भूकंप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(भूकम्प se punarnirdeshit)
bhooknp
bhooknp se toote raste
vivaran prithvi ki bahy parat men achanak halachal se utpann oorja ke parinam svaroop ko bhooknp kahate hain.
mapan yntr sismomitar ya sismograph
eekaee riyektar
bhooknp ka karan bhooknp prakritik ghatana ya manavajanit karanon se ho sakata hai. aksar bhooknp bhoogarbhiy doshon ke karan ate hain. bhari matra men gais pravas, prithvi ke bhitar mukhyatah gahari mithen, jvalamukhi, bhooskhalan aur nabhikiy parikshan aise mukhy dosh hain.
bhooknp ke prabhav bhooknp ke mukhy prabhavon men jhatake aur bhoomi ka phatana shamil hain, jisase imaraton v any kathor snrachanaon (jaise ki bandh, pul, nabhikiy urja kendr ityadi) ko nukasan pahunchata hai.
any janakari vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki bharat aur tibbat ek-doosare ki taraf prati varsh do sentimitar ki gati se sarak rahe hain. is prakriya se himalay kshetr par dabav badh raha hai. yahi vajah hai ki pichhale 200 varshon men himalay kshetr men chhah bade bhooknp a chuke hain.

bhooknp (angrezi:Earthquake) prithvi ki bahy parat men achanak halachal se utpann oorja ke parinam svaroop ko kahate hain. yah urja prithvi ki satah par, bhooknpi tarngen utpann karata hai, jo bhoomi ko hilakar ya visthapit karake prakat hota hai. bhoogarbh men bhooknp ke utpann hone ka prarnbhik bindu ko kendr ya haeepo sentar kaha jata hai. haeepo sentar ke thik oopar zamin ke satah par jo bindu hai use adhikendr kaha jata hai. bhooknpi tarngen moolatah tin prakar ke hote hain.

  1. praimari tarng (P wave)
  2. sekndari tarng (S wave)
  3. satahi tarngen (surface waves).

inamen se sabase khataranak aur kshatikarak satahi tarngen hi hote hain.

bhooknp ki utpatti

bhooknp ki utpatti ke bare men samajhane ke lie zaroori hai prithvi ke andarooni snrachana ke bare men samajhana. dharati ki oopari parat futabaaul ki paraton ki tarah apas men judi huee hai ya kahen ki ek ande ki tarah se hai jisamen dararen hon. upari satah se lekar antarbhag tak, prithvi, kee paraton men bani huee hai. prithvi ki bahari satah kee kathor khndon ya vivartanik plet men vibhajit hai jo kramashah kee lakh salon ki avadhi men poore satah se visthapit hoti hai. prithvi ka atnrik satah ek apekshakrit thos bhoopatal ki moti parat se bani huee hai aur sabase andar hota hai ek kor, jo ek taral bahari kor aur ek thos loha ka atnrik kor se bani huee hai. bahari satah ke jo vivartanik plet hain vo bahut dhire dhire gatiman hain. yah plet apas men takarate bhi hain aur ek dusare se alag bhi hote hain. aisi sthiti men gharshan ke karan bhookhnd ya pattharon men achanak dararen phut sakati hain. is achanak tej halachal ke karan jo shakti utsarjit hoti hai, vahi bhooknp ke roop men tabahi machati hai.

bhooknp ke karan

bhooknp prakritik ghatana ya manavajanit karanon se ho sakata hai. aksar bhooknp bhoogarbhiy doshon ke karan ate hain. bhari matra men gais pravas, prithvi ke bhitar mukhyatah gahari mithen, jvalamukhi, bhooskhalan aur nabhikiy parikshan aise mukhy dosh hain.

plet simaen

plet simaen tin prakar ke hote hain.

  1. roopantarit (transform)
  2. apasari (divergent)
  3. abhikendrit (convergent).

zyadatar bhooknp roopantarit ya phir abhikendrit simaon par hoti hai. roopantarit simaon par do plet ek dusare se ghisakar jate hain. is gharshan ke karan do plet ke sima par tanav utpann hota hai. yah tanav badhate badhate aisi sthiti utpann hoti hai jab bhoogarbhiy patthar is tanav ko jhel n pane ke karan akasmat tootate hain. tanav urja ka yah achanak bahar ana hi bhooknp ko janm deta hai. abhikendrit plet simaon men ek plet dusare plet se takarata hai. aise men ya to ek plet dusare plet ke niche sarak jata hai (jo mahadvipiy aur samudriy kinare ke takarav men hota hai) ya phir parvat-shrnkhala ka janm hota hai (jo do mahadvipiy kinaron ke takarav men hota hai). donon hi sthiti men plet simaon par bhayanak tanav utpann hota hai jisake achanak nishkasan se bhooknp hota hai. zyadatar gahare kendr vale bhooknp abhikendrit sima par hota hai. 70 kilomitar se kam ki gaharaee par utpann hone vale bhooknp 'chhichhale-kendr' ke bhooknp kahalate hain, jabaki 70-300 kilomitar ke bich ki gaharaee se utpann hone vale bhooknp 'madhy-kendriy' bhooknp kahalate hain. sabadakshan kshetr (subduction zones) men jahan purani aur thndi samudri parat any tektonik plet ke niche khisak jati hai, gahare kendrit bhooknp (deep-focus earthquake) adhik gaharaee par (300 se lekar 700 kilomitar tak) a sakate hain. apasari plet simaon par bhi jvalamukhion ke karan bhooknp hote rahate hain. jahan plet simayen mahadvipiy sthalamndal men utpann hoti hain, viroopan plet ki sima se bade kshetr men fail jata hai. mahadvipiy viroopan san andrias dosh (San Andreas fault) ke mamale men, bahut se bhooknp plet sima se door utpann hote hain aur viroopan ke vyapak kshetr men vikasit tanav se sambndhit hote hain.

