भाषाविज्ञान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhashavigyan bhasha ke adhyayan ki vah shakha hai jisamen bhasha ki utpatti, svaroop, vikas adi ka vaigyanik evn vishleshanatmak adhyayan kiya jata hai. bhashavigyan ke adhyayeta 'bhashavigyani' kahalate hain. bhashavigyan snbhndhit arnbhik gatividhiyon men panini ki 'ashtadhyayi' ka pramukh roop se ullekh kiya jata hai. bhashavigyan, vyakaran se bhinn hai. vyakaran men kisi bhasha ka karyatmak adhyayan (functional description) kiya jata hai jabaki bhashavigyani isake age jakar bhasha ka atyant vyapak adhyayan karata hai. adhyayan ke anek vishayon men se ajakal bhasha-vigyan ko vishesh mahattv diya ja raha hai.

bhashavigyan ka itihas

prachin evn madhyakal

bharat ki tulana men yoorop men bhashavishayak adhyayan bahut der se prarnbh hua aur usamen vah poornata aur gnbhirata n thi jo hamare shikshagrnthon, pratishakhyon aur paniniy vyakaran men thi. pashchimi duniya ke liye bhashavishayak prachinatam ullekh old testament men buk aauv jenisis (Book of Genesis) ke doosare adhyay men pashuon ke namakaran ke snbndh men milata hai. yoonani itihasakar herodotas (panchavi shatabdi ee. poo.) ne misr ke raja snmetikaaus (Psammetichos) dvara snsar ki bhasha gyat karane ke liye do navajat shishuon par prayog karane ka ullekh kiya hai. yoonan men prachinatam bhashavaigyanik vivechan pleto (425-348 47 ee. poo.) ke snvad men milata hai aur yah mukhyataya oohapohatmak hai. arastoo (384-322,21 ee. poo.) pashchaty bhashavigyan ke pita kahe jate hain. unhonne bhasha ki utpati aur prakriti ke snbndh men upane guru pleto se kuchh virodhi vichar vyakt kie. unake anusar bhasha samajhaute (thesis) aur parnpara (Synthesis) ka parinam hai. arthath‌ unhonne bhasha ko yadrichchhik kaha hai. arastoo ka yah mat aj bhi sarvamany hai. gay ko 'gay' isaliye nahin kaha jata hai ki is shabd se is vishesh chaupae janavar ka bodh hona anivary hai, kintu isaliye kaha jata hai ki kabhi ukt pashu ka bodh karane ke liye is shabad ka yadrichchhik prayog kar liya gaya tha, jise manyata mil gee aur jo parnpara se chala a raha hai unhonne 'sngya', 'kriya', 'nipat' ye shabdabhed kie.
yoonan men bhasha ka adhyayan keval darshanikon tak hi simit raha. yoonaniyon ki doosari visheshata yah thi ki unhonne apani bhasha ke atirikt doosari bhashaon men koee ruchi nahin dikhaee. yah bat is tathy se pramanit hoti hai ki sikndar ki senaon ne yoonan se lekar bharat ki uttari sima tak ke vistrit pradesh ko padakrant kiya, kintu unake vivaranon men un pradeshon ki boliyon ka kahin ullekh nahin milata. yoonan men kuchh bhashavishayak kary bhi hue aristarkas (Aristarchus) ne homar ki kavita ki bhasha ka vishleshan kiya. apolonias diskolas (Appollonios Dyskolos) grik vakyaprakriya par prakash dala. dionisos thrauks (Dionysios Thrax) ne ek prabhavashali vyakaran likha. kuchh shabdakosh aise bhi milate hai jinamen grik aur laitin ke atirikt eshiya mainar men boli jane vali bhashaon ke anek shabdon ka samavesh kiya gaya hai. snkshep men yoonaniyon ne bhasha ko tatvamimansa ki drishti se parakha. unake dvara prastut bhashavishleshan ko darshanik vyakaran ki sngya di gee hai. rom valon ne yoonaniyon ke anukaran par vyakaran aur kosh banae. varo (116-27 ee. poo.) ne 26 khndon men laitin vyakaran racha. priskian (512-60) ka 20 khndovala laitin vyakaran bahut prasiddh hai.

