भूषण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhooshan
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any nam patiram, maniram (kivadnti)
janm 1613 (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi tikavanpur, kanapur
mrityu 1715 (lagabhag)
abhibhavak ratnakar tripathi
karm bhoomi kanapur
karm-kshetr kavita
mukhy rachanaen shivarajabhooshan, shivabavani, chhatrasaladashak
vishay vir ras kavita
bhasha braj, arabi, pharasi, turki
puraskar-upadhi bhooshan
prasiddhi vir-kavy tatha vir ras
vishesh yogadan ritigrnth
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

bhooshan vir ras ke kavi the. inaka janm kanapur men yamuna kinare 'tikavanpur' men hua tha. mishrabandhuon tatha ramachandr shukl ne bhooshan ka samay 1613-1715 ee. mana hai. shivasinh sngar ne bhooshan ka janm 1681 ee. aur griyarsan ne 1603 ee. likha hai. bhooshan 1627 ee. se 1680 ee. tak maharaja shivaji ke ashray men rahe. inake chhtrasal bundela ke ashray men rahane ka bhi ullekh milata hai. 'shivaraj bhooshan', 'shivabavani', aur 'chhtrasal dashak' namak tin grnth hi inake likhe chhah grathon men se upalabdh hain.

jivan parichay

bhooshan hindi riti kal ke antargat, usaki parampara ka anusaran karate hue vir-kavy tatha vir-ras ki rachana karane vale prasiddh kavi hain. inhonne shivaraj-bhooshan men apana parachiy dete hue likha hai ki ye kanyakubj brahman the. inaka gotr kashyap tha. ye 'ratnakar tripathi' ke putr the tatha yamuna ke kinare trivikramapur (tikavanpur) men rahate the, jahan birabal ka janm hua tha aur jahan vishveshvar ke tuly dev-biharishvar mahadev hain. chitrakootapati hridayaram ke putr rudr sulnki ne inhen 'bhooshan' ki upadhi se vibhooshit kiya tha.[1] tikavanpur kanapur zile ki ghatamapur tahasil men yamuna ke baen kinare par avasthit hai. shivasinh sngar ne bhooshan ka janm 1681 ee. aur griyarsan ne 1603 ee. likha hai. kuchh vidvanon ke matanusar bhooshan shivaji ke pautr sahoo ke darabari kavi the. kahane ki avashyakata nahin hai ki un vidvanon ka yah mat bhrantipoorn hai. vastut: bhooshan shivaji ke hi samakalin evn ashrit the.

parivar

bhooshan ke pita kanyakubj brahman ratnakar tripathi the. bhooshan viraras ke ye prasiddh kavi chintamani aur matiram ke bhaee the. kaha jata hai ki ve char bhaee the- chintamani, bhooshan, matiram aur nilakanth (upanam jatashnkar). bhooshan ke bhratritv ke sambandh men vidvanon men bahut matabhed hai. kuchh vidvanon ne inake vastavik nam patiram athava maniram hone ki kalpana ki hai par yah kora anuman hi pratit hota hai.

ashrayadata

bhooshan ke pramukh ashrayadata maharaj shivaji[2] tatha chhatrasal bundela[3] the. inake nam se kuchh aise phutakar chhand milate hain, jinamen sahooji, bajirav, solnki, maharaj jayasinh, maharaj ranasinh, aniruddh, rav buddh, kumaoon naresh, gadhavar-naresh, aurngajeb, darashah (dara shikoh) adi ki prashnsa ki gayi hai. ye sabhi chhand bhooshan-rachit hain. isaka koee pusht praman nahin hai. aisi paristhiti men ukt-sabhi rajaon k bhooshan ka ashrayadata nahin mana ja sakata.

bhooshan upadhi

chitrakoot ke solnki raja rudr ne inhen kavibhooshan ki upadhi di thi. tabhi se ye bhooshan ke nam se hi prasiddh ho ge. inaka asali nam kya tha, isaka pata nahin. ye kee rajaon ke yahan rahe. ant men inake man ke anukool ashrayadata, jo inake virakavy ke nayak hue, chhatrapati maharaj shivaji mile. panna ke maharaj chhatrasal ke yahan bhi inaka bada man hua. kahate hain ki maharaj chhatrasal ne inaki palaki men apana kndha lagaya tha jis par inhonne kaha tha - siva ko bakhanaun ki bakhanaun chhatrasal ko. aisa prasiddh hai ki inhen ek ek chhnd par shivaji se lakhon rupaye mile.