sabhi tektonik plets men antarik dabav kshetr hote hain jo apani padosi pleton ke sath antarkriya ke karan ya talachhati ladan ya utaraee ke karan hote hain. ye tanav upasthit dosh satahon ke kinare viphalata ka paryapt karan ho sakate hain, ye antahplet bhooknp (intraplate earthquake) ko janm dete hain. bhooknp aksar antahplet kshetron men bhi jvalamukhi ke karan utpann hote hain. yahan inake do karan hote hain, tektonik dosh tatha jvalamukhi men lava (magma) ki gatividhi. aise bhooknp jvalamukhi visphot ki poorv chetavani bhi ho sakate hain. ek kram men hone vale adhikansh bhooknp, sthan aur samay ke sndarbh men ek doosare se sambndhit ho sakate hain. mukhy jhatake se poorv ya bad bhi jhatake a sakate hain.

bhooknp ka mapan

bhooknp ka rikard ek sismomitar ke sath rakha jata hai, jo sismograph bhi kahalata hai. ek bhooknp ka pariman parnparik roop se mapa jata hai, ya sambndhit aur aprachalit riyektar pariman liya jata hai. 3 ya usase kam pariman ki riyektar tivrata ka bhooknp aksar agochar hota hai aur 7 riyektar ki tivrata ka bhooknp bade kshetron men gnbhir kshati ka karan hota hai. jhatakon ki tivrata ka mapan vikasit marakaili paimane par kiya jata hai.

bhooknp dharati ki satah se gaharaee men

vaise agar ham bhooknp ke karanon ki bat karen to vaigyanik batate hain ki dharati ya samudr ke andar hone vali vibhinn rasayanik kriyaon ke karan ye bhooknp ate hain. adhikansh bhooknpon ki utpatti dharati ki satah se 30 se 100 kilomitar andar hoti hai. satah ke niche dharati ki parat thndi hone aur kam dabav ke karan bhngur hoti hai. aisi sthiti men jab achanak chattanen girati hain to bhooknp ata hai. ek any prakar ke bhooknp satah se 100 se 650 kilomitar niche hote hain. itani gaharaee men dharati itani garm hoti hai ki siddhantat: chattanen drav roop men honi chahie, yani kisi jhatake ya takkar ki koee snbhavana nahin honi chahie. lekin ye chattanen bhari dabav ke mahaul men hoti hain. isalie yadi itani gaharaee men bhooknp ae to nishchay hi bhari oorja bahar nikalegi.

dharati ki satah se kafi gaharaee men utpann ab tak ka sabase bada bhooknp 1994 men boliviya men rikaaurd kiya gaya. satah se 600 kilomitar darj is bhooknp ki tivrata riyektar paimane par 8.3 mapi gee thi. halanki vaigyanik samuday ka ab bhi manana hai ki itani gaharaee men bhooknp nahin ane chahie kyonki chattan drav roop men hote hain. vaigyanikon ka manana hai ki vibhinn rasayanikon kriyaon ke karan ye bhooknp ate honge. atynt gaharaee men ane vale bhooknpon ke bare men taza adhyayan yoonavarsiti kaaulej, lndan ke minaral ais end raauk phiziks laiboretari men kiya gaya hai. vaigyanikon ne dharati ki satah ke kafi bhitar ane vale bhoonkapon ki hi tarah nakali bhooknp prayogashala men paida karane men saphalata paee hai. aise bhooknp amataur par dharati ki satah se sainkadon kilomitar andar hote hain, aur vaigyanikon ki to yah ray hai ki aise bhooknp vastav men hote nahin hain. vaigyanikon ne in kathit bhooknpon ko prayogashala men isalie paida kiya ki isake zarie dharati ki aboojh paheliyon ko samajha ja sake. taza prayogon se dharati par ae bhishanatam bhooknpon men se kuchh ke bare men vistrit janakari mil sakegi.