madhy yug

madhy yug men eesaee mishanariyon ko auroen ki bhashaen sikhani padi. janata ko janata ki bhasha men upadesh dena prachar ke liye anivary tha. phalasvaroop parabhasha sikhane ki vyavaharik paddhatiyan nikalin. mishanariyon ne anek bhashaon ke vyakaran tatha kosh banae. par grik laitin vyakaran ke dhanchon men rache jane ke karan ye apoorn tatha unupayukt the. usi yug men sainikon aur upaniveshon ne shasakiy varg ke logon ne sthaniy bhashaon ka vishleshan shuroo kiya. sath hi vyapar vistar ke karan anekanek bhashaon se yooropiyon ka parichay badha. 17vin shatabdi men (1647 men) phainsis lodavik (Francis Lodwick) tatha revarend kev dek (Rev. Cave Deck) jaise vidvanon ne 'e kaauman raiting' tatha 'yoonivarsal kairektar' jaise grnth likhe the, jisase unake svanavigyan ke gyan ka parichay milata hai. lodavik ne ek ashulipi ka avishkar kiya tha, jo angrezi aur dach donon ke liye 1650 ee. ke lagabhag vyavahrit ki gee thi. madhyakal men sabhi gyat bhashaon ke sarvekshan ka prayatn hua. atev anek bahubhashi kosh tatha bahubhashi sngrah nikale. 18vin shatabdi men pallas (P.S. Pallas) ki vishvabhashaon ki tulanatmak shabdavali men 285 shabd aise hain jo 272 bhashaon men milate hain. edelung (Adelung) ki maihthrodetij (Mithridates) men 500 bhashaon men 'eesh prarthana' hai.

18vin evn 19vin shati

is prakar 18vin shati ke poorv bhashavishayak prachur samagri ekatr ho chuki thi. kintu vishleshan tatha prastutikaran k paddhatiyan vahi purani thin. inamen sarvapratham jarman vidvanh‌ laibanits (Leibnitz) ne parishkar kiya. inhonne hi snbhavat: sarvapratham yah bataya ki 'yooreshiyaee' bhashaon ka ek hi pragaitihasik uts hai. is prakar 18vin shati men tulatmak aitihasik bhashavigyan ki bhoomika bani, jo 19vin shati men jakar vikasit huee. snkshep men, 19vin shatabdi se poorv yooropiy bhashaon ka jo adhyayan kiya gaya, vah bhashavaigyanik ki apeksha tarkik adhik, roopatmak ki apeksha snkalpanatmak adhik aur varnanatmak ki apeksha vidhyatma (Prescriptive) adhik tha. 19vin shati (aitihasik tulanatmak bhashavigyan) - unnisavin shati aitihasik tulanatmak bhashavigyan ka yug tha isake prarnbh ka shrey snskrit bhasha se pashchatyon ke parichay ko hai. tulanatmak bhasha vigyan ka sootrapat ek prakar se us samay hua jab 2 faravari, 1786 ko sar viliyam jons ne kalakatte men yah ghoshana ki ki snskrit bhasha ki snrachana adbhut hai, vah grik se adhik poorn, laitin se adhik samriddh aur donon se hi adhik parishkrit hai. phir bhi isaka donon se ghanishth snbndh hai. unhonne dekha ki snskrit ki ek or grik aur laitin tatha doosari aur gaauthik, kelti se itani adhik samanata hai ki nishchay hi in sab ka ek hi strot raha hoga. yah parivarik dharana is ne vigyan ke mool men hai.
