मध्वाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shrimadhvachary

shrimadhvachary ka janm dakshin bharat men udupi ke nikat tuluv kshetr ke veligram namak sthan par vijaya dashami vikram snvat 1256 (1199 ee.) ko hua tha. inaka balyavastha ka nam vasudev tha. 11 varsh ki ayu men hi inhonne advait mat ke snnyasi sanakakulodbhav achary shuddhanand achyutapaksha se diksha le li. diksha lene par inaka nam poornaprgy pada. vedant men parngat ho jane par inhen anandatirth nam dekar mathadhish bana diya gaya. bad men anandatirth hi madhv nam se prakhyat hue. madhy ne pahale shiksha-diksha to advait vedant ki payi thi, kintu bad men advaitavad se sntusht n hone ke karan inhonne dvaitavad ka pravartan kiya.

jivan parichay

shrimadhvacharyaka ka janm magh shukl saptami ke din tamilanadu ke mngaloor zile ke antargat belali gram men hua tha. inake pita ka nam shrinarayan bhatt aur inaki mata ka nam shrimati vedavati tha. aisa kaha jata hai ki bhagavan narayan ki agya se bhaktisiddhant ki raksha aur prachar ke liye svayn shri vayudev ne hi shrimadhvachary ke roop men avatar liya tha. alpakal men hi inako sampoorn vidyaon ka gyan prapt ho gaya. jab inhonne sannyas lene ki ichchha prakat ki, tab inake mata-pita ne mohavash usaka virodh kiya.

sannyas

shrimadhvachary ne apane mata-pita ke tatkalik moh ko apane alaukik gyan ke dvara nirmool kar diya. inhonne gyarah varsh ki avastha men advaitamat ke vidvanh snnyasi shriachyutapakshachary se sannyas ki diksha grahan ki. inaka sannyas ka nam poornaprgy rakha gaya. sannyas ke bad inhonne vedant ka gambhir adhyayan kiya. inaki buddhi itani vilakshan thi ki inake guru bhi inaki alaukik pratibha se ashcharyachakit rah jate the. thode hi samay men sampoorn dakshin bharat men inaki vidvatta ki dhoom mach gayi.

madhvamat ki prishthabhoomi

arambh men advaitavad men dikshit hone par bhi madhv ne shnkar dvara pravartit advait vedant par pramukh roop se do apattiyan kin. pahali to yah ki advait vedant men samany anubhav ki upeksha ki gee hai. jiv aur brahm men parthriky hone par bhi shnkar ne unamen advait mana hai. yah samany anubhav ke anuroop nahin hain doosari apatti madhv ki yah thi ki shnkarachary ke nirgun brahm ki snkalpana manav ko shanti pradan karane men asamarth hai. madhv se pahale ramanuj ki bhi advaitavad men trutiyan dikhaee de gee thin, kintu madhv ko ramanuj ka kathan bhi aparyapt laga. at: unhonne shnkar ke atirikt ramanuj ke mat ko bhi grahy nahin samajha.

madhv ke mat ka sar yah hai ki shri vishnu hi sarvochch tatv hain, jagath saty hai, brahm aur jiv ka bhed vastavik hai, jiv eeshvar ke adhin hain, jivon men taratamy hai, atma ke antarik sukhon ka anubhav hi mukti hai. shuddh bhakti hi mukti ka sadhan hai, pratyaksh, anuman aur agam ye tin hi praman hain aur hari ka gyan vedon ke dvara hi snbhav hai.

madhvachary ke granth

shri madhvachary ne anek granthon ki rachana, pakhandavad ka khandan aur bhagavan ki bhakti ka prachar karake lakhon logon ko kalyanapath ka anugami banaya.

apane mat ki abhivyakti ke lie madhv ne lagabhag 30 varsh granth lekhan men bitae. unake granthon ki snkhya 37 bataee jati hai, unamen se katipay ke nam is prakar hain: brahmasootrabhashy anuvyakhyan,[1] aitarey, chhandogy, ken, kath, brihadaranyak adi upanishadon ka bhashy, gitabhashy, bhagavatatatparyaniranay, mahabharatatatparyanirnay, vishnutatvanirnay, prapnchamithyatatvanirnay, gitatatparyanirnay, tntrasarasngrah.

