan snsthan koyambatoor
van utpadakata kendr ranchi
vaniki anusndhan tatha manav snsadhan vikas snsthan chhindavada (madhy pradesh)
varsha van anusndhan snsthan jorahat (asam)
lakadi vigyan aur praudyogiki snsthan bngaluroo
rashtriy vigyan aur praudyogiki snsthan faridabad
bharatiy vanaspatik sarvekshan kolakata
bharatiy prani vigyan sarvekshan kolakata
bharatiy van sarvekshan jorahat (asam)
ushnakatibandhiy snsthan jabalapur
raksha snsthan mukhyalay
eyar fors akadami haidarabad
eyar fors teknikal kaaulej bngaluroo
kaaulej aauf militri injiniyaring pune
raksha prabandhan snsthan sikandarabad (andhr pradesh)
difens sarvisej staauf kaaulej velingatan (tamilanadu)
dayarektaret janaral enasisi nee dilli
ilektrikal evn mekenikal injiniyaring skool badauda
hindustan aiyaronotiks limited bngaluroo
indiyan eyar fors trening sentar chennee
indiyan militri akadami deharadoon
instityoot aauf armament teknolaauji pune
militri kaaulej aauf ilektrikal evn mekenikal injiniyaring sikandarabad
rashtriy kaidit kor mahanideshalay nee dilli
rashtriy indiyan militri kaaulej deharadoon
rashtriy raksha akadami khadagavasala (pune)
neval kaaulej aauf injiniyaring lonavala (pune)
aaufisars trening akadami chennee
kala evn snskriti snsthan mukhyalay
kala snrakshan v sngrahalay nee dilli
vigyan ke itihas ka rashtriy sngrahalay snstha nee dilli
ilahabad sngrahalay ilahabad
eshiyatik sosayati kolakata
bharatiy manav vigyan sarvekshan kolakata
bharatiy rashtriy abhilekhagar nee dilli
kendriy bauddh shikshan snsthan leh
kendriy uchch tibbati shikshan snsthan varanasi
kendriy sachivalay pustakalay (1981) nee dilli
sanskritik snsthan v prashikshan kendr (1979) nee dilli
dilli pablik laibreri nee dilli
gandhi smriti evn darshan smriti nee dilli
bharatiy dayamand snsthan soorat
bharatiy sngrahalay kolakata
indira gandhi rashtriyata kala kendr nee dilli
indira gandhi rashtriy manav sngrahalay bhopal
javaharalal neharoo manipur nrity akadami (1954) imphal
kalakshetr faundeshan chennee
khuda baqsh oriyntal pablik laibreri patana
lalit kala akadami (1954) nee dilli
maulana abul kalam azad eshiyan stadij snsthan kolakata
rashtriy naty vidyalay (1959) nee dilli
rashtriy vigyan sngrahalay parishad kolakata
rashtriy adhunik kala vithi (1954) nee dilli
rashtriy pustakalay (1948) kolakata
rashtriy sngrahalay nee dilli
rashtriy anusndhan prayogashala lakhanoo
neshanal skool aauf drama nee dilli
nav nalanda mahavihar bihar
neharoo memoriyal sngrahalay evn pustakalay nee dilli
raja ramamohan ray laibreri faundeshan kolakata
ramakrishn mishan snskriti snsthan (1938) kolakata
ramapur raja laibreri ramapur
sahity akadami (1954) nee dilli
salarajng sngrahalay haidarabad
sngit natak akadami nee dilli
viktoriya memoriyal haaul kolakata
svasthy evn parivar kalyan snsthan mukhyalay
kendriy svasthy shiksha byooro nee dilli
rashtriy chikitsa vigyan akadami nee dilli
rashtriy ayurved snsthan jayapur
rashtriy siddh snsthan chennee
rashtriy yoonani snsthan bngaluroo
moraraji desaee rashtriy yog snsthan nee dilli
rashtriy prakritik chikitsa snsthan pune
rashtriy homiyopaithi snsthan kolakata
rashtriy ayurved vidyapith nee dilli