is disha men pahala suvyavasthit kary denamark vasi rask (1787-1832) ka hai. rask ne bhashaon ki samagr snrachana ki tulana par adhik bal diya aur keval shabdavali samy agat shabdon ke karan bhi ho sakata hai. inhonne svanon ke samy ko bhi parivarik snbndh nirdharan ka mahatvapoorn ang mana. is dharana ko suvyavasthit pushti di yakov grim (1785-1863) ne, jinake svan niyam bhasha vigyan men prasiddh hain. in svan niyamon men bharat yooropiy se pragjarmaniy men, tadanntar uchchajarmaniy men hone vale vyavasthit vynjan svan parivartanon ki vyakhya hai. isi bich snskrit ke adhikadhik parichay se parivarik tulana ka kram adhikadhik gahara hota gaya. baaup (1791-1967) ne snskrit, avesta grik, laitin, lithueni, gaauthik, jarman, prachin slav kelti aur albani bhashaon ka tulanatmak vyakaran prakashit kiya. rask aur grim ne svan parivartanon par prakash dala, baaup ne mukhyat: roopaprakriya ka adhar grahan kiya.
rask, grim aur baaup ke pashchath‌ maiksamoolar (1823-1900) aur shlaikhar (1823-68) ke nam vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. maiksoomoolar ki mahatvapoorn kriti 'lesns in di sayns aauv laingvej' (1861) hai. shlaikhar ne bharat-yooropiy parivar ki bhashaon ka ek suvyavasthit sarvagin tulanatmak vyakaran prastut kiya shlaikhar ne tulanatmak bhasha vigyan ke saiddhantik paksh par bhi vishesh kary kiya. inake anusar yadi do bhashaon men saman parivartan pae jate hain, to ye donon bhashaen kisi kal men ek sath rahi hongi. is prakar unhonne tulanatmak adhar par adibhasha (Ursprache) ki punarrachana (Reconstruction) ke liye marg prashast kiya. punarrachana ke atirikt bhashavigyan ko inaki ek aur mukhy den bhashaon ka praroopasoochak vargikaran hai. in dinon bhashavigyan ke kshetr men ane vali ameriki vidvanon men hivatani (1827-1894) agrani hain. inhonne bhasha ke vikas aur bhasha ke adhyayan par pustaken likhin. 1876 men prakashit inak snskrit vyakaran apane kshetr ka advitiy grnth hai. shlaikhar ke turnt bad phik (1833-1916) ne 1868 men sarvapratham bharat-yooropiy bhashaon ka tulatatmak shabdakosh prakashit kiya, jisamen adi bhasha ke punarrachit roop bhi die ge the.
kuchh samay bad vidvanon ka dhyan grim niyam ki kuchh ansagatiyon par gaya. denamark vasi varnar ne 1875 men ek aisi asngati ko niyamabaddh apavad ke roop men sthapit kiya. yah asngati thi bharat-yooropiy ph‌, th‌, kh‌ ka jarmaniy men saghosh ban jana. varnar ne grik aur snskrit ki tulana se isaka apavad dhoondh nikala jo varnar niyam ke nam se prachalit hai. aise apavadon ki sthapana se vidvanon ke ek snpraday ko unake apane vishvason men pushti mili. ye navy vayakaran (Jung grammatiker) kahalate haiain. inake mat se svan niyamon ka koee apavad nahin hota. svan parivartan akasmik aur avyavasthit nahin hai, pratyut niyat aur suvyavasthit hain. asngati is karan milati hai ki ham unaki prakriya ko poori tarah samajh nahin pae hain, kyoki bhasha ke namoonon ki kami hai. kuchh asngatiyon ke mool men sadrishy hai, jisaki poorvacharyo ne upeksha ki thi. is prakar ye navy vaiyakaran bade vyavasthavadi the.