bhooknp ki tivrata tatha prabhav[1]
riktar paimane par tivrata prabhav
0 se 1.9 sirph sijmograph se hi pata chalata hai.
2 se 2.9 halka knpan.
3 se 3.9 koee trak apake najadik se gujar jae, aisa asar.
4 se 4.9 khidakiyan toot sakati hain. divaron par tngi phrem gir sakati hain.
5 se 5.9 pharnichar hil sakata hai.
6 se 6.9 imaraton ki ninv darak sakati hai. oopari mnjilon ko nukasan ho sakata hai.
7 se 7.9 imaraten gir jati hain. jamin ke andar paip phat jate hain.
8 se 8.9 imaraton sahit bade pul bhi gir jate hain.
9 aur usase jyada poori tabahi. koee maidan men khada ho to use dharati laharate hue dikhaee degi. yadi samudr najadik ho to sunami ane ki poorn sambhavana.
  • bhooknp men riktar paimane ka har skel pichhale skel ke mukabale 10 guna jyada takatavar hota hai.

bhooknp ke prabhav

bhooknp ke mukhy prabhavon men jhatake aur bhoomi ka phatana shamil hain, jisase imaraton v any kathor snrachanaon (jaise ki bandh, pul, nabhikiy urja kendr ityadi) ko kamobesh nukasan pahunchata hai lekin ye prabhav yahan tak hi simit nahin hain. bhooknp, bhooskhalan aur him skhalan paida kar sakata hai, jo pahadi aur parvatiy ilakon men kshati ka karan ho sakata hai. bhooknp ke karan, kisi vidyut lain ke toot jane se ag lag sakati hai. bhooknp ke karan mitti dravikaran (Soil liquefaction) ho sakata hai jisase imaraton aur pulon ko nuksan pahunch sakata hai. samudr ke bhitar bhooknp se sunami a sakata hai. bhooknp se kshatigrast bandh ke karan badh a sakati hai. bhooknp se jivan ki hani, sampatti ki kshati, moolabhoot avashyakataon ki kami, rog ityadi hota hai.

janavaron par bhooknp ka prabhav

jab bhooknp ane ko hota hai to pashu-pakshi kuchh ajib harakaten karane lagate hain. choohe apani bilon se bahar a jate hain. agar yah sahi hai to vaigyanik pashu-pakshiyon ki is adbhut kshamata ko bhooknp ki poorv soochana pranali men kyon nahin badal sakate. agar aisa snbhav ho jae to prakriti ki is tabahi par vijay pa sakega manav. halanki prayogashalaon men is par shodh kar rahe hain vaigyanik. choohe bhooknp ane ka snket de sakate hain. japan ke shodhakartaon ka kuchh yahi manana hai. unhonne paya hai ki bhooknp ane se pahale jis tarah ke vidyut aur chunbakiy kshetr banate hai agar choohon ko un kshetron men rakha jae to ve ajibogarib harakaten karate hain. osaka yoonivarsiti ke prophesar takeshi yagi ka kahana hai ki choohon ka ajib vyavahar unhonne ath sal pahale kobe men ae bhooknp se ek din pahale apani prayogashala men dekha tha. is tarah ke vyavahar se bhooknp ke ane ka kuchh andesha lagaya ja sakata hai. halanki jiv vaigyanikon ka manana hai ki is tarah ki harakaten ek saman nahin rahati isalie pakki bhavishyavani karana kathin ho jata hai.

bharat men bhooknp

bharat bhooknp ke lihaz se lagatar zyada snvedanashil isalie bhi hota ja raha hai, kyonki isaki sab-kaauntinental plet eshiya ke andar ghusati chali ja rahi hai. isase jab bhi sab-kaauntinental plet ka dabav aishiyan plet par b़dhega to natija ek bade sailab ke taur par dikhaee dega. dharati ki jo plets ya paraten jahan-jahan milati hain vahan ke asapas ke samudr men sunami ka khatara zyada hota hai.

bhooknp ki ashnka ke adhar par desh ko panch jon men banta gaya hai. uttar-poorv ke sabhi rajy, jammoo-kashmir, uttarakhnd tatha himachal pradesh ke kuchh hisse jon-5 men ate hain. yah hissa sabase zyada snvedanashil kaha ja sakata hai. uttarakhnd ke kam oonchaee vale hisson se lekar uttar pradesh ke zyadatar hisse aur dilli jon-4 men ate hain. inhen bhi kam snvedanashil nahin kaha ja sakata hai. madhy bharat apekshakrit kam khatare vale hisse jon-3 men ata hai, jabaki dakshin bharat ke zyadatar hisse simit khatare vale jon-2 men ate hain, lekin yah ek mota vargikaran hai. dilli men kuchh ila़ke hain, jo jon-5 ki tarah khatare vale ho sakate hain. is prakar dakshin rajyon men kee sthan aise ho sakate hain jo zon-4 ya zon-5 jaise khatare vale ho sakate hain. doosare zon-5 men bhi kuchh ila़ke ho sakate hain, jahan bhooknp ka khatara bahut kam ho aur ve zon-2 ki tarah kam khatare vale hon. is mamale men bihar hi ek aisa rajy hai, jahan lagabhag sabhi bhooknpiy zon ate hain. isaki janch ke lie bhooknpiy maikrojoneshan ki zaroorat hoti hai. maikrojoneshan vah prakriya hai, jisamen bhavanon ke pas ki mitti ko lekar parikshan kiya jata hai aur isaka pata lagaya jata hai ki vahan bhooknp ka khatara kitana hai.

vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki bharat aur tibbat ek-doosare ki taraf prati varsh do sentimitar ki gati se sarak rahe hain. is prakriya se himalay kshetr par dabav badh raha hai. yahi vajah hai ki pichhale 200 varshon men himalay kshetr men chhah bade bhooknp a chuke hain. inake mutabiq is dabav ko kam karane ka prakriti ke pas sirf ek hi tariqa hai aur vah hai bhooknp. isalie bhooknpon ko rokana to kisi ke bas ki bat nahin hai, han itana zaroor hai ki inase savadhan hokar janamal ke nuqasan ko kam zaroor kiya ja sakata hai.

sabase vinashakari bhooknp

hal ke varshon men bharat men sabase vinashakari bhooknp gujarat men aya tha. 26 janavari 2001 ko jab rashtrapati rajadhani nee dilli men 52 ganatntr divas par salami le rahe the, tabhi vahan se door gujarat men 23.40 akshans aur 70.32 deshantar tatha bhootal men 23.6 kimi. ki gaharaee par bhooknp ka ek tej jhataka aya. usane rashtr ki ullasamay manahsthiti ko rashtriy avasad men badal diya. 15 agast 1950 ko asam men ae bhooknp ke bad bharat me aya yah sabase tej bhooknp tha. uttari asam men ae 8.5 pariman vale us bhooknp ne 11,538 logon ki jan le li thi. sanh 1897 men shilang ke pathar men ae ek any bhooknp ka pariman 8.7 tha. ye donon bhooknp itane tej the ki nadiyon ne apane raste badal die. itana hi nahin bhoomi ke ubhar men sthaee taur par parivartan a gaya aur patthar oopar ki or uth ge.[2]

savadhaniyan evn upay

bhookamh‍p ane ke pahale

bhookamh‍p ane se pahale taiyari kar lene se apake ghar aur karobar ko hone vali kshati kam karane aur apako jivit bachane men madad milati hai.

  • ek ghareloo apatakalin yojana taiyar karen. apane ghar men apane apatakalin bachav vash‍tuen vh‍yavasthit karen aur inaka sahi rakharakhav banae rakhen, sath hi ek sath le jane yogh‍y getave kit (bachav kit) bhi taiyar karen.
  • girane, dhnkane aur thamane ka abhh‍yas karen.
  • apane ghar men, sh‍kool ya karyash‍thal men surakshit sh‍thalon ko pahachanen.
  • suraksha aur dhanarashi ke sndarbh men apani ghareloo bima paaulisi ki janch karen.
  • yah sunishchit karane ke lie ki apaka ghar apani nivon par surakshit hai, kisi yogh‍y visheshgy se salah len.
  • bhari pharnichar vash‍tuon ko pharsh ya divar se mazabooti se jod kar rakhen.

bhookamh‍p ane ke dauran

  • yadi ap kisi bhavan ke andar hain, to kuchh kadam se adhik n chalen, khud ko giraen, dhnken aur thame rakhen. kamh‍pan tham jane tak andar hi rahen aur bahar tabhi nikalen jab ap yah nishchit kar len ki ab aisa karana surakshit hai.
  • yadi ap kisi elivetar par hain, to khud ko giraen, dhnken aur thame rakhen. kamh‍pan thamane par najadiki pharsh par jane ki koshish karen yadi ap surakshit roop se aisa kar saken.
  • yadi ap bahar hain, to imaraton, pedon, sh‍tritalaiton aur bijali ki laeenon se kuchh kadam se adhik door n jaen, phir khud ko giraen, dhnken aur thame rakhen.
  • yadi ap kisi bich par tat ke nikat hain, to khud ko giraen, dhnken aur thame rakhen aur phir tath‍kal oonchi jamin ki or jaen yadi bhookamh‍p ke bad sunami a rahi ho.
  • yadi ap vahan chala rahe hain, to kisi khuli jagah tak jaen, rooken aur vahin thaharen aur apani sitabelh‍t ko tab tak kase rakhen jab tak ki kamh‍pan n tham jaen. ek bar kamh‍pan tham jane par, savadhanipoorvak age badhen aur un pulon ya dhalanon par n jaen jo kshatigrash‍t ho chuke ho sakate hain.
  • yadi ap kisi parvatiy kshetr men ya asthir dhalanon ya khadi chattanon par hain, to malaba girane ya bhooskhalan hone ke prati sachet rahen.

