महादेवी वर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahadevi varma
Mahadevi-verma.png
poora nam mahadevi varma
janm 26 march, 1907
janm bhoomi farrukhabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 11 sitambar, 1987
mrityu sthan prayag, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak govind prasad varma, hemarani devi
pati/patni daau. svaroop naren varma
karm bhoomi ilahabad
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhika
mukhy rachanaen dipashikha, mera parivar, smriti ki rekhaen, path ke sathi, shrinkhala ki kadiyan, atit ke chalachitr, niraja, nihar
vishay git, rekhachitr, snsmaran v nibndh
bhasha hindi
vidyalay krasthavet kaaulej, ilahabad vishvavidyalay
shiksha em.e. (snskrit)
puraskar-upadhi sekasariya puraskar (1934), dvivedi padak (1942), bharat bharati puraskar (1943), mngala prasad puraskar (1943) padm bhooshan (1956), sahity akademi phelloship (1979), gyanapith puraskar (1982), padm vibhooshan (1988)
nagarikata bharatiy
vidha gady aur pady
any janakari svadhinata prapti ke bad 1952 men mahadevi varma uttar pradesh vidhan parishad ki sadasya manonit ki geen.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
mahadevi varma ki rachanaen

mahadevi varma (angrezi: Mahadevi Verma, janm: 26 march, 1907, farrukhabad; mrityu: 11 sitambar, 1987, prayag) hindi bhasha ki prakhyat kavayitri hain. mahadevi varma ki ginati hindi kavita ke chhayavadi yug ke char pramukh stnbh sumitranandan pant, jayashnkar prasad aur sooryakant tripathi nirala ke sath ki jati hai. adhunik hindi kavita men mahadevi varma ek mahattvapoorn shakti ke roop men ubharin. mahadevi varma ne khadi boli hindi ko komalata aur madhurata se snsikt kar sahaj manaviy snvedanaon ki abhivyakti ka dvar khola, virah ko dipashikha ka gaurav diya, vyashtimoolak manavatavadi kavy ke chintan ko pratishthapit kiya. mahadevi varma ke giton ka nad-saundary, paini uktiyon ki vynjana shaili anyatr durlabh hai.[1]

jivan parichay

mahadevi varma apane parivar men kee pidhiyon ke bad utpan huee. unake parivar men do sau salon se koee ladaki paida nahin huee thi, yadi hoti to use mar diya jata tha. durga pooja ke karan apaka janm hua. apake dada farasi aur urdoo tatha pitaji angrezi janate the. mataji jabalapur se hindi sikh kar aee thi, mahadevi varma ne pnchatntr aur snskrit ka adhyayan kiya. mahadevi varma ji ko kavy pratiyogita men 'chandi ka katora' mila tha. jise inhonne gandhiji ko de diya tha. mahadevi varma kavi sammelan men bhi jane lagi thi, vo satyagrah andolan ke dauran kavi sammelan men apani kavitayen sunati aur unako hamesha pratham puraskar mila karata tha. mahadevi varma marathi mishrit hindi bolati thi.

janm

mahadevi varma ka janm holi ke din 26 march, 1907 ko farrukhabad, uttar pradesh men hua tha. mahadevi varma ke pita shri govind prasad varma ek vakil the aur mata shrimati hemarani devi thin. mahadevi varma ke mata-pita donon hi shiksha ke anany premi the.[2] mahadevi varma ko 'adhunik kal ki mirabaee' kaha jata hai. mahadevi ji chhayavad rahasyavad ke pramukh kaviyon men se ek hain. hindustani stri ki udarata, karuna, satvikata, adhunik bauddhikata, gnbhirata aur saralata mahadevi varma ke vyaktitv men samavisht thi. unake vyaktitv aur krititv ki vilakshanata se abhibhoot rachanakaron ne unhen 'sahity samragyi', 'hindi ke vishal mndir ki vinapani', 'sharada ki pratima' adi visheshanon se abhihit karake unaki asadharanata ko lakshit kiya. mahadevi ji ne ek nishchit dayitv ke sath bhasha, sahity, samaj, shiksha aur snskriti ko snskarit kiya. kavita men rahasyavad, chhayavad ki bhoomi grahan karane ke bavazood samayik samasyaon ke nivaran men mahadevi varma ne sakriy bhagidari nibhaee.