hindustan argenik kemikals limited rasayani (maharashtr)
udyog snsthan mukhyalay
sauth indiya teksatails risarch esosieshan koyambatoor
uttar bharat kapada anusndhan snsthan gajiyabad
silk end art silk mils risarch esosieshan mumbee
indiyan joot indastrij risarch esosieshan kolakata
oon anusndhan snsthan thane (mumbee)
rashtriy kemikals evn fartilaijars limited trambe (mumbee)
kitanashak sootr praudyogiki snsthan gudaganv
hindustan entibayotiks limited pimpari, pune
plastik injiniyari tatha praudyogiki snsthan chennee
bharatiy khan byooro nagapur
neshanal elyuminiyam kampani limited udisa
hindustan jink limited udayapur
snchar snsthan mukhyalay
door snchar injiniyari kendr nee dilli
rashtriy doorasnchar vitt aur prabandhan akadami haidarabad
uchchastariy doorasnchar prashikshan kendr gajiyabad
edavans lebal teli kamyoonikeshan trening sentar gajiyabad
bharat ratn bhimarav ambedakar doorasnchar prashikshan snsthan jabalapur
vaigyanik evn takaniki snsthan mukhyalay
indiyan esosieshan phaaur d kaltiveshan aauf sains kolakata
indiyan instityoot aauf traaupikal mitiriyolaauji pune
bharatiy khagol bhautiki snsthan bngaluroo
javaharalal neharoo unnat vaigyanik anusndhan kendr bngaluroo
raman anusndhan snsthan bngaluroo
indiyan instityoot aauf jiomaiganetijm mumbee
bharatiy vigyan akadami bngaluroo
bharatiy rashtriy vigyan akadami nee dilli
bharatiy vigyan kangres sngh kolakata
bharatiy rashtriy injiniyari akadami nee dilli
bharatiy rashtriy mahasagar aur soochana seva kendr haidarabad
rashtriy mahasagar praudyogiki snsthan chennee
rashtriy antarkatik aur mahasagar shodh kendr goa
rashtriy jaivik vigyan kendr bngaluroo
rashtriy pratirakshikaran snsthan nee dilli
rashtriy koshika vigyan kendr pune
rashtriy mastishk anusndhan kendr manesar (hariyana)
rashtriy paudh jinom anusndhan kendr nee dilli
rashtriy bhookamp vigyan ankada kendr nee dilli
rashtriy parikshan aur anshankan pramanan bord nee dilli
rashtriy vigyan akadami ilahabad
sarvekshan prashikshan snsthan haidarabad
bos snsthan kolakata
agarakar anusndhan snsthan tiruvanantapuram
vadiya instityoot aauf himalayan jiolaauji deharadoon
es.en. bos rashtriy mool vigyan kendr kolakata
birabal sahani instityoot aauf peliyobotani lakhanoo
teknolaauji imfarmeshan forakasting end asesament kaunsil nee dilli
vigyan prasar nee dilli
taral kristal shodh kendr bngaluroo
aryabhat anusndhan vaidhashala nainital
paramanu khanij anusndhan aur anveshan nideshalay haidarabad
bharatiy yooreniyam nigam limited jadooguda (jharakhand)
gurujal bord mumbee
nabhikiy eedhan parisar haidarabad
bhabha etomik risarch sentar mumbee
shriram instityoot aauf kemikal risarch nee dilli
plajma anusndhan snsthan (aee.pi.a.) ahamadabad
harishachandr anusndhan snsthan chennee
bhautiki snsthan bhuvaneshvar
verieval enarji saiklotron sentar kolakata
paramanu oorja vibhag mumbee
ekikrit tatiy aur samudri kshetr prabandhan chennee
samudri jiv snsadhan aur paristhitiki kendr kochchi
hindustan jink limited udayapur
diene fingar printing tatha naidaniki kendr haidarabad
jaiv snsadhan evn nirantar vikas snsthan imphal
jivan vigyan snsthan bhuvaneshvar
fijikal risarch leboretari ahamadabad
