भारत में सिंचाई के साधन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka kul kshetraphal 32.8 karod hekteyar hai, jisake 92.2 pratishat ke bhoomi upayog sambandhi ankade upalabdh hain. vartaman men desh men shuddh boya gaya kshetr 16.2 karod hekteyar hai. is prakar kul kshetraphal ka lagabhag 51 pratishat bhag krishi ke antargat ata hai, jabaki lagabhag 4 pratishat bhoomi par charagah, 21 pratishat bhoomi par van tatha 24 pratishat bhoomi bnjar athava bina kisi upayog ki hai. 24 pratishat bnjar bhoomi men 5 pratishat parati bhoomi bhi shamil hai, jisamen prativarsh fasalen n bokar tisare ya panchave varsh boyi jati hain, jisase bhoomi ki urvarata snchit ho sake. is shuddh boye gaye 52 pratishat bhoo-bhag ke matr 28 pratishat bhag arthath 4.5 karod hekteyar bhoomi par hi sinchaee ki paryapt suvidha upalabdh hai, jabaki desh ka samast sinchit kshetr 8 karod hekteyar hai. is prakar kul krishi bhoomi ke lagabhag 72 pratishat bhag par ki jane vali krishi varsha par hi nirbhar karati hai.

kul sinchit kshetraphal ke adhe se adhik bhag par sinchaee ke chhote sadhanon- kuen, talab, jhilen, jalashay, bandh, nalakoop, mitti ke kachche bandh, nal tatha jal sroton dvara sinchaee ki jati hai. shesh bhag ki sinchaee bade sadhanon, yatha- naharon, naliyon adi ke madhyam se ki jati hai. sinchaee men sahayak vibhinn sadhanon ka anupatik yogadan nimn prakar hai -

sinchaee ke sadhan kul sinchit kshetr men unaka pratishat yogadan
nahar 40.0
kune 37.8
talab 14.5
any 7.7
yog 100 pratishat

uparyukt talika men sampoorn desh ki kul sinchit bhoomi par sinchaee ke vibhinn sadhanon ka jo anupat darshaya gaya hai, vastavikata usase kuchh door hi hai, kyonki asam, pnjab, hariyana, keral, madhy pradesh, pashchim bngal adi rajyon men naharon dvara ausat se adhik bhoomi ki sinchaee ki jati hai. isi prakar gujarat, uttar pradesh tatha rajasthan men sinchaee ke sabase pramukh sadhan nalakoop hain tatha dakshin bharatiy rajyon- andhr pradesh, karnatak, tamilanadu evn udisa men talabon dvara adhik sinchaee ki jati hai.

naharen

naharen desh men sinchaee ki sabase pramukh sadhan hai aur inamen 40 pratishat se adhik krishi bhoomi ki sinchaee ki jati hai. hamare desh ki naharon ka sarvadhik vikas uttar ke vishal maidani bhagon tatha tatavarti delta ke kshetron men kiya gaya hai, kyonki inaka nirman samatal bhoomi evn jal ki nirantar apoorti par nirbhar karata hai. naharon ko mukhyatah do prakaron men rakha jata hai-

  1. nityavahi naharen - ye varsh bhar pravahit hone vali nadiyon se nikali jati hain evn sadaiv jal se bhari rahati hain. ullekhaniy hai ki nadi ke jal ko pahale bandh banakar rok liya jata hai aur unase naharon ki jal ki apoorti ki jati hai.
  2. anityavahi athava badh ki naharen - inamen varsh bhar lagatar jal ki apoorti sambhav nahin ho pati aur ve matr nadiyon men ane vali badhon ke samay hi sinchaee ke kam ati hain. aisi naharon ke dvara varsh men matr ek fasal ki hi sinchaee ki ja sakati hai.