shiksha

mahadevi varma ki prarambhik shiksha indaur men huee. mahadevi varma ne bi.e. jabalapur se kiya. mahadevi varma apane ghar men sabase badi thi unake do bhaee aur ek bahan thi. 1919 men ilahabad men 'kraausthavet kaaulej' se shiksha ka prarnbh karate hue mahadevi varma ne 1932 men ilahabad vishvavidyalay se snskrit men em.e. ki upadhi prapt ki. tab tak unake do kavy snkalan 'nihar' aur 'rashmi' prakashit hokar charcha men a chuke the.[3] mahadevi ji men kavy pratibha sat varsh ki umr men hi mukhar ho uthi thi. vidyarthi jivan men hi unaki kavitaain desh ki prasiddh patr-patrikaon men sthan pane lagin thin.

vivah

un dinon ke prachalan ke anusar mahadevi varma ka vivah chhoti umr men hi ho gaya tha parantu mahadevi ji ko sansarikata se koee lagav nahin tha apitu ve to bauddh dharm se bahut prabhavit thin aur svayn bhi ek bauddh bhikshuni banana chahatin thin. vivah ke bad bhi unhonne apani shiksha jari rakhi. mahadevi varma ki shadi 1914 men 'daau. svaroop naren varma' ke sath indaur men 9 sal ki umr men huee, vo apane man pitaji ke sath rahati thin kyonki unake pati lakhanoo men padh rahe the.

virasat

shiksha aur sahity prem mahadevi ji ko ek tarah se virasat men mila tha. mahadevi ji men kavy rachana ke bij bachapan se hi vidyaman the. chh: sat varsh ki avastha men bhagavan ki pooja karati huee man par unaki tukabandi:

thnde pani se nahalati
thnda chandan unhen lagati
unaka bhog hamen de jati
tab bhi kabhi n bole hain
man ke thakur ji bhole hain.

ve hindi ke bhakt kaviyon ki rachanaon aur bhagavan buddh ke charitr se atyant prabhavit thi. unake giton men pravahit karuna ke anant srot ko isi kon se samajha ja sakata hai. vedana aur karuna mahadevi varma ke giton ki mukhy pravritti hai. asim du:kh ke bhav men se hi mahadevi varma ke giton ka uday aur ant donon hota hai.

mahila vidyapith ki sthapana

mahadevi varma ne apane prayatnon se ilahabad men 'prayag mahila vidyapith' ki sthapana ki. isaki ve pradhanachary evn kulapati bhi rahin. mahadevi varma pathashala men hindi-adhyapak se prabhavit hokar brajabhasha men samasya poorti bhi karane lagin. phir tatkalin khadi boli ki kavita se prabhavit hokar khadi boli men rola aur harigitika chhandon men kavy likhana prarambh kiya. usi samay man se suni ek karun katha ko lekar sau chhandon men ek khandakavy bhi likh dala. 1932 men unhonne mahilaon ki pramukh patrika 'chand' ka karyabhar snbhala. prayag men adhyapan kary se judane ke bad hindi ke prati gahara anurag rakhane ke karan mahadevi varma dinon-din sahityik kriyakalapon se judati chali geen. unhonne n keval 'chand' ka sampadan kiya varanh hindi ke prachar-prasar ke lie prayag men 'sahityakar snsad' ki sthapana ki. unhonne 'sahityakar' masik ka snpadan kiya aur 'rngavani' naty snstha ki bhi sthapana ki.