madhvachary ke pramukh siddhant

madhv ke anusar brahm sagun aur savishesh hai. brahm ko hi vishnu ya narayan kaha jata hai. nirapeksh sath sarvagun snpann brahm hi param tatv hai. usi ko parabrahm, vishnu, narayan, hari, parameshvar, eeshvar, vasudev, paramatma adi namon se bhi pukara jata hai. vah chaitany svaroop hai, par nirgun nahin, vah jagath ka nimitt karan hai. upadan karan nahin, brahm apani ichchha (maya) se jagath ki srishti karata hai. jivon aur jagath ki pratiti brahm ke adhin hai, at: vah svatntr mana jata hai, jabaki jiv aur jagath asvatntr hain. vishnu hi utpatti, snhar niyaman, gyan avaran, bandh tatha moksh ke karta hain. vishnu shariri hote hue bhi nity tatha sarvatantr svatntr hain. paramatma ki shakti lakshmi hai. lakshmi bhi bhagavan ki bhanti nity mukta hai aur divy vigrahadharini hone ke karan akshara hai.

madhv ke anusar brahm man-vani ke agochar hain- isaka tatpary yahi hai ki jis tarah parvat ko dekhane par bhi usake poorn roop se darshan nahin hote, usi prakar vani adi dvara bhi brahm ko poorn roop se vyakt nahin kiya ja sakata. shri madhv ne shnkarachary ke mayavad ka khndan karate hue kaha ki jis prakar prakash aur andhakar ek sath nahin rah sakate, usi prakar sachchidannd brahm ka avidya se prabhavit hona asngat hai, yadi avidya sath hai to advait siddhant galat hai aur avidya asath hai to usaka kuchh bhi prabhav kaise pad sakata hai.

madhvachary ke anusar jiv brahm se bhinn hai, kintu ansh hone ke karan yah anshi par avalambit hai. jiv men bhi sath, chith tatha anand ka nivas hai.

kintu use yah sab brahm se hi prapt hai. brahm svatntr hai, jiv paratntr hai. snsar men pratyek jivan apana prithakh vyaktitv banae rakhata hai. bhagavan ke sath chaitanyansh ko lekar hi usase jiv ki ekata pratipadit ki jati hai. kintu samast gunon par vichar karane par donon ka prithakatv siddh ho jata hai.

jivon men paraspar bhed bhi hain aur oonch-nich ka taratamy bhi. yah bhed sansarik dasha ke atirikt mokshavastha men bhi rahata hai. sarvashreshth jiv devata kahalate hain, madhyam koti men manushy ate hain aur adham (nich) jivon men daity, rakshas, pishach adi ki ginati ki jati hai.

jiv eeshvar tatha jad padarthon se nahin, apit any jivon se bhi bhinn hai. jiv sharir ke snyog, viyog se janm maran ko prapt hota hai. madhv ka vichar hai ki upadhi ki utpatti aur sampark ke karan jiv sookshm aur sthool sharir dharan karata hai. jiv ki do upadhiyan hain- svaroopopadhi aur bahyopadhi. svaroopopadhi jiv se alag nahin hai, kintu bahya upadhiyan sookshm sthool sharir adi hain. jagath ki srishti eeshvar ki ichchha se hoti hai, jiv ki ichchha se nahin. jiv pratyek deh men bhinn hai, vah kabhi bhagavan ke sath abhinn nahin ho sakata. jiv agyan, moh, adi anek prakar ke doshon se bhi grast hai.

madhv ke matanusar moksh char prakar ka hai- karmakshay, utkranti archiradi marg aur bhog. bhog bhi saloky, samipy, saroopy tatha sayujy bhed se char prakar ka hota hai. madhv ke anusar vaikunth prapti yani vishnu ke lok aur roop ki prapti hi mukti hai. mukt jiv bhi eeshvar ka sevak hai. mukti ke lie prapnch bhed ka gyan avashyak hai. prapnch bhed is prakar hai-