es.vi. rashtriy takaniki snsthan soorat
saha nyookliyar fijiks snsthan kolakata
sismik risarch sentar gaurividanur
shriram chennee anusndhan snsthan nee dilli
tata instityoot aauf fandamental risarch mumbee
sentar faaur merin living risors end ikolaauji kochchi
maithametikal sains snsthan chennee
bhautiki snsthan bhuvaneshvar
rashtriy jiv vigyan kendr bngaluroo
sarvekshan prashikshan snsthan haidarabad
yooreniyam kaaurpereshan aauf indiya limited jaduguda (jharakhand)
vishvesvaraiya rashtriy takaniki snsthan nagapur
parivahan snsthan mukhyalay
dijal lokomotiv varks varanasi
chittarnjan lokomotiv varks chittarnjan (bngal)
rel koch faiktari peramboor (chennee)
rel hvil faiktari bngaluroo
marin injiniyaring aur anusndhan snsthan kolakata
marin injiniyaring aur anusndhan snsthan mumbee
lal bahadur shastri tatavarti anusndhan evn uchch adhyayan snsthan mumbee
bharatiy antardeshiy jalamarg pradhikaran noeda
meritaim trening instityoot mumbee
hindustan shipayard limited vishakhapattanam
kendriy antardeshiy jal parivahan nigam kolakata
nagar vimanan suraksha byooro dilli
rashtriy vimanan prabandh evn anusndhan snsthan dilli
fayar trening sentar narayanapur (kolakata)
indira gandhi rashtriy udan akadami furasatagnj (uttar pradesh)
bharatiy paryatan evn yatra prabandhan snsthan gvaliyar
rashtriy jalakrida snsthan goa
jal snsthan mukhyalay
kendriy mrida tatha padarth anusndhan kendr nee dilli
kendriy jal tatha vidyut anusndhan kendr khadagavasala, pune
rashtriy pariyojana nirman nigam limited nee dilli
rashtriy jal vigyan snsthan rudaki (uttarakhand)
khady evn nagarik apoorti snsthan mukhyalay
bharatiy manak byooro dilli
rashtriy parikshan grih kolakata
nyay aur vidhi snsthan mukhyalay
rashtriy nyay akadami bhopal
saradar vallabh bhaee patel rashtriy pulis akadami haidarabad
lokanayak jayaprakash narayan rashtriy aparadh tatha nyay vigyan snsthan nee dilli
shram snsthan mukhyalay
shram byooro snsthan chandigadh aur shimala
vi.vi. giri rashtriy shram snsadhan noeda
kendriy shramik bord nagapur
khan suraksha mahanideshalay dhanabad
kendriy shaikshik midiya snsthan chennee
kendriy karmachari prashikshan aur anusndhan snsthan kolakata
janasnchar snsthan mukhyalay
prakashan vibhag nee dilli
film vibhag mumbee
rashtriy film abhilekhagar pune
bharatiy bal film samiti mumbee
vigyapan aur drishy prachar nideshalay dilli
kshetriy prasar nideshalay nee dilli
kendriy chalachitr pramanan bord mumbee
bharatiy film tatha telivijan snsthan pune
satyajit re film tatha telivijan snsthan kolakata
kalyan snsthan mukhyalay
rashtriy drishtihin snsthan deharadoon
rashtriy asthi rog vikalang snsthan kolakata
ali yavarajng rashtriy badhir snsthan mumbee
rashtriy manasik vikalang snsthan sikandarabad
rashtriy punarvas prashikshan evn anusndhan snsthan katak
sharirik vikalang snsthan nee dilli
bahu-vikalangata sashaktikaran snsthan chennee
rashtriy jan sahayog evn bal vikas snsthan nee dilli
yuva kary evn khel snsthan mukhyalay
rajiv gandhi rashtriy yuva vikas snsthan perambadoor
lakshmibaee rashtriy sharirik shiksha snsthan (1957) gvaliyar
oorja snsthan mukhyalay
rashtriy tap bijali nigam nee dilli
vidyut vitt nigam limited nee dilli