20vin shati

aitihasik tulanatmak bhashavigyan par 20vin sadi men bhi kary hua hai. bharat yooropiy parivar par brugamain aur delabruk evn harman hart (Hermann Hirt) ke tulanatmak vyakaran mahatvapoorn grnth hain. meie (Meillet) ka bharat-yooropiy bhashaon ke tulanatmak adhyayan ki bhoomika namak grnth sanatan mahatv ka kaha ja sakata hai. hitait namak prachin bhasha ka pata lagane ke bad bharat-yooropiy bhasha vigyan par naye sire se kary prarnbh hua. bharat yooropiyetar parivaron par aitihasik tulanatmak kary ho raha hai. grinabarg ka aphriki bhashaon ka vargikaran anukaraniy hai. isaki adhunatan shakha bhasha kalakram vigyan (Giotto chronology ya Lixico statistics) hai, jisake antargat tulanatmak paddhati se us samay ke niroopan ka prayas kiya jata hai jab kisi bhashaparivar ke do sadasy prithakh‌ prithakh‌ hue the. amariki manav vigyani maauris svedish is prakriya ke janmadata hain. yah paddhati rediyo rasayan dvara li gee hai.

varnanatmak bhashavigyan

bisavin shati ka bhashavigyan mukhyat: varnanatmak athava snrachanatmak bhashavigyan kaha ja sakata hai. ise adhunik roop dene valon men pramukh baauden (Baudouin de courtenay), henari svit aur sosur (Saussure) hain. svis bhasha vaigyanik sosur (1857-1913) dvara pratipadit siddhanton se bhi poorv hnbolt (Humboldt) ne pratipadit kiya tha ki bhashavishesh ka adhyayan kisi any bhasha se tulana kie bina usi bhasha ke antarik avayavon ke adhar par hona chahie. sosur ne sarvapratham bhasha ki pravritti par prakash dalate hue snketit (Signified) aur snketan (Signifier) ke snbndh ko vastu n manakar prakary (function) mana aur use bhashaee chihn (Linguistic Sign) se abhihit kiya. chihn yadrichchhik hai arthath ‘snketit’ ka ‘snketak’ se koee tarkasngat snbndh nahin hai. vriksh ke liye ‘ped’ kahane men koee tark nahin hai; ‘p’, ‘e’, ‘d’, shsvanon kuchh aisa nahin ki vah vriksh ka hi snketak ho, yah keval parnpara ke karan hai. isake atirikt chihn ka mooly bhasha men prayukt poori shabdavali (any sabhi chihnon) ke pariprekshy men hota hai, arthath‌shh unake virodh se hota hai. bhasha ka inhin virodhon ki prakaryata par nirbhar rahana varnanatmak bhasha vigyan ka adharastnbh hai. in (svanim, roopim, arthim adi) ki satta virodh ke siddhant par hi ashrit hai.
sosoor ne bhasha ke do prayogon pairol (vak) aur lang (bhasha) men bhi bhed kiya. pratham bhasha ka jivit roop hai, hamara bhashanuchchar pairol hai. kintu dvitiy bhavanayan (Abstraction) ki prakriya se udbhoot ek amoort bhavana hai. apaki hindi, hamari hindi, sabhi ki hindi vyaktigat star par uchcharan shabdaprayogadi bhed se bhinn hai: phir bhi hindi bhasha jaisi amoort dharana lang hai jo bhavanayan prakriya ka parinam hai aur jo in anek vaiyaktik bhedon s pare aur samanyakrit hain. yah sakalik hai (Synchronic) hai. sosur ka mahatv snrachanatmak bhashavigyan men krantikari mana ja sakata hai. parakalin yoorop ke anek skool kopenahegen, praha (prag) lndan tatha amerika ke bhashavaigyanik snpraday inake kuchh mool siddhanton ko lekar vikasit hue haiain.

praha skool

yoorop men sosur ki prerana se vikasit ek snpraday prah skool ke nam se prasiddh hai. isake pravartak roosi vidvanh trubejakoy (Trubetzkoy, 1890-1938) the. is samay isake mukhy pracharak roman yaaukobasan hain. is skool ki siddhant pradarshika pustak trabejakoa likhit (Grundzige der Phonologie), 1936 svanaprakriya ke siddhant hai is skool men svanaprakriya (Phonology) par vishesh bal diya jata hai. inake yahan yah shabd ek vishesh vistrit arth meen prayukt hota hai. isake antargat bhashan svanon ke prakary ka sarvagin adhyayan a jata hai, aur isi karan ye log prakaryavadi (Functionalists) kahalate hain. is snpraday ki mahatta bhashasnrachana ki nirdharak paddhati men hai jisamen vichar kiya jata hai svan ikaiyan vishisht bhasha snbndhi vyavasthaon meen kis prakar snghatit hoti hai. yah paddhati virodh par ashrit hai. svanatmak antar jab arthatmak antar ko bhi prakat karate hain, virodhatmak arthath svanimatmak (Phonematic) mane jate hain. udaharan ke liye hindi kal aur gal shabdon ko len. inamen svanatmak antar svanimatmak hai. parinamasvaroop ‘k’ aur ‘g’ do prithakh prithakh‌ svanim hain. yahan yah dhyan dena chahie ki k aur g svat: svanim nahi hai, ye svanim keval is karan hain ki arth ke anusar ye virodhatmak hain. svan svat: svanim ko nirdharit nahin karate svanimatv ki nirdharak hai in svanon ki virodhatmak prakaryata. is prakar, svanim ‘k, g’ (k g) svanon keshh saman vastavik nahin hai. ye keval amoort bhav ya virodhatmak prakaryon ke yog hain. yah virodh is snpraday men bade vistar ke sath varnit hua hai. isake anek pratiroop yugm, jaise dviparshvik, bahuparshvik anupatik, vilagati adi paribhashit kie ge hain. nivaishamyikaran (Neutralization), arkisvanim (Archiphoneme), sahasnbadh (Correlation), adi tekanikal shabd isi skool ke hain. phrans ke andre martine (Andres Martinet) ne is virodh ki mahatta ka aitihasik svanavikas men bhi prayog kiya aur kalakramik svanaprakriya ki ninv dali. kalakram se utpann anek svanaparivartan bhasha ki svanasnghatana men bhi antar upasthit karate hain. ye prakaryatmak parivartan kahalate hain. ye prakaryatmak parivartan bhi vyavastha se ate hain aur samnjasy (harmony) athava laghav (economy) ki disha men hote hain. is prakar praha skool aitihasik vikason ki bhi tarkasngat vyakhya men saphal hua hai.

