भीकाजी कामा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhikaji kama
bhikaji kama
poora nam bhikaji rustam kama
any nam maidam kama
janm 24 sitnbar, 1861
janm bhoomi bambee (vartaman mumbee)
mrityu 13 agast, 1936
mrityu sthan bambee, bharat
pati/patni rustam ke. ar. kama
nagarikata bharat, frans
prasiddhi maidam bhikaji kama ne bharat ka pahala jhnda phaharaya usamen hara, kesariya tatha lal rng ke patte the.
andolan bharatiy svatntrata andolan
any janakari 'vande mataram' aur 'madan talavar' namak do krantikari patron ka prakashan kiya.

bhikaji rustam kama athava 'maidam kama' (angrezi: Bhikaiji Cama, janm: 24 sitnbar, 1861; mrityu- 13 agast, 1936) ka nam krantikari andolan men vishesh ullekhaniy hai, jinhonne videsh men rahakar bhi bharatiy krantikariyon ki bharapoor madad ki thi. unake ojasvi lekh aur bhashan krantikariyon ke lie atyadhik prerana srot bane. bhikaji rustam kama bharatiy mool ki fransisi nagarik thin, jinhonne landan, jarmani tatha amerika ka bhraman kar bharat ki svatntrata ke paksh men mahaul banaya. ve jarmani ke statagart nagar men 22 agast 1907 men huee satavin antarrashtriy kangres men tirnga phaharane ke lie suvikhyat hain. us samay tirnga vaisa nahin tha jaisa vartaman men hai. ye maidam kama ke nam se prasiddh hain.

jivan parichay

maidam kama ka janm 24 sitnbar sanh 1861 men ek parasi parivar men hua tha. maidam kama ke pita prasiddh vyapari the. maidam kama ne angrezi madhyam se shiksha prapt ki. angrezi bhasha par unaka prabhutv tha. shri rustam ke. ar. kama ke sath unaka vivah hua. ve donon adhivakta hone ke sath hi samajik karyakarta bhi the, kintu donon ke vichar bhinn the. rustam kama unaki apani snskriti ko mahanh manate the, parntu maidam kama apane rashtr ke vicharon se prabhavit thin. unhen vishvas tha ki british log bharat ka chhal kar rahe hain. isilie ve bharat ki svatntrata ke lie sada chintit rahati thin. maidam kama ne shreshth samaj sevak dadabhaee nauroji ke yahan sekretari ke pad par kary kiya. unhonne yoorop men yuvakon ko ekatr kar svatntrata prapti ke lie margadarshan kiya tatha british shasan ke bare men janakari di. maidam kama ne lndan men pustak prakashan ka kary arnbh kiya. unhonne visheshat: deshabhakti par adharit pustakon ka prakashan kiya. vir savarakar ki ‘1857 cha svatntry ladha’ (1857 ka svatntrata sngram) pustak prakashit karane ke lie unhonne sahayata ki. maidam kama ne svatntrata prapti ke lie krantikariyon ko arthik sahayata ke sath hi any anek prakar se bhi sahayata ki. sanh 1907 men jarmani ke stratagard namak sthanapar ‘antararashtriy samyavadi parishad’ snpann huee thi. is parishad ke lie vividh deshon ke hajaron pratinidhi ae the. us parishad men maidam bhikaji kama ne sadi pahanakar bharatiy jhnda hath men lekar logon ko bharat ke vishay men janakari di.

bharat ka pahala jhnda phaharaya

maidam bhikaji kama ne bharat ka pahala jhnda phaharaya, usamen hara, kesariya tatha lal rng ke patte the. lal rng yah shakti ka pratik hai, kesariya vijay ka tatha hara rng sahas evn utsah ka pratik hai. usi prakar 8 kamal ke phool bharat ke 8 rajyon ke pratik the. ‘vande mataramh’ yah devanagari aksharon men jhnde ke madhy men likha tha. yah jhnda vir savarakar ne any krantikariyon ke sath milakar banaya tha.[1]