bharat ke rajyon men shiksha vyavastha

deli kaaulej, indaur

uttar pradesh

  • uttar pradesh men 16 vishvavidyalay, 400 se adhik snbaddh mahavidyalay, kee chikitsa mahavidyalay aur vishisht adhyayanon v shodh ke lie kee snsthan hain.
  • 1950 ke dashak ke bad se rajy men vidyalayon v sabhi staron par vidyarthiyon ki snkhya badhane ke bavajood rajy ki janasnkhya ka 57.36 pratishat hissa hi sakshar hai.
  • prathamik star par shiksha ka madhyam hindi (kuchh niji vidyalayon men madhyam angrezi) hai, uchchatar vidyalay ke vidyarthi hindi v angrezi men padhaee karate hain, jabaki vishvavidyalay star par amataur par shiksha ka madhyam angrezi hai.

jharakhand

  • jharakhnd men saksharata dar 1991 ke 41.39 pratishat ki tulana men 54.13 pratishat ho gee hai.
  • yahan 21,386 vidyalay aur panch vishvavidyalay hain.
  • isake alava yahan indiyan skool aauf mains, jana- mana vyapar evn prabndhan snsthan, zeviyar lebar rileshns instityoot aur kendriy khanan shodh snsthan jaise shaikshanik v shodh snsthan sthit hain.
gramin shiksha, lakhanoo

rajasthan

  • rajasthan men anek shaikshanik snsthan hain.
  • jinamen rajy dvara snchalit jayapur, udayapur, jodhapur v ajamer vishvavidyalay; kota khula vishvavidyalay; pilani men bidala instityoot aauf teknolaauji end sains shamil hain.
  • yahan anek rajakiy aspatal aur davakhane hain.
  • yahan kee ayurvedik, yoonani (jadi-bootiyon par adharit chikitsa paddhati) evn homiyopaithi snsthan hain.

tamilanadu

  • tamilanadu ka saksharata dar lagabhag 73.47 pratishat (2001) hai.
  • yahan prathamik, madhyamik v uchch vidyalay aur kala evn vigyan mahavidyalayon ke sath- sath chikitsa mahavidyalay, abhiyantriki mahavidyalay, paauliteknik snsthaen tatha audyogik prashikshan snsthaen hain.
  • tamilanadu men 21 vishvavidyalay hain, jinamen- chennee men madras vishvavidyalay; anna vishvavidyalay; daau. anbedakar vidhi vishvavidyalay; chidnbaram men annamalaee vishvavidyalay; koynbattur men bharathiyar vishvavidyalay, tiruchirappalli men bharatidasan vishvavidyalay; madurai men madurai kamaraj vishvavidyalay; kodaikanal men madar teresa vinas vishvavidyalay; selam men periyar vishvavidyalay aur tnjavoor men tamil vishvavidyalay shamil hain.

gujarat

  • gujarat men 500 ya isase zyada janasnkhya vale lagabhag sabhi ganvon men sat se gyarah varsh ke sabhi bachchon ke lie prathamik pathashalaen kholi ja chuki hain.
  • adivasi bachchon ko kala aur shilp ki shiksha dene ke lie vishesh vidyalay chalae jate hain.
  • yahan anek madhyamik aur uchchatar vidyalayon ke sath-sath nau vishvavidyalay aur uchch shiksha ke lie badi snkhya men shikshan snsthan hain.
  • abhiyantriki mahavidyalayon aur takaniki vidyalayon dvara takaniki shiksha upalabdh karaee jati hai.

meghalay

  • meghalay bharat ke sabase kam vikasit rajyon men se ek hai.
  • lagabhag adhe se adhik log (63.3 pratishat) sakshar hain.
  • rajy men 5,517 shikshan snsthaen hain.

tripura

21 janavari 1972 men tripura ke snpoorn rajy banane ke bad se shiksha ke kshetr men rajy ne tej gati se vikas kiya hai. akar men chhota lekin behad khoobasoorat rajy tripura, kshetr aur kshetr ke bahar ke vidyarthinyon ke lie shiksha ki bahut achchhi suvidha upalabdh kara raha hai. pradesh men shasakiy vidyalayon ke sath-sath niji vidyalay bhi snchalit kie ja rahe hain. dharmik shiksha pradan karane vale bahut se dharmik snsthan bhi is chhote se bharatiy rajy men apani sevaen de rahe hain.