kopehegen skool

inhin dinon yoorop men ek any snpraday chal nikala. yah ‘kopenahegen skool’, ‘denish skool’, athava ‘glasemetiks’ kai nam se prasiddh hai. isake prarvatak hmelmaslev (Hjelmslev) (sanh‌ 1899) hain aur inaki siddhant darshika hai Omkring Sprogteorienx Grundloeggelse, 1943 angrezi anuvad hvitaphild dvara Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, 1953. yah snpraday adhikatar siddhanton ke vivechan men simit raha. par abhi in siddhanton ka bhashavishesh par prayog atyalp matra men hua hai is snpraday ki mahatta isamen hai ki yah shuddh roopavadi hai. bhasha ko yah bhi sosur ki bhanti moolyon ki vyavastha manata hai, kintu bhashavishleshan men bhabetar tatvon ka tatha bhashavigyanetar vigyanon ka, jaise bhautiki, shariraprakriyavigyan, samajashastr adi ka ashray nahi lena chahata. vishleshan paddhati shuddh bhashaparak honi chahie svayn men samarth aur svayn men poorn. is snpraday men abhivyakti (expression) aur ashay (content) pratyek ke do do bhed kie ge roop aur sar bhashetar tatv hai. roop shuddh bhashaparak tatv hai jo sar tatvon ki snghatana vyavastha ke roop men hai. is prakar abhivyakti banati hai, aur abhivyakti ke roop men snrachana vyavastha, jaise, svanim, roopim adi hai. isi prakar ashay ke sar ke antargat shabdarth hain aur roop men arthasnghatana hai

lndan skool

henari svit isake adharastnbh kahe ja sakate hai. isaka vishesh parivardhan lndan vishvavidyalay ke bhasha vigyan tatha svanavigyan ke vidvanh prophesar pharth dvara hua hai. yah skool arth ko bhi manyata deta hai. isake anusar bhasha ek sarthak kriya hai aur arthaprasng ke mahatv ko bhi svikar kiya gaya hai. is skool men dhvanyatmak vivechan ke sath hi sath ragatmak tatvon ki charcha hoti hai. ragatmak vishleshan ameriki svanim vaigyanik vishleshan se bhinn hai aur isaka kshetr kahin adhik vistrit hai. ragatmak vishleshan bahuvyavasthajanit hai, jab ki svanim vigyan ekavyavasthajanit hai. pharth ne jis ragatmak svanaprakriya ka pravartan kiya use age badhanevalon men mukhy hen raaubins, layns (Lyons), helide aur dikshan. jahan tak svanavigyan ka snbndh hai, lndan skool ke antargat svit ke bad deniyal jons ka kary vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hai.

amariki skool

yadyapi ‘prahaskool’ aur ‘kopenahegan skool’ jaise shabdon ke vajan par amariki skool namakaran uchit nahin hoga, kyonki yahan keval ek paddhati par kam nahin hua; phir bhi suvidha ke liye ameriki skool kaha gaya hai. amarika men snrachanatmak bhashavigyan ke pravartakon men boaj (1858-1942), saipir (1884-1939) tatha bloomaphild (1887-1949) ke nam ate hain. inamen pahale do moolat: manavavigyani the tatha bhashavishleshan unake liye vyavaharik avashyakata thi. unhonne amariki jngali jatiyon ki bhashaon ke varnan ka prayas kiya hai. bloomaphild nissndeh aitihasik tulanatmak bhashavigyan ke achchhe gyata the aur jarmaniy bhashaon par unaka poorn adhikar tha. bloomaphild amariki bhashavigyan ke preranastrot rahe hain aair ap ki pustak bhasha (laingvej) bade adar ke sath padhi-padhaee jati hai. bloomaphild ki mahatta isamen hai ki inhonne bhashavigyan ko vigyan ki koti men sthapit kiya aur vyakaran tatha bhashaee vivechan ko sahi artho men vigyan ka roop diya. inaka agrah raha hai ki bhasha ka vishleshan vargikaran tatha prastutikaran vaigyanik riti se hona chahie . arth ka bhashavishleshan se koee pratyaksh snbndh nahin hai. manovigyan darshan adi ka ashray nahin lena chahie, n atakalen lagani chahie aur n shithil aspasht shabdavali men tathyon ko prakat karana chahie. svan niyamon ki atootata men inaka vishvas tha. kintu bloomaphild ne vishleshan paddhati par koee vishesh prakash nahin dala. yah kami unaki agali pidhi ke vidvanon ne poori ki. paik ne 'svanivigyan' men aur naida ne roopaprakriya (Morphology) men vishleshan paddhati ka vistar vivechan kiya hai. paik ne taigmemik paddhati nikali jo ki roopaprakriya aur vakyaprakriya donon men ek saman prayukt hone se sprihaniy ho gee hai. is paddhati par anekanek bhashaon ke vishleshan aur vivaran prastut kie ge hain aur sarvatr yah saphal rahi hai. inhin ke samakalin jailig hairis (Zellig Harris) ne bhi snrachanatmak paddhati par apani pustak likhi. isi samay vels ne avyavahit avayav ki paddhati se vakyon ka vishleshan karana shuroo kiya, jise anek bhashavidon ne apanaya. phir hairis ke shishy chaumaski (Chomsky) ne ek nitant ganitiy evn tarkasngat paddhati nikali. yah hai roopantaran-janan (transaphaaurmeshan jainaretiv) paddhati yah adhunatan paddhati hai aur bhashavaigyanikon ko sarvadhik priy ho chali hai. ab hairis ne avyavahit avayav paddhati aur roopantaran vishleshan paddhati ki kamiyon ko dekhate hue sootr avayav vishleshan paddhati aur roopantaran paddhati ke bich ka rasta hai. yah pratyek vaky men se ek ‘maulik vaky’ prithakh kar deti hai avyavahit avayav vishleshan paddhati men is tarah ‘maulik vaky’ ka prithakkaran nahin hota jab ki roopantaran vishleshan paddhati men poore vaky ko alag alag ‘maulik vakyon’ aur unake ‘anulagnak shabdon’ men prithakh kar diya jata hai. svanimik, roopimik aur vaky star par bhasha ka vishleshan prastut karane ka mahatvapoorn kary jitana pustaken likhakar kiya gaya hai, usase kahin adhik bhashavigyan ne snbndhit amariki patrapatrikaon men prakashit lekhon se hua hai. inake lekhakon men se kuchh hainshh : blaauk, hairis, haauket, smith, tregar, vels adi.