  1. brahm jiv se prithakh hai
  2. brahm jagath se bhi prithakh hai
  3. ek jiv any jiv se prithakh hai
  4. jiv jagath se prithakh hain
  5. jad jagath ke vibhakt ya karyaroop men parinat hone par usaka ek ansh any ansh se prithakh ho jata hai
  6. bhakti hi mukti ka sadhan hai, bhagavan ki seva karana uttam sadhan hai.
seva ke prakar

seva tin prakar ki hoti hai-

  1. bhagavan ke ayudhon ki chhap sharir par lagana
  2. putr adi ka nam bhagavan ke nam par rakhana
  3. bhejan karana.
bhajan ke prakar

bhajan 10 prakar ka hota hai. char prakar ka vachik-

  • saty bolana, hit ke vaky bolana, priy bhashan aur svadhyay.
  • tin prakar ka sharirik-
  1. sadapatr ko dan dena
  2. vipann vyakti ka uddhar karana
  3. sharanagat ki raksha karana.
  • manasik-
  1. daya arthath daridr ke du:kh door karana
  2. spriha arthath bhagavan ka das banane ki ichchha
  3. shraddha arthath guru aur shastr men vishvas karana.

madhv ka vichar hai ki in 10 prakar ke karyon ko karate hue narayan men samarpit ho jana hi bhajan hai.

praman mimansa ke sambandh men bhi madhvachary ke vichar dhyan dene yogy hain. unhonne praman shabd ka prayog do arthon men kiya hai-

  1. yatharth gyan
  2. yatharth gyan ka sadhan.

pahala unake anusar keval praman hai, aur doosara anupraman. kisi vastu ka yatharth (thik-thik) gyan prapt karana kaval praman kahalata hai. aur jis sadhan dvara vah gyan prapt hota hai, vah anupraman kahalata hai. madhvachary ke anusar praman tin hain- pratyaksh, anuman aur shabd. madhv ne pratyaksh ke sat bhed mane hain. arth aur indriyon ke nirdosh hone par hi pratyaksh sambhav hai. at: unhonne pratyaksh ki paribhasha men nirdosh shabd ko bhi jod diya hai. nirdosharthendriyasannikarsh: pratyakshamh. nirdosh se ashay hai nishchit arth ka bodh karane vala. panchon indriyon par adharit panch bhedon ke atirikt unhonne man aur atma par adharit do any bhed manakar unaki snkhya sat bataee hai.

madhv ke anusar nirdosh upapatti hi anuman hai. isake do bhed hain- svarthanuman aur pararthanuman. unaka yah bhi vichar hai ki pararthanuman tin avayavon se hi poorn ho jata hai aur upaman ka bhi anuman men hi antarbhav ho jata hai. agam ke do bhed batae gaye hain, paurushey aur apaurushey.

achary madhv ke anusar sab gyan apekshik hain. gyata aur gyey ke bina gyan ki utpatti nahin ho sakati. madhv nirvikalpak gyan ki satta ko svikar nahin karate. ve gyan ko savikalpak hi manate hain. madhv ko shnkar ka yah vichar many nahin hai ki 'drishy vastu vastavik nahin hoti, gyan hi saty hota hai.' madhv shnkar ke viparit yah manate hain ki drishy aur saty abhinn hain. savikalpak gyanavad se jisaki satyata siddh hogi, vahi saty hai.

madhv ke anusar padarth ya tatv do prakar ka hai- svatntr aur asvatntr. bhagavan vishnu svatntr tatv hai, jabaki jiv aur jad jagath asvatntr tatv hain. madhv ke matanusar padarth das hain-

  1. dravy (bhav vastu)
  2. gun
  3. karm
  4. samany
  5. vishesh
  6. vishisht
  7. anshi
  8. shakti
  9. sadrishy
  10. abhav

yah gyatavy hai ki naiyayikon ke samavay ko chhodakar avashisht chh: tatha char any ne padarthon ka madhv ne pariganan kiya hai. in padarthon ka vistar se niroopan padmanabh ke madhvasiddhantasar men upalabdh hota hai. madhvamat men dravy ke nimnalikhit bis bhed bataye ge hain- paramatma, lakshmi, jiv, avyakrit, akash, prakriti (gunatray) mahattatv, ahnkaratatv, buddhi, man, indriy, tanmatraen, mahabhoot, brahmand, avidya, varn, andhakar, vasana, kal aur pratibimb. madhv ke anusar jisamen upadan karanata ho, vah dravy kahalata hai. karm tin prakar ka mana gaya hai- vihit, nishiddh tatha udasin. utkshepan, apakshepan adi karmon ka antarbhav udasin karm men kiya gaya hai. jati tatha upadhi bhed se samany do prakar ka mana gaya hai. bhed ka abhav hone par bhi bhed vyavahar ke nirvahak padarth ko vishesh kaha gaya hai, shakti char prakar ki mani gee hai-