pune vishvavidyalay

pnjab

sarakar ke sath- sath men niji sngathanon ne bhi skool aur mahavidyalay star par balak- balikaon ki shiksha ke vistar men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee hai. manyata prapt niji prabndhan vale snsthanon ko kafi had tak sarakar se madad milati hai. chhah se gyarah sal tak ke bachchon ke lie prathamik shiksha anivary hai. vastut: pratyek ganv ke nikat prathamik vidyalay aur rajy men uchchatar madhyamik, uchch aur madhy vidyalayon ke sadhan netavark ke bavajood pnjab men 1991 tak sirf 58.5 pratishat janasnkhya (sat sal aur usase adhik ayoo ke) sakshar thi, jabaki bharat ka ausat 52.2 pratishat hai. saksharata dar anusoochit janajati (41 pratishat), visheshakar mahilaon men (31 pratishat), kafi kam hai.

asam

  • asam men chhah se barah varsh ki umr tak ke bachchon ke lie madhyamik star tak anivary tatha ni:shulk shiksha ki vyavastha hai.
  • guvahati, yorahat evn dibroogadh men vishvavidyalay hain.
  • rajy ke 80 se bhi zyada kendron se lok kalyan ki vibhinn yojanaon ka snchalan ho raha hai.

keral

teknokretas instityoot aauf teknolaauji, bhopal

bharat ki sabase vikasit shaikshanik pranaliyon men se ek keral men hai. saksharata dar rashtriy ausat se kafi adhik hai. 6 se 11 varsh ke bich prathamik shiksha anivary hai. yahan prathamik, madhyamik aur uchch madhyamik vidyalay, paauliteknik aur audyogik prashikshan snsthan, kala, vigyan aur vyavasayik mahavidyalay hain. keral men keral vishvavidyalay, kalikat vishvavidyalay, shri shnkarachary snskrit vishvavidyalay, kannoor vishvavidyalay, mahatma gandhi vishvavidyalay aur shri chitr thiroonal instityoot faaur medikal sains end teknokalaauji avasthit hain. knnur, kottayam, koshikod, trishoor, alappusha aur tiroovanntapuram men medikal kaaulej hain; olloor, kottakal, tripunithura aur tiroovanntapuram men ayurvedik kaaulej aur koshikod men ek dental kaaulej sthit hai. koshikod, alappusha, adoor, kasaragod, kochchi, kollam, kannoor, trishoor, kottayam, ernakulam, palakkad aur tiroovanntapuram men injiniyaring kaaulej hain.

gova

gova men saksharata ka pratishat 82.32 hai, jo bharat men keral (90.86) aur mizoram (88.80) ke bad tisari sabase adhik hai. gova men purush 88.88 pratishat aur stri 75.51 pratishat sakshar hai. gova men skool se lekar kaaulej v takaniki snsthanon tak vibhinn shreni ke shikshan v prashikshan snsthan hain. panaji ke nazadik hi gova vishvavidyalay sthit hai. ghat aur pot godi gatividhiyon se paripoorn hain aur isase alag miramar tat hai. jahan dakshini dhruv ke bare men apane shodhon v abhiyanon ke lie prasiddh samudr vigyan snsthan sthit hai.

jammoo aur kashmir

  • jammoo aur kashmir men shiksha har star par niahshulk hai. saksharata ki dar, visheshakar leh men, rajy ke ausat ke barabar hai.
  • uchch shiksha ke do kendr hain. donon 1969 men sthapit hue the.
  • ye hain– kashmir mahavidyalay, shrinagar aur jammoo vishvavidyalay, chikitsa seva rajy bhar men phaile hue aspatalon aur davakhanon dvara pradan ki jati hai.

himachal pradesh

  • himachal pradesh ne shiksha aur lok svasthy suvidhaon ke vistar aur snchar suvidhaon ke sudhar ki disha men ullekhaniy pragati ki hai. phir bhi rajy ki adhikansh janata jivanayapan ke star par hi hai aur rajy ke vishal prakritik snsadhanon ka yojanabaddh roop se dohan hona abhi baqi hai.
  • 1970 men shimala men himachal pradesh vishvavidyalay ki sthapana ke sath hi pradesh men uchch shiksha snbhav ho saki.
  • is vishvavidyalay se 50 se adhik mahavidyalay snbaddh hain.