bhaugolik bhasha vigyan

bhaugolik bhasha vigyan (Geographical Lingiustics) is vishay ke antargat bhasha bhoogol bhashika (boli) vigyan ka adhyayan ata hai. kisi ek ullikhit kshetr men paee jane vali bhasha snbndhi visheshataon ka vyavasthit adhyayan bhasha bhoogol ya boli bhoogol (dialect geography) ke antargat ata hai. ye visheshataen achcharanagat, shabdaligat ya vyakaranagat ho sakati hai. samagri ekatr karane ke liye bhashavigyani avashyakatanusar soochak chunata hai aur teparikardar par ya vishisht svanatmak lipi (Phonetic Script) men notabuk par samagri ekatr karata hai. is samagri ke snkalan aur snpadan ke bad vah unhen alag alag manachitron par ankit karata hai. is prakar tulanatmak adhar par vah samabhashansh rekhaon (Isoglosses) dvara kshetriy antar spasht kar bhashagat ya boligat bhaugolik simaen spasht kar deta hai. is prakar boliyon ka nirdharan ho jane par pratyek ka varnanatmak evn tulanatmak sarvekshan kiya jata hai. unake vyakaran tatha kosh banae jate hain. boliyon ke isi sarvangin varnanatmak tulanatmak ya aitihasik adhyayan ko bhashika (boli) vigyan (Dialectology) kahate hain.
bhasha bhoogol ka adhyayan 19 vin shatabdi men shuroo hua. is kshetr men pratham ullekhaniy nam shlemar ka hai, jinhonne baveriyan boli ka adhyayan prastut kiya. 19vin shatabdi ke ant men pashchimi yoorop men bhasha bhoogol ka kary vyapak roop se hua. is kshetr men ullekhaniy hain jarmani ka aur phrans ka jarmani men jarj bainkar aka haraur rid ka kary tatha phrans men gileri aur edamnt ka kary mahatvapoorn hai. lagabhag isi samay 'inglish dayalekt sosayati' ne bhi kary shuroo kiya jisake praneta svit the. sanh‌ 1889 se amerika men boli kosh ya bhasha etalas ke liye samagri ekatr karane ke liye amerikan dayalekt sosayati ki sthapana hooee. vyavasthit kary mishigan vishvavidyalay ke prophesar daau. hns kureth keshh netritv men san 1928 men shuroo hua. amerika ke braun vishvavidyalay aur amerikan kaunsil aauv larned sosayatij ne unake 'lingvistik etalas aauv nyoo inglaind' ko chhah jilen men prakashit kiya hai (1936-43). unhin ke nideshan men etalas aauv di yoonaited stets aind kainada jaisa brihath‌ kary snpann hua.