  1. achintyashakti
  2. adheyashakti
  3. sahajashakti
  4. padashakti.

achinty shakti aghatit ghatana patiyasi hoti hai aur bhagavan vishnu men hi rahati hai.

madhv eeshvar, jivon aur jagath ki paramarthik satta svikar karate hain. prakriti, jiv aur eeshvar ka ek doosare se antarbhav nahin hota. han eeshvar (parabrahm) svatntr tatv hai, jabaki prakriti aur jiv paratntr tatv hain. brahm, jiv aur prakriti svaroopat: bhinn hain, at: unamen abhed nahin hai. madhv ka yah vichar hai ki 'tatvamasi' adi vakyon dvara bhi jiv ki tatvik svatntrata vyakt hoti hai, n ki brahm se jiv aur jagath ka svaroop bhed. madhv ke anusar prakriti jagath ka upadan karan hai. doosare shabdon men jagath prakriti ka vikar ya parinam hai. upadan karan men do prakar ka parinam hota hai- dharm parinam aur dharmi parinam. upadan karan aur kary men bhed tatha abhed bhi hota hai. tanturoop upadan karan aur pat roop kary men bhed bhi hai, aur abhed bhi. is prakar madhv satkaryavad aur parinamavad se sahamat pratit hote hain. jagath ka upadan karan prakriti hai. vah paramarthik tatv hai, at: usaka vikar mithya ya asath kaise ho sakata hai. brahm ke eekshan dvara prakriti se jagath ki srishti bataee gee hai. at: madhv ka mat is sndarbh men bahut kuchh sankhy se milata-julata pratit hota hai.

bharat bhraman

shrimadhvachary ne sampoorn bharat ka bhraman kiya aur sthan-sthan par shastrarth karake vidvanon men durlabh khyati arjit ki. inake shastrarth ka uddeshy bhagavadbhakti ka prachar, vedon ki pramanikata ki sthapana, mayavad ka khandan tatha shastr-maryada ka snrakshan karana tha. gitabhashy ka nirman karane ke bad inhonne badarinarayan ki yatra ki. vahan inako bhagavan vedavyas ke darshan hue. anek raja inake shishy hue. anek vidvanon ne inase prabhavit hokar inaka mat svikar kiya. inhonne anek prakar ki yog-siddhiyan prapt kin. badarinarayan men shri vyasaji ne in par prasann hokar inhen tin shaligram-shilaen di thin, jinako inhonne subrahmany, madhyatal aur udupi men padharaya.

ek bar kisi vyapari ka jahaz dvaraka se malavar ja raha tha. tulub ke pas vah doob gaya. us men gopichandan se dhaki huee bhagavan shrikrishn ki ek moorti thi. madhvachary ko bhagavan ki agya prapt huee aur unhonne jal se moorti nikalakar udupi men usaki sthapana ki, tabhi se vah sthan madhvamatanuyayiyon ka shreshthatirth ho gaya. inhonne udupi men aur bhi ath mandiron ki sthapana ki. aj bhi log unaka darshan karake jivan ka vastavik labh prapt karate hain. ye apane jivan ke antim samay men saridantar namak sthan men rahate the. yahin par inhonne apane panchabhautik sharir ka tyag kiya. dehatyag ke avasar par inhonne apane shishy padmanabhatirth ko shriramaji ki moorti aur vyas ji ki di huee shaligram shila dekar apane mat ke prachar ki agya di. inake shishyon ke dvara anek math sthapit hue.