odisha

  • 1947 ke bad shaikshanik snsthanon men ullekhaniy vriddhi huee hai.
  • yahan panch vishvavidyalay (aur kee snbaddh mahavidyalay) hain, jinamen utkal vishvavidyalay aur udisa krishi evn prodyogiki vishvavidyalay sabase bade v vikhyat hain.
  • shaikshanik snsthanon ke nam is prakar hai:-
    • kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (bhuvaneshvar)
    • indira gandhi instityoot aauf teknolaauji (talachar)
    • instityoot aauf phiziks (bhuvaneshvar)

hariyana

maharaja sayajirav vishvavidyalay, vadodara

pnjab ki tarah hariyana men bhi vidyalay aur mahavidyalay, donon staron par shiksha ko badhava dene men sarakar ki bhoomika ke alava niji snsthanon ne bhi ullekhaniy yogadan diya hai. rajy ke vikas karyakramon men shiksha ko uchch prathamikata di gee hai. kala evn vigyan mahavidyalayon ki snkhya 1966-67 men 40 se badhakar 1997-98 men 140 ho gee, is avadhi men uchch aur uchchtar madhyamik vidyalayon ki snkhya 597 se 3,517; madhyamik buniyadi pathashalaen 735 se 1,718 aur prathamik buniyadi pathashalaon ki snkhya 4,447 se 10, 134 ho gee . vibhinn staron ke ye snsthan rajy ke 6,759 ganvon aur 94 qasbon men sthit hai. inake alava, hariyana men ab char vishvavidyalay hain: kurookshetr men kurookshetr vishvavidyalay, rohatak men maharshi dayannd vishvavidyalay, hisar men guru jnbheshvar vishvavidyalay aur vikhyat pashupalan vigyan mahavidyalay sahit hariyana krishi vishvavidyalay.

karnatak

  • karnatak , jisaki abadi ka lagabhag 67 pratishat hissa sakshar hai, bharat ke shaikshik roop se vikasit rajyon men se ek hai.
  • yahan badi snkhya men vidyalay aur uchch shiksha ke snsthan hain, jinamen maisoor men vishvavidyalay, dharavad sthit karnatak vishvavidyalay aur gulabarga v mngalor vishvavidyalay evn shimoga sthit kuvainph vishvavidyalay bhi shamil hain.
  • bngalor vishvavidyalay, krishi vigyan vishvavidyalay aur indiyan instityoot aauf sains, ye sabhi bngalor men sthit hain.

uttarakhand

bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan, rudaki

aitihasik roop se yah mana jata hai ki uttarakhand vah bhoomi hai jahan par shastron aur vedon ki rachana ki gee thi aur mahakavy, mahabharat likha gaya tha. rishikesh ko vyapak roop se vishv ki yog rajadhani mana jata hai. uttarakhand men bahut se shaikshanik snsthan hain. jaise-

  • rudaki ka bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan (pahale rudaki vishvavidyalay)
  • pntanagar ka govind ballabh pnt krishi evn praudyogiki vishvavidyalay

dilli

dilli, bharat men shiksha ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr hai. dilli ke vikas ke sath-sath yahan shiksha ka bhi tezi se vikas hua hai. prathamik shiksha to prayah sarvajanik ya ni:shulk hai. ek bahut bade anupat men bachche madhyamik vidyalayon men shiksha grahan kar rahe hain. stri shiksha ka vikas har star par purushon se adhik hua hai. yahan ki shiksha snsthaon men vidyarthi bharat ke sabhi bhagon se ate hain. dilli men uchchatar shiksha evn anusndhan ke anek kendr hain. lagabhag gyarah vishvavidyalay, anek mahavidyalay, anaginat prathamik anusndhan kendr poori dilli men phaile hain. yahan kee sarakari evn niji shiksha snsthan hain jo kala, vanijy, vigyan, prodyogiki, ayurvigyan, vidhi aur prabndhan men uchch star ki shiksha dene ke liye vikhyat hain.

nagalaind

  • nagalaind ki janasnkhya ka 67.11 pratishat hissa sakshar hai, jo rashtriy ausat se adhik hai.
  • kee prathamik vidyalayon (1,299), madhyamik vidyalayayon (358) aur uchchatar madhyamik vidyalayon (179) ke sath- sath yahan kee snatak star ke mahavidyalay bhi hain.
bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan, khadagapur

pashchim bngal

  • pashchim bngal men 10 vishvavidyalayon ke sath abhiyantriki evn chikitsa mahavidyalay hain.
  • kalakatta, jadavapur aur ravindr bharati vishvavidyalay rajadhani men sthit hain.
  • yahan kee takaniki snsthan aur 5,000 se bhi zyada praudh shiksha kendr hain.