kuen evn nalakoop

kuon ka nirman sarvadhik unhin kshetron men hua hai, jahan chikani baluee mitti milati hai, kyonki isase pani risakar dharatal ke andar chala jata hai tatha bhoomigat jal ke roop men bhandarit ho jata hai. desh men tin prakar ke kuen sinchaee evn peyajal ke kam men laye jate hain-

  1. kachche kuen
  2. pakke kuen
  3. nalakoop

desh ki kul sinchit bhoomi ka kuon dvara sinche jane vala adhikansh bhag gujarat, maharashtr, pnjab, rajasthan tatha uttar pradesh rajyon men hai. yahan lagabhag 50 pratishat bhoomi ki sinchaee kuon tatha nalaroopon dvara hi ki jati hai. in rajyon ke atirikt hariyana, bihar, tamilanadu, andhr pradesh tatha karnatak rajyon men bhi kuon evn nalakoopon dvara sinchaee ki jati hai.

pratham yojana kal men desh men nalakoopon ki snkhya matr 3,000 thi, jo vartaman men lagabhag 57 lakh[1] ho gayi hain. desh men sarvadhik nalakoop pampaset tamilanadu men[2] paye jate hain, jabaki maharashtr[3] ka doosara sthan hai. nalakoopon ki sabase adhik snkhya uttar pradesh men hai. pichhalen do dashakon men pnjab evn hariyana men isaka prachalan badha hai. isake atirikt nalakoopon ki pramukhata vale any rajy hain- andhr pradesh, madhy pradesh, karnatak evn gujarat.

talab

desh men prakritik tatha kritrim donon prakar ke talabon ka upayog sinchaee ke lie kiya jata hai. inake dvara sarvadhik sinchaee pray:dvipiy bharat ke tamilanadu, karnatak tatha andhr pradesh rajyon men ki jati hai. isake bad dakshini bihar, dakshini madhy pradesh tatha dakshini poorvi rajasthan ka sthan ata hai, jahan prakritik evn kritrim donon prakar ke talab milate hain. desh ke kul sinchit kshetr ke 9 pratishat bhag ki sinchaee talabon dvara hoti hai. bharat men talabon dvara sinchit kshetr tamilanadu men sarvadhik vistrit hai.