bhookamh‍p ane ke bad

  • apane sh‍thaniy rediyo kenh‍dron ka prasaran sunen jahan apatasthiti prabndhan karmachari, apake samuday aur paristhiti ke lie sabase upayukh‍t salah denge.
  • bhookamh‍p ke bad ke jhatake mahasoos karane ke lie taiyar rahen.
  • yadi chot lagi ho to apani janch karen aur avashh‍yak hone par prathamik chikith‍sa praph‍t karen. doosaron ki madad karen yadi ap aisa kar saken.
  • satark rahen ki bijali apoorti bhng ho sakati hai aur phayar alarm tatha sprinkalar sish‍tam bhookamh‍p ke dauran bhavan men kam karana bnd kar sakate hain chahe ag n lagi ho. isaki janch karen aur chhoti-moti ag ho to bujha den.
  • yadi ap kisi kshatigrash‍t bhavan men hain, to bahar ane ki koshish karen aur ek surakshit, khula sh‍than khojen. elivetaron ke bajay sidhiyon ka ish‍temal karen.
  • bijali ki giri huee laeenon ya tooti gais laeenon ka dhh‍yan rakhen aur kshatigrash‍t ilake se bahar nikal jaen.
  • apatakalin kaaulon ke lie laeenen khuli rakhane ke lie phon ka upayog keval chhoti, zaroori kaaulon ke lie hi karen.
  • yadi apako gais ki gndh ati hai ya ap koee dhamake ya sarasarahat ki avaz sunate hain, to ek khidaki kholen, har ek ko jalh‍di se bahar nikalen aur gais bnd kar den yadi ap aisa kar saken. yadi ap chingariyan nikalati dekhen, toote hue tar ya bijali ke sish‍tam kshatigrash‍t ho chuke dekhen, to mukhh‍y phyooj baaukh‍s se bijali apoorti bnd kar den yadi aisa karana surakshit ho.
  • apane janavaron ko apane sidhe niyntran men rakhen varana ve bechain hokar idhar-udhar bhag sakate hain. apane janavaron ko khataron se bachane aur anh‍y logon ko apake janavaron se bachane ke upay karen.
  • yadi apaki snpatti nashh‍t ho gee ho, to bima uddeshh‍yon ke lie isaka vivaran likhen aur photo khinch len. yadi apaki samh‍patti kirae ki hai, to apane makan-malik se samh‍park karen aur apani snbndhit bima knpani se samh‍park karen jitani jalh‍di snbhav ho sake.[3]

kuchh bhooknpon ke bare men

pragaitihasik samay se hi hamari dharati men bhooknp hote rahe hain. har sal hazaron bhooknp hote hain, jinamen se zyadatar ham mahasoos nahin kar pate hain. kyoonki ya to vo riyektar skel men bahut niche hote hain ya phir aisi jagah hote hain jahan jan mal ka koee nukasan nahin hota hai. hamen bhooknpon ke bare men tab pata chalata hai jab vo janabahool sthanon men hota hai aur jan-mal ka bhari nuksan paida karata hai. manav itihas men kee aise bhooknpon ke bare men janakari hai jo keval bahut shaktishali hi nahin the balki bhayanak roop se vinashakari bhi the.