samajik kary

[2]jahan ek or paratntrata ka dnsh jhel raha tha vahin samajik sh‍tar par bhi pichhadanepan se joojh raha tha. ek or auraton ko devi bana kar unh‍hen poojaniy mana jata tha, vahin isaka doosara pahaloo tha ki ladakiyon abhishap mani jati thin. ek or jahan mahilaon ke samane apane hi samaj se ladane ki chunauti thi, to doosari or sh‍vatntrata ki ladaee men mahati bhoomika nibhane ki prabal ichh‍chha. aise men agar koee sh‍tri poori tarah se desh ki sh‍vatntrata ko hi apane jivan ka lakshh‍y bana le to ise apratim udaharan mana jaega. azadi ki ladaee men unh‍hin agraniyon men ek nam ata hai - maidam bhikaji kama ka. dridh vicharon vali bhikaji ne agast 1907 ko jarmani men ayojit sabha men bharat ka jhnda phaharaya tha, jise vir savarakar aur unake kuchh sathiyon ne milakar taiyar kiya tha, y‍h aj ke tirnge se thoda bhinh‍n tha. bhikaji ne sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ki arthik madad bhi ki aur jab desh men ph‍leg phaila to apani jan ki paravah kie bagair unaki bharapoor seva ki. sh‍vatntrata ki ladaee men unh‍honne badh-chadhakar hish‍sa liya. vo bad men lndan chali geen aur unh‍hen bharat ane ki anumati nahin mili. lekin desh se door rahana unake lie snbhav nahin ho paya aur vo pun: apane vatan laut aeen. samajik karyon men atyadhik vyast rahane ke karan unaka svasth bigad gaya, jisake upachar ke lie unhen 1902 ee. men inglaind jana pada. vahan ve 'bharatiy hom rool samiti' ki sadasya ban gee. shyamaji krishn varma dvara unhen 'indiya haus' ke krantikari daste men shamil kar liya gaya.[3]

kranti prasoota

1907 ee. men stutagard (jarmani) men 'antarrashtriy samajavad sammelan' men maidam kama ne tirnga jhanda phaharaya aur ghoshana ki- yah bharatiy svatntrata ka dhvaj hai. isaka janm ho chuka hai. hindustan ke yuva vir sapooton ke rakt se yah pahale hi pavitr ho chuka hai. yahan upasthit sabhi mahanubhavon se mera nivedan hai ki sab khade hokar hindustan ki azadi ke is dhvaj ki vndana karen sabhi ne khade hokar dhvaj vndana ki. maidam kama ko 'kranti-prasoota' kaha jane laga. dhani parivar men janm lene ke bavajood is sahasi mahila ne adarsh aur dridh snkalp ke bal par nirapad tatha sukhi jivanavale vatavaran ko tilanjali de di aur shakti ke charamotkarsh par pahunche samrajy ke viruddh krantikari karyon se upaje khataron tatha kathinaiyon ka samana kiya. shrimati kama ka bahut bada yogadan samrajyavad ke viruddh vishv janamat jagrat karana tatha videshi shasan se mukti ke lie bharat ki ichchha ko dave ke sath prastut karana tha. bharat ki svadhinata ke lie ladate hue unhonne lnbi avadhi tak nirvasit jivan bitaya tha. vah apane krantikari vichar apane samachar-patr ‘vndemataramh’ tatha ‘talavar’ men prakat karati thin. shrimati kama ki ladaee duniya-bhar ke samrajyavad ke viruddh thi. vah bharat ke svadhinata andolan ke mahattv ko khoob samajhati thin, jisaka lakshy snpoorn prithvi se samrajyavad ke prabhutv ko samapt karana tha. unake sahayogi unhen ‘bharatiy kranti ki mata’ manate the; jabaki angrez unhen kukhyath mahila, khataranak krantikari, arajakatavadi krantikari, british virodhi tatha asngat kahate the. yoorop ke samajavadi samuday men shrimati kama ka paryapt prabhav tha. yah us samay spasht hua jab unhonne yooropiy patrakaron ko apane desh-bhakton ke bachav ke lie amntrit kiya. vah ‘bharatiy rashtriyata ki mahanh pujarin’ ke nam se vikhyat thin. phransisi akhabaron men unaka chitr jon aauph ark ke sath aya. yah is tathy ki bhavapoorn abhivyakti thi ki shrimati kama ka yoorop ke rashtriy tatha lokatantrik samaj men vishisht sthan tha.[4]

patr ka prakashan

dhire-dhire maidam kama ki krantikari gatividhiyan badhati gee. isase pahale ki angrez sarakar unhen giraphtar kare, ve phrans chali gee tatha vahan se 'vande mataram' namak krantikari patr ka prakashan prarambh kiya. apani sampadakiy men ve kitani ugr bhasha ka prayog karati thin. isaka ek udaharan dhire-dhire goli chalana sikh lo. ab vah samay zyada door nahin, jab tumhen apani priy hindustani sarajamin se agrezon ko mar bhagane ke lie kaha jaega.

‘madan talavar'

isi kalavadhi men savarakar ji ka ‘1857 ka svatntrata samar' grnth prakashit hua. unhonne ghoshit kiya ki british shasan dvara pratibndhit grnth ki pratiyan apane pairis ke adhivas (pata) par upalabdh hongi. is grnth ka anuvad bhi unhonne evn pi. ti. achary ji ne phrench bhasha men prakashit kie. madanalal dhingara ji ke karjan vayali ka vadh karane par 5 agast 1907 ko savarakar ji se milane ke lie maidam kama lndan akar geen. madan lal ji ki smriti men unhonne ‘madan talavar' namak niyatakalik bhi sitnbar 1909 ko arnbh kiya.[5]