manav vigyanashrit bhashavigyan

manav vigyanashrit bhashavigyan (Anthropological Linguistics) jab se manav vaigyanik adhyayan men bhashavigyan aur bhasha vaigyanik vishleshan men manavavigyan ki sahayata li jane lagi hai, manavavigyanashrit bhashavigyan ko ek vishisht koti ka adhyayan mana jane laga hai. isamen aisi bhashaon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai jinaka apana koee likhit roop n ho aur n unapar pahale vidvanon ne kary hi kiya ho. arthath‌ gyat snskriti se achhoot adim jatiyon ki bhashaon ka varnanatmak, aitihasik aur tulanatmak adhyayan is koti ke antargat ata hai. isaka ek roop manavajati bhasha vigyan (Ethno-linguistics) kahalata hai. alabart galeshan (Albert Gallation 1761-1840) ne bhasha adhar par amariki vargon ka vibhajan kiya. je. dablyoo pavel (1843-1902) aur di0 ji0 brintan (1837-1890) ne amariki indiyanon ki bhasha ka adhyayan kiya. habolt (1767-1835) ke adhyayan ke bad 19vin shatabdi ke madhy men manav jati-vigyan aur bhashavigyan men ghanishth snbndh sthapit hua aur tadanntar is kshetr men adhikadhik kary hone laga. sarvadhik mahatvapoorn kary sapir ka hai jo (Time perspective in Aborigina American Culture) (1916) ke nam se samane aya. voorph hopi ne bauli par kary kiya hai. bloophild ne kendriy elgonkiyan, si. minaauph ne (bantoo aur o. daimpolph (O Dempwlaff) ne malaya polenishiyam kshetron men mahatvapoorn kary kiya. li (Lee) ka vinto par aur hairi (Harry Hoijer) ka nahovo (Nahovo) par kiya gaya kary bhasha aur snskriti ke parasparik snbndh par paryapt prakash dalata hai. is prakar ameriki skool ke bhashavaigyanikon ne is kshetr men bada kary kiya hai. amerika se hi (Anthropological Linguistics) namak patrika nikalati hai jisamen is kshetr men hone vala anusndhanakary prakashit hota rahata hai.

bhashavigyan ka prayogatmak paksh

vigyan ki any shakhaon ke saman bhashavigyan ke bhi prayogatmak paksh hain, jinake liye prayog ki pranaliyon aur prayogashala ki apeksha hoti hai. bhinn bhinn yantrik prayogon ke dvara uchcharanatmak svanavigyan (articulatory phonetics), bhautik svanavigyan (acoustic phonetics) aur shravanatmak svanavigyan (auditory phonetics) ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. ise prayogik svanavigyan, yantrik svanavigyan ya prayogashala svanavigyan bhi kahate hain. isamen darpan jaise samany upakaran se lekar jatilatam vaidyut upakaranon ka prayog ho raha hai. parinamasvaroop bhashavigyan ke kshetr men ganitgyon, bhautik shastriyon aur injiniyaron ka poorn sahayog apekshit ho gaya hai. kritrim talu aur kritrim talu projektar ki sahayata se vyaktivishesh ke dvara uchcharit svanon ke uchcharan sthan ki pariksha ki jati hai. kayamograph svanon ka ghoshanatv aur pranatv nirdharan karane anunasikata aur kalamatra janane ke liye upayogi hai. lairingo skop se svarayntr (kakal) ki sthiti ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. endoskop lairingoskop ka hi sudhara roop hai. aausilograph ki tarngen svanon ke bhautik svaroop ko parde par ya philm par atynt spashtata se ankit kar deti hai. yahi kam spektograph ya sonograph dvara adhik saphalata se kiya jata hai. spektograph jo chitr prastut karata hai unhen paitarn plebaik dvara phir se suna ja sakata hai. spichastrechar ki sahayata se rikard ki huee samagri ko dhimi gati se suna ja sakata hai. inake atirikt aur bhi chhote bade yntr hain, jinase bhashavaigyanik adhyayan men paryapt sahayata li ja rahi hai.
phransisi bhashavaigyanikon men rooiyo ne svanavigyan ke prayogon ke vishay men (Principes phonetique experiment, Paris, 1924) grnth likha tha. lndan men pro. pharth ne vishesh taluyntr ka vikas kiya. svaron ke mapan ke liye jaise svaratrikon ya chatushkon ki rekhaen nirdharit ki gee hain, vaise hi inhonne vynjanon ke mapan ke liye adhar rekhaon ka niroopan kiya, jinake dvara uchcharan sthanon ka thik thik varnan kiya ja sakata hai. deniyal jans aur ida vard ne bhi angreji svanavigyan par mahatvapoorn kary kiya hai. phransisi, jarman aur roosi bhashaon ke svanavigyan par kam karane valon men kramash: armastrang, bithel aur boyanas mukhy hain. saiddhantik aur prayogik svanavigyan par saman roop se kam karane vale vyaktiyon men nimnalikhit mukhy hain: stetasan (motar phonetiks 1928), negas (d maikenijm aauv di lerings,1919) paautar, grin aur kaaup (vijibul spich), martin joos (akoostik phonetiks, 1948), hephanar (janaral phonetiks 1948), maul (phndamentals aauv phonetiks, 1963) adi.