  • 1 navambar 1755 (lisbon, portugal) – yah pahala bhooknp hai jisaka vaigyanik adhyayan kiya gaya tha. is bhooknp men 70000 log mare ge the. is bhooknp ki vajah se jo sunami aee thi aur ag lagi thi usase lisbon shahar lagabhag poori tarah dhvast ho gaya tha. riyektar paimane par isaki tivrata 9 anki gee hai.
  • 1811 - 1812 (nyoo madrid, USA) – bhooknpon ka ek aisa kram jo 16 disnbar 1811 se shuroo hua tha. us din do bade jhatake aye the riyektar paimane par jinaki tivrata 7.1 se 8.2 anki gee hai. is bhooknp kram ka karan nyoo madrid uttar dosh bataya jata hai. shahar ke bahut sare makan dhvast ho ge the par zyada logon ke marane ka khabar nahin hai. is jhatakon ko lagabhag do tihaee amerika men mahasoos kiya gaya tha.
  • 31 agast, 1886 (charlsatan, dakshin karolina) – yah bhooknp ek shaktishali antahplet bhooknp tha. keval ek minat men hi yah bhooknp 2000 makanon ko dhvast kar diya tha (shahar ki ek chauthaee bhag) aur qarib 100 log mare ge the. riyektar paimane par isaki tivrata 6.6 se 7.3 anki gee hai.
  • 31 janavari 1906 (ikuador-kolombiya) – riyektar paimane par 8.8 anki gee is bhooknp ko duniya ka panchava sabase shaktishali bhooknp man jata hai. tatiy kshetr ke shahar esmeraldas ke pas aya is bhooknp se jo sunami aee thi usase tatiy kshetr men rahane vale 500 se 1500 logon ki maut ho gee thi. yah bhooknp najka plet aur dakshin amarikiy plet ke bich abhikendrit sima par aya tha. is sima par najka plet dakshin amarikiy plet ke niche ja raha hai.
  • 18 aprail 1906 (sain phransisko, kaliphorniya) – riyektar paimane par isaki tivrata 7,7 se 8.2 anki gee hai. isake jhatake oregon se lekar los enjels tak mahasoos kiye ge the. yah bhooknp aur isaki vajah se lagi ag, amarika ke itihas ka sabase bhayanak prakritik apada ke roop men yad kiya jata hai. qarib 300 log apane jan se hath dho baithe the.
  • 1 sitambar 1923 (tokyo, japan) – dopahar se pahale aee is bhaynkar bhooknp ko riyektar paimane par 8.3 anki gee hai. japan men aee bhooknpon men sabase bhayanak bhooknp tha. is bhooknp se tokyo aur yokohama shaharon men bhaynkar tabahi machi thi. bhooknp se charon or ag lag gee thi. pani ke nal phat jane ke karan ag bujhane men bahut dikkaten aee thi. qarib 100000 log mare ge the. 40000 logon ka ajatak koee ata-pata nahin mila hai. ag itana bhaynkar roop dharan kar chuki thi ki honjo aur phukugava namak jagahon par ek sath qarib 30000 log jal mare the. is bhooknp ko gret kanto arthakvek (Great Kanto Earthquake) ke nam se jana jata hai.
  • 4 navnbar 1952 (kamachataka, rashiya) – is bhooknp ko duniya ka chautha shaktishali bhooknp mana jata hai. riyektar paimane par 9.0 napi gee is bhooknp se aee sunami se kamachataka, kuril dvipasamooh men kafi jan-mal ka nukasan hua tha. is bhooknp ka kendr zamin se 30 kimi niche tha.
  • 22 mee 1960 (valdiviya, chili) - riyektar paimane par 9.5 anki gee is bhooknp se 20000 log mare ge the. ise ajatak ke sabase shaktishali bhooknp mana jata hai. isake chalate jo sunami aee thi usase chili, havaee, japan, philipins, nyoojilaind tatha aaustreliya tak prabhavit hue the. 10.7 mitar oonchi laharon ki vajah se chili ke tatiy ilake men bahut tabahi machi thi. qarib 5000 se 6000 log mare ge the.
  • 27 march 1964 (prins viliam, alaska) – riyektar paimane par 9.2 napi gee is bhooknp ko duniya ka tisara sabase shaktishali bhooknp mana jata hai. char minit tak chale is bhooknp men zamin phat gee thi, makanen dhvast ho gee thi, pani ke paip phat ge the, bijali ke khambe ukhad ge the aur qarib 150 se 200 logon ki maut huee thi. isase jo sunami huee thi usase ek ganv ke 23 log mare ge the (us ganv ke keval 68 log hi rahate the). tatiy bhooskhalan se ek jahaz ke 30 log ek sath mare ge the.
  • 28 julaee 1976 (tangashan, chin) – bisavi sadi men ane vale bhooknpon men sabase zyada log isi bhooknp men mare ge the. isaka adhikendr chin ke hebeee prant ke tangashan shahar ke pas tha. is audyogik shahar men us samay qarib 10 lakh log rah rahe the, jisamen se qarib dhaee lakh logon ke mare jane ki pushti huee thi aur qarib dedh lakh log zakhmi ho ge the. is bhooknp ko riyektar paimane par 7.8 se 8.2 anka gaya hai.
  • 26 disambar 2004 (sumatra- indoneshiya) – is bhooknp ko duniya ka doosara sabase shaktishali bhooknp mana jata hai. riyektar paimane par is bhooknp ko 9.3 anka gaya hai. isaka adhikendr sumatr-indoneshiya ke pas samudr tal men tha. is bhooknp aur isase aye bhaynkar sunami se 300000 se zyada log mare ge the. is sunami men bharat ke poorv tatiy ilake men bhi bhari jan-mal ka nukasan hua tha.
  • 11 march 2011 (japan) - riyektar paimane par is bhooknp ko 9 anka gaya hai. japan ki rajadhani tokyo ke uttarapoorv men samudr tal ke 24 kimi niche utpann is bhooknp se uthi sunami laharon se japan ke poorv tat men sthit honshu aur sendaee shahar tatha tatavarti kee janabasti men bhari nukasan hua hai. kee jagah ag lag jane se jan-mal ka nukasan hua hai. bhooknp se ab tak 14650 se zyada logon ke mare jane ka andesha lagaya ja raha hai. phukushima sthit nabhikiy urja snyntr men bhooknp aur sunami ki vajah se nukasan hua hai. us snyntr ke 20 kimi dayare men rah rahe lagabhag 200000 logon ko doosari jagah le jaya gaya hai tatha 30 kimi dayare men sabhi logon ko ghar ke andar rahane ki hidayat di gee hai taki vo paramanu vikiran se bache rahe. darasal japan aisi jagah sthit hai jahan tin plet milakar ek abhikendrit sima bana rahe hain. yahan pasiphik plet, philipins plet aur uttar amariki plet ke niche ja raha hai.