desh ki mahattvapoorn nadi ghati pariyojanaen
pariyojana nadi / sthan uddeshy labhanvit hone vale rajy tippani
bhakhada nangal pariyojana sataluj nadi (pnjab ke hoshiyarapur zile men) jal vidyut shakti ka utpadan evn sinchaee pnjab, hariyana, himachal pradesh, rajasthan is pariyojana men 4 vidyut shakti grih jaliy naharen, nangal bandh tatha bhakhada bandh (unchaee 226 mi. evn lambaee 518 mi. vishv ka doosara sabase ooncha bandh)
vyas pariyojana vyas nadi jal vidyut shakti ka utpadan evn sinchaee pnjab, hariyana, rajasthan is pariyojana ki pramukh ikaiyan shamil hain- (1) vyas-satalaj link, (2) pong bandh, (3) vyas pareshan tantr.
rajasthan nahar (indira gandhi nahar pariyojana) pnjab men sataluj nadi (vyas tatha ravi ke sngam se) sinchaee pnjab, hariyana, rajasthan
damodar ghati pariyojana damodar nadi shakti utpadan, sinchaee evn badh niyntran bihar, jharakhand evn pashchim bngal is pariyojana ki pramukh ikaiyan shamil hain- (1) maithan bandh, (2) tilaiya bandh, (3) konar bandh, (4) bokaro, durgapur tatha chandrapur men shakti grihon ki sthapana.
hirakund bandh pariyojana mahanadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee udisa. yahan ka mukhy bandh vishv ka sabase bada mukhy dhara bandh hai. isaki lambaee 4,800 mi. tatha oonchaee 28.9 mi. hai.
chambal pariyojana chambal nadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee rajasthan v madhy pradesh is pariyojana men tin bandhon ka nirman kiya gaya hai- (1) gandhi sagar bandh, (2) rana pratap sagar bandh, (3) javahar sagar bandh.
tungabhadra pariyojana tungabhadra nadi (krishna ki sahayak nadi) shakti utpadan evn sinchaee andhr pradesh tatha karnatak
mayoorakshi pariyojana murala nadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee pashchim bngal tatha bihar
nagarjun sagar pariyojana krishna nadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee andhr pradesh.
kosi pariyojana (bharat evn nepal ki snyukt pariyojana) kosi nadi badh niyntran, sinchaee evn shakti utpadan bihar, nepal
gandak pariyojana gandak nadi (gnga ki sahayak nadi) shakti utpadan evn sinchaee bihar, uttar pradesh, nepal
pharakka pariyojana gnga, bhagirathi shakti utpadan, sinchaee tatha nau parivahan ke lie gad ke jamav ko door karana pashchim bngal
kakarapar pariyojana tapti nadi sinchaee gujarat
tava pariyojana tava nadi (narmada ki sahayak) sinchaee madhy pradesh evn chhattisagadh
nagapur shakti grih pariyojana karodi nadi tap vidyut ka utpadan gujarat
ukaee pariyojana tapti nadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee gujarat
poochamapad pariyojana godavari nadi sinchaee andhr pradesh
malaprabha pariyojana malaprabha nadi sinchaee karnatak
mahi pariyojana (jamanalal bajaj sagar pariyojana) mahi nadi sinchaee gujarat
mahanadi delta pariyojana mahanadi sinchaee udisa
rihand pariyojana rihand nadi jal vidyut shakti uttar pradesh
kunda pariyojana kunda jal vidyut shakti evn sinchaee tamilanadu
durgapur beraj damodar nadi sinchaee tatha kolakata evn ranignj ke bich nau vahan pashchim bngal, jharakhand evn bihar
idukki pariyojana periyar nadi jal vidyut shakti keral
tihari bandh pariyojana bhilngana tatha bhagirathi jal vidyut shakti uttarakhand evn uttar pradesh
matatila bahuddeshiy pariyojana betava nadi shakti utpadan evn sinchaee uttar pradesh, chhattisagadh tatha madhy pradesh
koyana pariyojana koyana nadi jal vidyut shakti maharashtr
ramagnga bahuddeshyiy pariyojana ramagnga nadi (gnga ki sahayak nadi) vidyut shakti evn sinchaee uttar pradesh
oopari krishna pariyojana krishna nadi sinchaee karnatak
ghataprabha ghati pariyojana ghataprabha nadi sinchaee evn vidyut shakti karnatak
bhima pariyojana pavana nadi (pune) tatha krishna nadi (ujjain bandh) sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti karnatak
jayakavadi pariyojana godavari nadi sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti maharashtr
thin bandh pariyojana ravi nadi sinchaee pnjab
hidakal pariyojana ghataprabha nadi sinchaee karnatak
salal pariyojana chinab nadi sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti jammoo kashmir
nathapa-jhakari pariyojana sataluj nadi sinchaee (eshiya ki sabase badi pariyojana) himachal pradesh
panam pariyojana panam nadi sinchaee gujarat
kol bandh pariyojana sataluj nadi sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti himachal pradesh
kangasavati pariyojana kangasavati nadi sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti pashchim bngal
parambikulam-aliyar pariyojana 8 chhoti nadiyan sinchaee evn jal vidyut shakti tamilanadu evn keral
narmada ghati pariyojana narmada ghati jal vidyut evn sinchaee madhy pradesh, maharashtr, gujarat (gujarat ki jivan rekha)
jakham pariyojana jokham nadi sinchaee suvidhaon ke vikas hetu rajasthan (udayapur)
tihari pan bijali pariyojana bhagirathi nadi jal vidyut utpadan uttarakhand evn uttar pradesh


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vidyut pampaseton sahit
  2. 18 pratishat
  3. 15.16 pratishat

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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