kritiyan

mahadevi ji kavayitri hone ke sath-sath ek vishisht gadyakar thin. 'yama' men unake pratham char kavy-sngrahon ki kavitaon ka ek sath snkalan hua hai. 'adhunik kavi-mahadevi' men unake samast kavy se unhin dvara chuni huee kavitaain snkalit hain. kavi ke atirikt ve gady lekhika ke roop men bhi paryapt khyati arjit kar chuki hain. 'smriti ki rekhaen' (1943 ee.) aur 'atit ke chalachitr' (1941 ee.) unaki snsmaranatmak gady rachanaon ke sngrah hain. 'shrinkhala ki kadiyan' (1942 ee.) men samajik samasyaon, visheshakar abhishapt nari jivan ke jalate prashnon ke sambandh men likhe unake vicharatmak nibandh snkalit hain. rachanatmak gady ke atirikt 'mahadevi ka vivechanatmak gady' men tatha 'dipashikha', 'yama' aur 'adhunik kavi-mahadevi' ki bhoomikaon men unaki alochanatmak pratibha ka bhi poorn prasphutan hua hai. unaki kritiyan is prakar hain -

kavy
gady
vividh snkalan[11]
  • smarika
  • smriti chitr
  • snbhashan
  • snchayan
  • drishtibodh
punarmudrit snkalan
nibndh
lalit nibndh

kavy sngrah

mahadevi varma ke 1934 men 'niraja', 1936 men 'sandhyagit' namak sngrah prakashit hue. 1939 men in charon kavy sngrahon ko unaki kalakritiyon ke sath vrihadakar men 'yama' shirshak se prakashit kiya gaya. mahadevi varma ne gady, kavy, shiksha aur chitrakala sabhi kshetron men ne ayam sthapit kie. isake atirikt unake 18 kavy aur gady kritiyan hain jinamen 'mera parivar', 'smriti ki rekhaen', 'path ke sathi', 'shrinkhala ki kadiyan' aur 'atit ke chalachitr' pramukh hain.

kavy visheshataen

mahadevi ke kavy men bhav samriddhi tatha shailpik saundary ka akarshak samanvay hai. apake kavy ki ubhayapakshiy visheshataen is prakar hain-

bhav paksh

mahadevi ji ke kavy men atmanivedan ka svar pradhan hai. apane hriday ki vividh anubhootiyon ko hi kavayitri ne kavy ka vishay banaya hai. agyat priyatam ke prati virah vyatha ka nivedan, milan ka snkalp, rahasyamayi snvedanaen aur prakriti ka komalakant drishyankan apake giton ke pradhan vishay hain. adhyatmikata aur darshanikata ke jhine anchal se avritt apake mridul udagar ek mohak bhav jagath ki srishti karate hain.

ras yojana

mahadevi ji ke kavy ka pradhan ras shrringar hai. yadyapi shrringar ke snyog tatha viyog dono hi pakshon ko kavayitri ne kavy ka vishay banaya hai, tathapi viyog ki abhivyakti hi adhik tallinata se huee hai. yah viyog laukik dharatal par sthit hote hue bhi apani bhavyata se alaukikata ke ambar ka sparsh karata chalata hai. vah kabir ki bhanti viyogini atma ka priyatam paramatma ke prati prem nivedan banakar sahridayon ke hridayon ko bhav tarngon men jhulane lagata hai.

vedana

Blockquote-open.gif pathashala men hindi-adhyapak se prabhavit hokar mahadevi varma brajabhasha men samasya poorti bhi karane lagin. phir mahadevi varma ne tatkalin khadi boli ki kavita se prabhavit hokar khadi boli men rola aur harigitika chhandon men kavy likhana prarambh kiya. usi samay man se suni ek karun katha ko lekar mahadevi varma ne sau chhandon men ek khandakavy bhi likh dala. Blockquote-close.gif