vishv ke kuchh bade vinashakari bhooknpon ka lekha-jokha

  • 11 march 2011, japan ke uttari poorvi tat par 9.0 ki tivrata ke bhooknp se sunami, 10,000 se adhik logon ki maut.
  • 9 mee 2010, indoneshiya men 7.2 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, saikadon ki maut.
  • 13 aprail 2010, chin men 6.9 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 2500 ki maut.
  • 12 janavari 2010, haiti men 7.0 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 2 lakh logon ki maut.
  • 30 sitnbar 2009, indoneshiya, sumatra men 7.6 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 1100 ki maut.
  • 29 sitnbar 2009, saimon dvip men 8.3 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, saikadon ki maut.
  • 10 agast 2009, andaman nikobar men 7.6 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, koee hatahat nahin.
  • 6 aprail 2009, itali ke laikila shahar men 6.3 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, saikadon ki maut.
  • 3 faravari 2008, kaaungo aur ravanda men zabaradast bhooknp aya, isamen 45 log mare ge.
  • 6 march 2007, indoneshiya ke sumatra dvip men 6.3 tivrata ka bhooknp, 70 logon ki maut.
  • 27 mee 2006, indoneshiya ke jakarta men bhooknp, chhah hazar log mare ge aur 15 lakh beghar ho ge.
  • 8 aktoobar 2005, pakistan men 7.6 tivrata vala bhooknp, qarib 75 hazar log mare ge.
  • 28 march 2005, indoneshiya men 8.7 tivrata vala bhooknp, lagabhag 1300 log mare ge.
  • 22 faravari 2005, eeran ke keraman prant men lagabhag 6.4 tivrata ke ae bhooknp men lagabhag 100 log mare ge the.
  • 26 disnbar 2004, 8.9 ki tivrata vale bhooknp ke karan utpann sunami ne eshiya men hazaron logon ki jan gee.
  • 24 faravari 2004, morakko ke tatiy ilaqe men ae bhooknp ne 500 logon ki jan le li thi.
  • 26 disnbar 2003, dakshini eeran men ae bhooknp men 26 hazar se adhik logon ki maut ho gee thi.
  • 21 mee 2003, aljiriya men bhooknp aya, do hazar logon ki maut aur ath hazar se adhik log ghayal hue the.
  • 1 mee 2003, turki ke dakshin-poorvi hisse men ae bhooknp men 160 se adhik logon ki maut ho gee jisamen 83 skooli bachche shamil the.
  • 24 pharavari 2003, pashchimi chin men bhooknp, 260 log mare ge aur 10 hazar se adhik log beghar.
  • 21 navnbar 2002, pakistan ke uttari diyamir zile men bhooknp men 20 logon ki maut.
  • 31 aktoobar 2002, itali men ae bhooknp se ek skool ki imarat gir gee jisase ek klas ke sabhi bachche mare ge.
  • 12 aprail 2002, uttari afaganistan men do mahinon men ye tisara bhooknp ka jhataka tha, isamen anek log mare ge.
  • 25 march 2002, afaganistan ke uttari ilaqe men 6 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 800 se zyada log mare.
  • 3 march 2002, afaganistan men bhooknp aya, 150 log mare ge.
  • 3 faravari 2002, pashchimi turki men bhooknp men 43 mare, hazaron log beghar.
  • 24 joon 2001, dakshini peroo men bhooknp men 47 log mare, bhooknp ke 7.9 tivrata vale jhatake ek minat tak mahasoos kie jate rahe.
  • 13 faravari 2001, al salvador men doosare bade bhooknp ki vajah se kam se kam 300 log mare ge, is bhooknp ko riyektar skel par 6.6 mapa gaya.
  • 26 janavari 2001, bharat ke gujarat men 7.9 tivrata ka bhooknp, tis hazar log mare ge aur qarib 10 lakh log beghar ho ge, bhuj aur ahamadabad par bhooknp ka sabase adhik asar pada.
  • 13 janavari 2001, al salvador men 7.6 tivrata ka bhooknp, 700 se bhi adhik log mare ge.
  • 6 aktoobar 2000, japan men 7.1 tivrata ka ek bhooknp, 30 log ghayal hue aur kee lapata aur qarib 200 makanon ko nukasan pahuncha.
  • 21 sitnbar 1999, taeevan men 7.6 tivrata ka bhooknp, dhaee hazar log mare ge aur is dvip ke har makan ko nukasan pahuncha.
  • 17 agast 1999, turki ke imit aur instabool shaharon men 7.4 tivrata ka bhooknp, 17000 se zyada log mare ge aur hazaron any ghayal hue.
