मलयालम भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

malayalam dravid bhasha parivar ke dakshin dravid upasamooh ki bhasha hai. malayalam ka vikas tamil ki kisi pashchimi boli se hua, ya phir adi-dravid ki ek shakha se, jisase adhunik tamil ka bhi vikas hua. is bhasha ka prachinatam praman lagabhag 830 ee. ka ek abhilekh hai. arnbh men snskrit shabdon ke vyapak antarvah ne malayalam lipi (grnth lipi se utpann, jo svayn brahmi lipi se paida huee) ko prabhavit kiya.

shabd dhvani aur lipi

isamen dravid dhvaniyon ke sath sabhi snskrit dhvaniyon ke lie bhi akshar hai. is bhasha ko likhane ke lie koleluttoo (shalaka lipi) ka bhi istemal hota hai, jisaki utpatti tamil lekhan pranali se huee hai. tamil grnth lipi ka bhi upayog hota hai.

vyakaran

  • samany dravid bhashaon ki tarah isake upavaky men karta - karm - kriya ka shabdakram hota hai.
  • isamen karta-karm-karak chihn hote hain; lekin any dravid bhashaon ke viparit isamen samapika kriya ka rupantaran purush, vachan v ling ke bajay sirf kal ke anuroop hota hai.

bhasha kshetr

malayalam bhasha mukhyatah dakshin-pashchimi tatiy rajy keral men boli jati hai, yah keral aur kendrashasit pradesh lakshadvip ki rajabhasha hai; lekin simavarti karnatak aur tamilanadu ke dvibhashi samuday ke log bhi yah bhasha bolate hain.

bolane valon ki snkhya

madhy 1997 men malayalam bhashi logon ki snkhya lagabhag tin karod sath lakh thi. is bhasha men kshetr aur jati adharit boliyan hain. aupacharik, sahityik bhasha aur am bolachal ki bhasha men antar hai.

malayali sahity

  • dakshin bharat ki malayalam bhasha men rachanaon ka prarnbhik bhndar upalabdh hai.
  • upalabdh sahityik kriti 'ram-charitam' (12vin sadi ke uttararddh ya 13vin sadi ke poorvarddh men) hai.
  • bad ke kal ke lokaprey pattoo (git) sahity ko chhod kar mukhy roop se shrringarik kavitaen likhi gee, jo malayalam aur snskrit ki sammishrit 'mani-pravalam shaili' men rachi gee hain.
  • 15vin sadi men ‘git’ dhara se ‘shuddh’ malayalam ka istemal kiya gaya aur yah cheroosseri ki lnbi kavita 'krishn-gatha' men kavy ke uchch star tak pahunchi.
  • 16vin sadi ke poorvarddh men bhakti andolan ke prabhav se ejhuthachan ki mahanh kavita rachi gee. inaki 'adhyatm-ramayanam' ko utana hi samman diya jata hai, jitana uttari bharat men tulasidas ke ramacharitamanas ko diya jata hai.
  • malayalam kavita ke nrity evn rngamnch se ghanishth snpark ke karan do pramukh kavi kunjan 'nnbiyar' (1705-1770) aur 'unnai variyar' (donon samakalin) uday hua.
  • nnbiyar ki pauranik kathaon ko pravahapoorn katha chhndon men ‘thullal’ ke lie racha gaya, jo unake hi dvara avishkrit kavy-path v nrity ki ek sammishrit natak-shaili thi.
  • unnai variyar ke 'nal - charitam' ko samanyatah nrity rngamnch ki ek any shaili, kathakali, ke lie likhi gee sarvottam naty rachana mana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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