mahadevi ka samast kavy vedanamay hai. yah vedana laukik vedana se bhinn adhyatmik jagath ki hai, jo usi ke lie sahaj snvedy ho sakati hai, jinase us anubhooti-kshetr men pravesh kiya ho. vaise mahadevi is vedana ko us du:kh ki bhi sngya deti hain, "jo sare snsar ko ek sootr men bandhe rakhane ki kshamata rakhata hai"[12] kintu vishv ko ek sootr men bandhane vala du:kh samanyataya laukik du:kh hi hota hai, jo bharatiy sahity ki parampara men karun ras ka sthayi bhav hota hai. mahadevi ne is du:kh ko nahin apanaya hai. kahati to hain ki "mujhe du:kh ke donon hi roop priy hain, ek vah, jo manushy ke snvedanashil hriday ko sare snsar se ek avichchhinn bandhanon men bandh deta hai aur doosara vah jo kal aur sima ke bandhan men pade hue asim chetan ka krandan hai"[13] kintu unake kavy men pahale prakar ka nahin, doosare prakar ka 'krandan' hi abhivyakt hua hai. yah vedana samany lok hriday ki vastu nahin hai. sambhavat: isilie ramachandr shukl ne usaki sachchaee men hi sandeh vyakt karate hue likha hai, "is vedana ko lekar unhonne hriday ki aisi anubhootiyan samane rakhin, jo lokottar hain. kahan tak ve vastavik anubhootiyan hain aur kahan tak anubhootiyon ki ramaniy kalpana, yah nahin kaha ja sakata"[14]

vishayavastu aur drishtikon

vedana ki is ekant sadhana ke phalasvaroop mahadevi ki kavita men vishayon ka vaividhy bahut kam hai. unaki kuchh hi kavitaen aisi hain, jinamen rashtriy aur sanskritik udbodhan athava prakriti ka svatantr chitran hua hai. shesh sabhi kavitaon men vishayavastu aur drishtikon ek hi hone ke karan unaki kavyabhoomi vistrit nahin ho saki hai. isase unake kavy ko hani aur labh donon hua hai. hani yah huee hai ki vishay-parivartan n hone se unake samast kavy men ekarasata aur bhavavritti bahut adhik hai. labh yah hua hai ki simit kshetr ke bhitar hi kavayitri ne anubhootiyon ke anekanek ayamon ko anek drishtikon se dekh-parakhakar unake sookshmatisookshm bhed-prabhedon ko bimbaroop men samane rakhate hue chitrit kiya hai. is tarah unake kavy men vistaragat vishalata aur darshanagat gurutv bhale hi n mile, par unaki bhavanaon ki gambhirata, anubhootiyon ki sookshmata, bimbon ki spashtata aur kalpana ki kamaniyata ke phalasvaroop gambhiry aur mahatta avashy hai. is tarah unake kavy vistar ka nahin gaharaee ka kavy hai.

prakriti nirupan

prakriti ke saundary ke prati kavayitri ki snvedanashilata men koee kami nahin hai, kintu prakriti ko alamban ke roop men kam hi kavita ka vishay banaya gaya hai. yah svalp shabd chitr bhi bade maulik aur manohari hain. prakriti ko uddipan vibhav ke roop men mahadevi ne bade kalatmak aur marmasparshi roop men prastut kiya hai. ve bhavon ko prakharata tatha anubhootiyon ko taral gambhirata pradan karake, kathy ko atyant hridayagrahi bana deti hai. mahadevi ji ka kavy chhayavadi kavyashaili ki sabhi visheshataon se vibhooshit hai. vaiyaktikata, prakriti ka manavikaran, shrringar ki sadhvi abhivyakti, saundary nirupan, lakshanik abhivyakti tatha manavatavadi drishti adi apaki rachanaon men maulik bhav-bhngima men prastut hai. kabir aur jayasi ke pashchath kavyaparak rahasyavad ke darshan hindi men mahadevi ji ke hi kavy men hote hain. mahadevi agyat priyatam ke prati pranay nivedan ke kshanon men adhyatmik chhoron ka sparsh karane lagati hain. mahadevi ji ne lok chetana se bhi svayn ko poornataya vichchhinn nahin kiya hai. unake pas bhi sandesh hain, prerana marg-darshan hai.