vir savarakar aur maidam kama

janavari 1910 ke pratham saptah men kranti ke kary ki bhagadaud se savarakar ji ka svasthy bigad gaya. vishram ke lie tatha sthanapalat hetu ve lndan se pairis maidam kama ke yahan ae. ab tak maidam kama unaki doosari man hi ban gee thin. is asadharan man ne 2 mah tak savarakaraji ki seva ki. tab tak maharashtr ke nasik men annt kanhere ji ne jaiksan ka vadh kiya tha. is ghatana ka snbndh savarakar ji se ho sakata hai, yah janakar poochhatachh chaloo ho gee. savarakar ji ne hi snbndhit pistaul hindustan men bheji thi. hindustan evn lndan men apane sahakari snkat men hote hue svayn phrans men rahana uchit nahin, yah janakar savarakar ji lndan lautane lage. lndan pahunchate hi unhen bndi banaya ja sakata hai, yah sochakar maidam kama chintit ho uthin. lndan lautane ke vicharon se savarakaraji ko paravritt karane ka unhonne prayatn bhi kiya; parntu savarakaraji apane vicharon par adig rahe. 13 march 1910 ko maidam kama tatha lala haradayalaji savarakaraji ko chhodane agagadi sthanak (relave steshan) par ae. us samay un donon ka man bada chintagrast ho gaya. viktoriya sthanak par utarate hi savarakaraji ko bndi bana liya gaya aur nyayalay ke adesh anusar unhen hindustan men bhejane ka nirnay hua.

savarakaraji ko mukt karane ke prayatn

samman men jari dak tikat

savarakaraji ko ‘moriya' jalayanase (bot) hindustan le ja rahe hain, yah bat shasan dvara gupt rakhane par bhi maidam kama tatha unake sahayogiyon ko mil hi gee. yah jalayan marselis naukalay men (bndaragah) a pahunchi hai, yah gyat hote hi vi.vi.esh. ayyaraji ko lekar vah motar se pairis se marselis arhin; parntu tab tak savarakaraji ko punah pakadakar jalayan par le jaya gaya tha. unhen pahunchane men 10-15 minat ka vilnb hua tha. unhen bahut duahkh hua; parntu ve chup nahin baithin. marselis ke mahapaur jan jore ko unhonne is bat se avagat karaya. unhonne jore ko yah bhi bataya ki british arakshakon dvara (pulis) phrans ki bhoomi par savarakaraji ko bndi banana, yah phrans ka apaman hai, yah bhi bataya aur svayn yah samachar pairis ke ‘l tan' is vrittapatr ko bhej diya. savarakaraji ko avaidh bndi banaya gaya, yah samachar phailate hi poore vishv men khalabali mach gee aur british shasan ko badi lajja se manahani uthani padi. is ghatana ke pashchath angrez shasan badi nirdayata se savarakaraji par abhiyog chalaegi, yah janakar maidam kama ne munbee ke vidhivakta josef baipatista ko tar bhejakar abhiyog chalane ke lie savarakaraji se milane ke lie kaha. savarakaraji mukt hon, maidam kama ki yah bhavana itani tivr thi ki is avadhi men ve sidhe pairis ke british dootavas men geen aur unhonne vahan ke rajadoot ko ek likhit nivedan diya. usamen unhonne likha tha, ‘‘pistaul hindustan men bhejane ka dayitv savarakaraji ka nahin, apitu main uttaradayi hoon. mainne hi vah pistaul chartubhuj amin ke sath hindustan bheji thi. in baton se spasht hota hai ki maidam kama men dhairy, sahas aur deshabhakti koot-kootakar bhari thi. itana hi nahin unhonne savarakaraji ke charitr snbndhi jo bhi unake pas janakari thi vah sarv unhonne prasiddhi ke lie samachar patron ko bhej di. 30 janavari 1911 ko savarakaraji ko kale pani ka dnd sunaya. savarakaraji andaman men the tab unake chhote bhaee, narayanarav savarakaraji ki mahavidyalayin shiksha ke lie maidam kama ne arthik sahayata bhi ki. angrej shasan ne maidam kama ko hindustan men bhejane ki vinati bhi phrans ko ki; parntu phrench shasan ne usako koee mahattv nahin diya.[5]

nidhan

pratham vishvayuddh ke dauran unhen kafi kasht jhelane pade. bharat men unaki sampatti jabt kar li gee. unhen ek desh se doosare desh men lagatar bhagana pada. vriddhavastha men ve bharat lauti tatha 13 agast, 1936 ko bambee (vartaman mumbee) men gumanami ki halat men unaka dehant ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. maidam kama (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) balasnskar. abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013.
  2. bharat
  3. maidam bhikaji kama (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013.
  4. bhikhaji kama ki jayanti kisi ko yad nahin (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) kranti 4 people. abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013.
  5. 5.0 5.1 ‘bharatakanya' maidam kama (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindoo janajagriti samiti. abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

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