vir ras

shivaji aur chhatrasal ki virata ke varnanon ko khushamad nahin kaha j sakata. ve ashrayadataon ki prashnsa ki pratha ke anusaran matr nahin hain. in do viron ka jis utsah ke sath sari hindoo janata smaran karati hai usi ki vynjana bhooshan ne ki hai. ve hindoo jati ke pratinidhi kavi hain. shivaji ke darabar men pahunchane ke pahale ve aur rajaon ke pas bhi rahe. unake pratap adi ki prashnsa bhi unhen avashy hi karani padi hogi. par vah jhoothi thi. bad men bhooshan ko apani un rachanaon se virakti hi huee hogi. bhooshan viraras ke hi kavi the. idhar inake do-char kavitt, shrringar ke bhi mile hain, par ve ginati ke yogy nahin hain.

granth

bhooshanarachit chh: granth batalaye jate hain. inamen se ye tin granth-

  • 'bhooshanahazara'
  • 'bhooshanullas'
  • 'dooshanullas' yah grnth abhi tak dekhane men nahin aye hain. bhooshan ke shesh granthon ka parichay is prakar hai:

shivaraj bhooshan

bhooshan ne apani is kriti ki rachana-tithi jyeshth vadi trayodashi, ravivar, snmvath 1730, 29 aprail, 1673 ee. ravivar ko di hai.[4] shivaraj- bhooshan men ullekhit shivaji vishayak aitihasik ghatanaen 1673 ee. tak ghatit ho chuki thin. isase bhi is granth ka ukt rachanakal thik thaharata hai. sath hi shivaji aur bhooshan ki samasamayikata bhi siddh ho jati hai. 'shivaraj-bhooshan' men 384 chhand hain. dohon men alnkaron ki paribhasha di gayi hai tatha kavitt evn savaiya chhandon men udaharan diye gaye hain, jinamen shivaji ke kary-kalapon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. ritikal ke kavi hone ke karan bhooshan ne apana pradhan grnth 'shivarajabhooshan' alnkar ke grnth ke roop men banaya. par ritigrnth ki drishti se, alnkar niroopan ke vichar se yah uttam grnth nahin kaha ja sakata. lakshanon ki bhasha bhi spasht nahin hai aur udaharan bhi kee sthalon par thik nahin hain.

shiva bavani

shivabavani men 52 chhandon men shivaji ki kirti ka varnan kiya gaya hai.

chhatrasal dashak

chhatrasaladashak men das chhandon men chhatrasal bundela ka yashogan kiya gaya hai. bhooshan ke nam se prapt phutakar padyo men vividh vyaktiyon ke sambandh men kahe gaye tatha kuchh shrringaraparak pady sngrahit hain.

kavyagat saundary

bhooshan ki sari rachanaen muktak-paddhati men likhi gayi hain. inhonne apane charitr-nayakon ke vishisht charitry-gunon aur kary-kalapon ko hi apane kavy ka vishay banaya hai. inaki kavita viraras, danavir aur dharmavir ke varnan prachur matra men milate hain, par pradhanata yuddhavir ki hi hai. inhonne yuddhavir ke prasng men chaturng chamoo, viron ki garvoktiyan, yoddhaon ke paurush-poorn kary tatha shastrastr adi ka sajiv chitran kiya hai. isake atirikt raudr, bhayanak, vibhats adi pray: samast rason ke varnan inaki rachana men milate hain par usamen rasarajakata viraras ki hi hai. vir-ras ke sath raudr tatha bhayanak ras ka snyog inake kavy men bahut achchha ban pada hai.

ritikar ke roop men bhooshan ko adhik saphalata nahin mili hai par shuddh kavitv ki drishti se inaka pramukh sthan hai. inhonne prakriti-varnan uddipan evn alnkar-paddhati par kiya hai. 'shivarajabhooshan' men rayagadh ke prasng men rajasi thath-bat, vrikshon lataon tatha pakshiyon ke nam ginane vali paripati ka anukaran kiya gaya hai.

shaili

samanyat: bhooshan ki shaili vivechanatmak evn snshlisht hai. inhonne vivaranatmak-pranali ki bahut kam prayog kiya hai. inhonne yuddh ke bahari sadhanon ka hi varnan ke atirikt santosh nahin kar liya hai, varanh manav-hriday men umng bharane vali bhavanaon ki or unaka sadaiv lakshy raha hai. shabdon aur bhavon ka samnjasy bhooshan ki rachana ka vishesh gun hai.