mahadevi varma

anubhootiyan

mahadevi varma ka kavy anubhootiyon ka kavy hai. usamen desh, samaj ya yug ka chitrankan nahin hai, balki usamen kavayitri ki niji anubhootiyon ki abhivyakti huee hai. unaki anubhootiyan prayah agyat priy ke prati maun samarpan ke roop men hain. unaka kavy unake jivan kal men ane vale vividh padavon ke saman hai. unamen prem ek pramukh tattv hai jis par alaukikata ka avaran pada hua hai. inamen prayah sahaj manaviy bhavanaon aur akarshan ke sthool snket nahin die ge hain, balki pratikon ke dvara bhavanaon ko vyakt kiya gaya hai. kahin-kahin sthool snket die ge hain-

meri ahen soti hai in othon ki oton men,
mera sarvasv chhipa hai in divani choton men.

kavayitri ne sarvatr apani pranay-bhavana ka unnayan aur parishkar kiya hai. inake prem ka alnban virat evn vishal hai, jo alaukik hai-

bin bhi hoon main tumhari ragini bhi hoon .
nind bhi meri achal nispnd kan-kan men,
pratham jagriti thi jagath ke pratham spndan men,
pralay men mera pata pad-chihn jivan men.

inhonne any chhayavadi kaviyon ki tarah prakriti par sarvatr chetana ka arop kiya hai aur usake sath vividh madhur snbndhon ki kalpanaen ki hain-

rajani odhe jati thi !
jhilamil taron ki jali,
usake bikhare vaibhav par,
jab roti thi ujiyali.

duahkh-pida aur vishad mahadevi varma ke kavy ka mool svar hai aur inhen sukh ki apeksha duahkh adhik priy hai. parantu inamen vishad ka vah bhav nahin hai jo karm shakti ko kunthit kar deta ho. inamen snyam aur tyag hai tatha doosaron ka hit karane ki prabal akanksha hai-

main nir bhari duahkh ki badali !
vistrit nabh ka koee kona,
mera kabhi n apana hona,
parichay itana itihas yahi,
umadi thi kal mit aj chali.[1]

mahadevi ka kavy varnanatmak aur itivrittatmak nahin hai. antarik sookshm anubhootiyon ki abhivyakti unhonne sahaj bhavochchhavas ke roop men ki hai. is karan usaki abhivynjana- paddhati men lakshanikata aur vynjakata ka bahuly hai. roopakatmak bimbon aur pratikon ke sahare unhonne jo mohak chitr upasthit kiye hain, ve unaki sookshm drishti aur rngamayi kalpana ki shaktimatta ka parichay dete hain. ye chitr unhonne apane pariparshv, visheshakar prakritik parivesh se lie hain par prakriti ko unhonne alamban roop men bahut kam grahan kiya. prakriti mahadevi varma ke kavy men sadaiv uddipan, alnkar, pratik aur snket ke roop men hi chitrit huee hai. isi karan prakriti ke ati parichit aur sarvajanasulabh drishyon ya vastuon ko hi unhonne apane kavy ka upadan banaya hai. usake asadharan aur alpaparichit drishyon ki or unaka dhyan nahin gaya hai. phir bhi simit prakritik upadanon ke dvara unhonne jo poorn ya anshik bimb chitrit kie hain, unase unaki chitravidhayini kalpana ka poora parichay mil jata hai. isi kalpana ke darshan mahadevi varma ke un chitron men bhi hote hain, jo unhonne shabdon se nahin, rngon aur toolika ke madhyam se nirmit kie hain. unake ye chitr 'dipashikha' aur 'yama' men kavitaon men prakashit hue hain.

bhasha-shaili

mahadevi apani kavy bhasha ki nirmatri svayn hi hain, yah kahana atishyokti nahin hoga. abhivyakti ki jo samarthy, bhav vynjana ka jo marmik saushthav, apaki bhasha vahan karati hai, vah anyatr pntaji men hi prapt hota hai. apaki bhashagat kuchh visheshataen is prakar hain-