bihar

yadyapi 20vin sadi ke uttarardh men bihar ki shiksha dar lagabhag tiguni hokar rajy ki janasnkhya ke qarib 48 pratishat tak pahunch gee hai, phir bhi yah desh ke any rajyon ki shiksha dar ki tulana men kafi niche hai. mahila saksharata dar (33.57 pratishat) ki tulana men purush saksharata dar (60.32 pratishat) lagabhag dugani hai. 14 varsh tak ke sabhi bachchon ko shikshit karana rajy ka pradhan lakshy hai. inamen se lagabhag 90 pratishat bachche prathamik skoolon men dakhila lene ke yogy hain, lekin inamen se bahut kam hi madhyamik star tak pahunch pate hain, kyonki inaki arthik avashyakataen inhen kam karane ke lie badhy karati hain.

madhy pradesh

  • 2001 ki ganana ke anusar madhy pradesh men saksharata badhi hai.
  • 1991 ke 44.67 pratishat ki tulana men saksharata dar badhakar 64.11 pratishat ho gee hai.
  • yahan prathamik, madhyamik v uchch shiksha ke vidyalay aur sath hi paliteknik, audyogik kala tatha shilp vidyalay hain.
  • madhy pradesh men kee vishvavidyalay hain.

maharashtr

hal ke dashakon men is maharashtr ne shiksha ke kshetr men pragati ki hai. ab saksharata dar (2001 janaganana) 77.27 pratishat hai, stri saksharata dar 67.51 pratishat, purush 86.27 pratishat hai. bich men padhaee chhodakar chale jane valon ke oonche pratishat, sthan ki kami, aparyapt pustakalay aur sahayogi upakaranon ke abhav ke bavajood prathamik aur madhyamik shiksha tatha shikshak prashikshan ke kshetr men vikas hua hai. yahan ke shaikshanik snsthanon men munbee vishvavidyalay, nagapur vishvavidyalay, pune vishvavidyalay, shivaji vishvavidyalay (kolhapur), es. en. di. ti. mahila vishvavidyalay (munbee), uttari maharashtr vishvavidyalay (jalaganv), amaravati vishvavidyalay, bharat vidyapith (pune), kendriy matsy palan snsthan (munbee), dkkan kaaulej post grejuet aind risarch instityoot (pune), daktar pnjabarav deshamukh krishi vidyapith (akola), gokhale instityoot aauf paaulitiks aind ikonaaumiks (pune), indira gandhi instityoot aauf devalapament risarch, intaraneshanal instityoot faaur papuleshan sainsez (munbee), tata instityoot aauf soshal sainsaz, kavi guru kalidas snskrit vishvavidyalayamh (ramatek), konkan krishi vidyapith (dapoli), mahatma gandhi antarrashtriy hindi vishvavidyalay (vardha), mahatma gandhi phule vidyapith (rahudi) aur yashavntarav chavhan maharashtr vishvavidyalay (nasik) shamil hain.

andhr pradesh

andhr pradesh men saksharata dar lagabhag 61.11 pratishat hai. rajy ki shiksha pranali men skooli shiksha ke 10 varsh ke bad do varsh ka jooniyar kaaulej pathyakram shamil hai, usake bad snatak aur snatakottar shiksha ki vyavastha hai. 1961 se rajy men prathamik shiksha ni:shulk aur anivary rahi hai. sthaniy nikayon ke antargat ane vali madhyamik shiksha bhi ni:shulk hai. rajy men 12 vishvavidyalay hain- haidarabad (krishi vishvavidyalay sahit panch), vaaulteyar, varngal, guntoor, vijayavada, anntapur aur tirupati (do) - pratyek se kee mahavidyalay snbaddh hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 bharat ka janasnkhya moolak adhyayan, lekhak- viktar petrov
  2. adbhut bharat- lekhak- e.el. basham

snbndhit lekh

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