idhar ek naya yantrik prayas arnbh hua hai jisaka snbndh shabdavali, arthatatv tatha vyakaranik roopon se hai. yantrik anuvad ke lie vaidyut kampyootaron ka upayog vaigyanik yug ki ek vishesh den hai. yah anuprayukt bhashavigyan ka atynt rochak aur upadey vishay hai.

anuprayukt bhashavigyan

jis prakar samany vigyan ka vyavaharik paksh anuprayukt vigyan hai, usi prakar bhashavigyan ka vyavaharik paksh anuprayukt bhashavigyan hai . bhashasnbndhi maulik niyamon ke vichar ki ninv par hi anuprayukt bhashavigyan ki imarat khadi hoti hai. snkshep men, isaka snbndh vyavaharik kshetron men bhashavigyan ke adhyayan ke upayog se hai. inglaind men anuprayukt bhashavigyan ke kendr lndan vishvavidyalay aur edinabara vishvavidyalay hai. bhashavigyan ka sarvadhik upayog bhashashikshan ke kshetr men kiya ja raha hai. bhasha deshi ho ya videshi, svayn sikhani ho ya doosaron ko sikhani ho, sabhi karyo ke liye bhashavigyan ka gyan upayogi hota hai. is bhashashikshan ke antargat vastavik shikshan paddhati aur pathh‌y pustakon ki rachana, donon hi sammilit hain. is kary ke liye tulanatmak varnanatmak-bhashavigyan aur shabdavali-adhyayan se bharapoor sahayata mil sakati hai. videshi chhatron ko angraji, phransisi, roosi adi bhashaon ki shiksha dene ke lie inglaid, amarika, phrans aur roos adi deshon men vyapak anusndhan kary ho raha hai. ashu lipi ki vyavasthit paddhati ke nirman men shabdavali adhyayan ki badi upadeyata hai. taiparaitar ke kiboerd ki kram-vyavastha men bhi bhashavigyan ka gyan avashyak hai.

vartaman yug

aj ke yug men bhashavigyan ka mahatv isaliye bhi badh raha hai ki usaka upayog bhashashikshan ke atirikt svachalit ya yantrik anuvad (automatic or machine translation) ke kshetr men bhi bahut hi labhadayak siddh ho raha hai. ek bhasha ke soochanaparak tatha vaigyanik sahity ka doosari bhasha men manav mastishk ke anuroop hi ilektraaunik knpyootaron (parikalan yntron) ki sahayata se anuvad kar dena din-prati-din adhikadhik snbhav hota ja raha hai is kshetr men vyapak anusndhan amarika aur roos men ho raha hai, jo bhashavaigyanikon aur vaidyut injiniyaron ke paraspar sahayog ka phal hai. yantrik anuvad ka mool vichar sanh‌ 1946 men varen vivar aur e. di. booth ke bich svachalit ank parikalan yntr automatic digital computers ke vishay men paricharcha ke samay utha. booth aur dau. ech. bi. britan ne 1947 men instityoot phaaur edavansd stadi, prinstan men svachalit knpyootar se kosh ka anuvad karane ke lie, ek vistrit 'kod' taiyar kiya. 1948 men ar. ech. richanas (R.H Richens) ne kore shabdanuvad ke sath sath byakaranik roopon ka yantrik anuvad kar sakane ki snbhavana prakat ki. amerika men yantrik anuvad par mahatvapoorn kary julaee sanh‌ 1946 men varain vivar ke anuvad namak gyapan ke prakashit hone par shuroo hua. anek vishv vidyalayon aur tekanaaulaauji snsthanon ne is kary ko apane hath men liya. 1950 men rephalar (Reifler) ne Studies in Mechanical Translation namak grnth likha, jisamen anuvad par poorv snpadan aur anuvadottar snpadan ka prastav rakha. phir yantrik anuvad par atararashtriy sammelan hone lage, patr-patrikaen nikalin or roosi se angrezi men anuvad hone lage. is vishay par inglaid, amarika, jarmani aur roos men shodh kary chal raha hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhashavigyan (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 10 march, 2015.

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