bhasha

bhooshan ne apane samay men prachalit sahity ki samany kavy-bhasha braj ka prayog kiya hai. inhonne videshi shabdon ko adhik upayog musalamanon ke hi prasng men kiya hai. darabar ke prasng men bhasha ka khada roop bhi dikhaee padata hai. inhonne arabi, pharasi aur turki ke shabd adhik prayukt kiye hain. bundelakhandi, baisavadi evn antarvedi shabdon ka bhi kahin-kahin prayog kiya gaya hai. is prakar bhooshan ki bhasha ka roop sahityik drishti se bura bhi nahin kaha ja sakata. inaki kavita men oj paryapt matra men hai. prasad ka bhi abhav nahin hai. 'shivarajabhooshan' ke arambh ke varnan aur shrringar ke chhandon men madhury ki pradhanata hai. bhooshan ki bhasha men oj ki matra to poori hai par vah adhikatar avyavasthit hai. vyakaran ka ullnghan hai aur vakyarachana bhi kahin kahin gadabad hai. isake atirikt shabdon ke roop bhi bahut bigade ge hain aur kahin kahin bilkul gadhnt ke shabd rakhe ge hain. par jo kavitt in donon se mukt hain ve bade hi sashakt aur prabhavashali hain.

nidhan

inaka paralok vas snvat 1772 men mana jata hai.

kavy men sthan

acharyatv ki drishti se bhooshan ko vishisht sthan nahin pradan kiya ja sakata par kavitv ke vichar se unaka ek mahattvapoorn sthan hai. unaki kavita kavi- kirtisambandhi ek avichal saty ka drishtant hai. ve tatkalin svatanyasngram ke pratinidhi kavi hain. bhooshan virakavy-dhara ke jagamagate ratn hain. kuchh kavyagat udaharan is prakar hain -

indr jimi jnbh par, badav su anbh par,
ravan sadnbh par raghukul raj hain.
paun varivah par, snbhu ratinah par,
jyon sahasrabahu par ram dvijaraj hain
dava drumadnd par, chita mrigajhund par,
bhooshan vitund par jaise mrigaraj hain.
tej tam ans par, kanh jimi kns par,
tyon malechchh bns par ser sivaraj hain

dadhi ke rakhaiyan ki dadhi-si rahati chhati,
badhi marajad jas hadd hinduvane ki.
kadhi gee raiyat ke man ki kasak sab,
miti gee thasak tamam turakane ki.
bhooshan bhanat dillipati dil dhak dhak,
suni suni dhak sivaraj maradane ki.
moti bhee chndi bin choti ke chabay sis,
khoti bhee snpati chakatta ke gharane ki

saban ke oopar hi thadho rahibe ke jog,
tahi kharo kiyo jay jaran ke niyare.
jani gairamisil gusile gusa dhari ur,
kinhon na salam n bachan bole siyare
bhooshan bhanat mahabir balakan lagyo,
sari patasahi ke uday ge jiyare.
tamak ten lal mukh siva ko nirakhi bhayo,
syah mukh naurng, sipah mukh piyare.

dara ki n daur yah, rar nahin khajube ki,
bandhibo nahin hai kaidhaun mir sahaval ko.
math visvanath ko, n bas gram gokul ko,
devi ko n dehara, n mndir gopal ko.
gadhe gadh linhen aru bairi katalam kinhen,
thaur thaur hasil ugahat hain sal ko.
boodati hai dilli so snbharai kyon n dillipati,
dhakka ani lagyau sivaraj mahakal ko

chakit chakatta chaunki chaunki uthai bar bar,
dilli dahasati chitai chahi karashati hai.
bilakhi badan bilakhat bijaipur pati,
phirat phirngin ki nari pharakati hai
thar thar kanpat kutub sahi golakunda,
hahari habas bhoop bhir bharakati hai.
raja sivaraj ke nagaran ki dhak suni,
kete badasahan ki chhati dharakati hai

jihi phan phootakar udat pahar bhar,
kooram kathin janu kamal bidaligo.
vishajal jvalamukhi lavalin hot jin,
jharan chikari mad diggaj ugaligo
kinho jihi pan payapan so jahan kul,
kolahoo uchhali jalasindhu khalabhaligo.
khagg khagaraj maharaj sivaraj joo ko,
akhil bhujng mugaladdal nigaligo


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chhand 25-28
  2. 6 aprail, 1627 - 3 aprail, 1680 ee
  3. 1649-1731 ee.
  4. chhand 382

bahari kadiyan

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