madhvachary ka bhaktiparak mat

achary madhv ka bhakti parak mat amala bhakti ke nam se prasiddh hai. kahin kahin isako brahm sampraday ke nam se bhi abhihit kiya jata hai. any sampradayon men vishnu ko param tatv ka pratik mana gaya hai, param tatv nahin, jabaki madhv ke matanusar vishnu svayn param tatv hain. madhv ka yah kathan hai ki jiv anadikal se baddh hai aur agyanadi dharmon ka ashray hai. jiv aur eeshvar men aisa hi bhed hai, jaisa ki nadi aur samudr men. jiv mayamohit hai, paratntr hai aur vishnu ka das hai. jiv ka moksh vishnu ke anugrah se hi hota hai. jiv ko eeshvar ki kripa prapt karane ke lie eeshvar ka smaran, gun, kirtan, shravan, dhyan adi karana chahie. eeshvar ki upasana bhi adhikari bhed se do prakar ki mani gee hai-

  1. satat shastrabhyasaroopa
  2. dhyanaroopa.

madhv ke matanusar vishnu ki bhakti ke athava brahmavidya ke adhikari bhi tin prakar ke hote hain-

  1. mand
  2. madhyam
  3. uttam

manushyon men jo uttam gun sampann hain, ve mand rishi, gandharv-madhyam, aur devata uttam adhikari hain. yah bhed jatigat hai. gunagat bhed is prakar hai- paramapurush bhagavan men bhaktibhav rakhane vala adhyayanashil adham, shamasnyukt vyakti madhyam aur jisake andar samast vastuon ke prati vairagy ho gaya hai, jisane ekamatr vishnu ke pad ka ashray le liya hai, vah uttam adhikari hai.

madhv ke anusar tyag, bhakti aur eeshvar ki pratyaksh anubhooti mukti ka ekamatr sadhan hai. dhyan ke bina eeshvar sakshatkar nahin hota. bhagavan men bhakti, vedadhyan, indriy snyam, vilasita ka tyag, asha aur bhay se udasinata, sansarik vastuon ki nashvarata ka gyan, sampoorn roop se bhagavan ke prati atmasamarpan, in gunon ke bina bhagavatsakshatkar hona asambhav hai.

bhagavan ki seva karana uttam sadhan hai. jaisa ki pahale bhi kaha gaya hai, seva tin prakar ki hoti hai- bhagavan ke ayudhon ki chhap sharir par lena, ghar men putradi ka nam bhagavan ke nam par rakhana aur bhajan, saty bolana, hit ke vaky ke bolana, priy bhashan aur svadhyay- ye char prakar ke vachik bhajan hain. satyapatr ko dan dena, vipann vyakti ka uddhar karana aur sharanagat ki raksha karana- ye tin sharirik bhajan hain. daridr ka du:kh door karana daya hai, keval bhagavan ka das banane ki ichchha ka nam spriha hai aur guru tatha shastr men vishvas karana shraddha hai. in dason prakar ka kary karake narayan ko samarpit karana bhajan hai.

achary ramanuj ke anusar bhi dhyan aur upasana adi mukti ke sadhan hain. gyan mukti ka sadhan nahin hai. mukti prapti ka upay bhakti hai. ve kahate hain ki brahmatmaiky gyan se avidya ki nivritti nahin ho sakati, kyonki jab bandhan paramarthik hai, tab is prakar ke gyan se usaki nivritti nahin ho sakati. bhakti se bhagavan prasann hon par mukti pradan karate hain.

madhv ke matanusar vastavik sukh ki anubhooti hi mukti hai. vastavik sukh vah hai, jisamen du:kh ke kshay ke sath hi paramanand ka uday ho jata hai. aisi sthiti sayujy mukti men hi sambhav hai, kyonki bhakt bhagavan men pravesh kar unake sharir se ekakar hokar anand prapt karata hai. aisi mukti ka sarvashreshth sadhan amala bhakti hai. nirhetuki bhakti ko hi amala kaha jata hai. kisi karan se ki gee bhakti 'hetuki' kahalati hai. madhv usako nikrisht manate hain.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bijalvan, daau. chakradhar vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 379.

  1. jis par madhv ne svopgy tika nyayavivaran tatha jayatirth, 14vin shatabdi, ne nyay sudha, namak tika likhi. nyay sudha par raghavendr yati ne parimalanamni tika likhi hai.

snbndhit lekh

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