  • 29 march 1999, uttar pradesh rajy ke uttarakashi aur chamoli men do bhooknp. 100 se adhik log mare ge.
  • 25 janavari 1999, kolnbiya ke armeniya shahar men 6.0 tivrata ka bhooknp. qarib ek hazar log mare ge.
  • 17 julaee 1998, nyoo papua gini ke uttari-pashchimi tat par samudr ke andar aya bhooknp, ek hazar se adhik mare.
  • 26 joon 1998, turki ke dakshin-pashchim men adana men 6.3 tivrata ka bhooknp, 144 log mare ge, ek hafte bad isi ilaqe men do shaktishali bhooknp ae jinamen ek hazar se adhik log ghayal ho ge.
  • 30 mee 1998, uttari afaganistan men ek bada bhooknp, char hazar log mare ge.
  • faravari 1997, uttar-pashchimi eeran men 5.5 tivrata ka ek bhooknp, ek hazar log mare ge, tin mahine bad 7.1 tivrata ka bhooknp aya jisaki vajah se pashchimi eeran men dedh hazar se adhik log mare ge.
  • 27 mee 1995, roos ke poorvi dvip sakhalin men 7.5 tivrata ka bhooknp, do hazar log mare.
  • 17 janavari 1995, japan ke kobe shahar men bhooknp, chhah hazar char sau tis log mare ge.
  • 6 joon 1994, kolnbiya men aya bhooknp, qarib ek hazar log mare ge.
  • 30 sitnbar 1993, bharat ke pashchimi aur dakshini hisson men ae bhooknp se qarib das hazar logon ki maut.
  • 21 joon 1990, eeran ke uttari rajy gilan men bhooknp, chalis hazar se bhi adhik logon ki maut.
  • 17 aktoobar 1989, kailiforniya men bhooknp, 68 log mare ge.
  • 7 disnbar 1988, uttar-pashchimi armeniya men 6.9 tivrata ka bhooknp, pachchis hazar logon ki maut.
  • 19 sitnbar 1985, maiksiko men bhooknp, isamen badi imaraten tabah ho geen aur das hazar se adhik log mare ge.
  • 23 navnbar 1980, itali ke dakshini hisse men ae bhooknp ki vajah se sainkadon log mare ge.
  • 28 julaee 1976, chin ka tangashan shahar men bhooknp, panch lakh se adhik log mare ge.
  • 27 march 1964, riyektar skel par 9.2 tivrata ke ek bhooknp ne alaska men 25 logon ki jan le li aur bad ke jhatakon ki vajah se 110 aur log mare ge.
  • 22 march 1960, duniya ka sabase shaktishali bhooknp chili men aya, isaki tivrata 9.5 darj ki gee, kee ganv ke ganv tabah ho ge aur sainkadon mil door havaee men 61000 log mare ge.
  • 1950, bharat ke uttar-poorvi rajy asam men bhayanak bhooknp aya. ye itana tez tha ki sesmograf ki sueeyan toot geen. lekin sarakari taur par riyektar skel par ise 9.0 tivrata ka bataya gaya.
  • 28 joon 1948, pashchimi japan men poorvi chini samudr ko kendr banakar bhooknp aya, tin hazar se zyada log mare.
  • 31 mee, 1935, kveta aur usake asapas ke ilaqon men bhooknp, lagabhag 35 hazar logon ki janen geen.
  • 1935, taeevan men riyektar skel par 7.4 tivrata ka ek bhooknp aya jisaki vajah se tin hazar do sau log mare ge.
  • 1931, briten ke itihas ka sabase bhayanak bhooknp, riyektar skel par isaki tivrata 5.5 thi aur isase adhik nukasan nahin hua.
  • 1 sitnbar 1923, japan ki rajadhani tokyo men aya gret kanto bhooknp, 142,800 logon ki maut.
  • 18 aprail 1906, sain phransisko men kee minat tak bhooknp ke jhatake ate rahe, imaraten girane aur unamen ag lagane ki vajah se sat sau se tin hazar ke bich log mare ge.
  • 1 navnbar 1755 purtagal men 8.7 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 70,000 ki maut.
  • 17 agast 1668 tarki men 8.0 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 8000 ki maut.
  • 23 janavari 1556 men chin men 8.0 ki tivrata ka bhooknp, 830, 000 ki maut.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 6.4 tivrata ke bhooknp se hile bharat, pakish‍tan, bangh‍ladesh, nepal (hindi) dainik bhaskar. abhigaman tithi: 25 aprail, 2015.
  2. bhooknp (hindi) indiya vatar portal hindi. abhigaman tithi: 5 julaee, 2013.
  3. bhookamh‍p (hindi) get ready get thru. abhigaman tithi: 5 julaee, 2013.

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