  • apaki bhasha ka ek vishisht star hai, jo svabhavatah snskrit shabdavali ki or jhuka hua hai. tatsam shabd pradhan hote hue bhi is bhasha roop men klishtata ya rookshata nahin hain. usamen pravah hai, lay hai.
  • snskrit tatsam shabdavali ke prati mahadevi ki koee pratibaddhata nahin hai. apane apekshakrit saral shabdavali ka bhi sahaj bhav se prayog kiya hai; yatha-
vistrit nabh ka koee kona, mera n kabhi apana hona,
parichay itana itihas yahi, umadi kal thi mit aj chali.
  • mahadevi ji ne bhasha ko adbhut mriduta aur madhurata pradan ki hai. bhav aur lay ka manohari sngam prastut karane men apaki bhasha ka bhi mahattvapoorn yogadan hai.
  • lakshanikata mahadevi ji ki shabd chitrakarita men sahayak toolika kahi jay to anuchit nahin hoga. shabd se kahan- kya arth dhvanit hona hai, ise unaki bhasha marmgyta bhali-bhanti janati hai.
  • mahadevi ji ki rachana-shaili ki pramukh visheshataen usaki bhavataralata, vaiyaktikata, pratikatmakata, chitratmakata, alnkarita, chhayavadi tatha rahasyatmak abhivyakti adi hain.

alnkaran

mahadevi ji ne paramparagat evn navin, sabhi alnkaron ka kalatmakata se upayog kiya hai. upamanon ki maulikata evn manamohak vidhan apake alnkaran ki visheshataen hain. roopak apaka priy alnkar hai:-

le usha ne kiran akshat, has roli,
rat ankon se parajay rakh dholi.

mahadevi ji ne chhayavadi git likhe hain aur giton ke chhand baddh men vah poorn daksh hain. anek sthalon par unaki giti lokagit ki lahariyon men tarngit pratit hoti hai. inake giton men lay, sngitatmakata tatha nad saundary ke darshan hote hain. apani kavyagat vishishtitaon ke lie mahadevi ji kavy-premiyon ke lie sadaiv sammaniy aur smaraniy rahengi. unaka kavy vishv-sahity ki nidhi hai.

rekhachitrakar

Blockquote-open.gif ek bar maithilisharan gupt ne unaki karmathata ki prashnsa karate hue poochha ki ap kabhi thakati nahin. unaka uttar tha ki holi ke din janmi hoon n, isilie holi ka rng aur usake ullas ki chamak mere chehare par bani rahati hai. Blockquote-close.gif

mahadevi varma ek saphal rekhachitrakar, kavayitri, aur vicharak hai. unhonne kee rekhachitr likhen hain jinamen nilaknth mor, ghisa, sona, gaura adi kafi prasiddh hain. manav ek shreshth prani hone par bhi pashuon ke prati usaka vyavahar sarahaniy nahin hain. unake dvara rachit 'sona aur gaura' namak rekhachitr men manav ke nishthur vyavahar par mahadevi varma ne prakash dala hain. pashu-pakshi bhi prem ke lie lalayit rahate hain aur prem dikhane par anndavibhor ho uthate hain. bejuban hone par bhi sneh ke kee mook prardashan hote hain. apane asim annd ki abhivyakti sundar ankhon ke bhav se prakat karate hain. parantu manav apane svarth ke karan in bejuban janavaron par itana atyachar aur nirday vyavahar karata hai aur un par kitana julm karata hai isaka koee ant nahin. manav dvara itani yatana sah kar bhi pashu manav ke svabhav se ab tak anajana hai. manav ka yah svarth ant men vedana ka kary aur karan ban jata hai, isi bat par prakash dalana hi mahadevi varma ka mukhy dhyey hai.[15]

dharmik vichar

mahadevi ne svayn likha hai, ”man se pooja aur arati ke samay sune soor, tulasi tatha mira adi ke git mujhe git rachana ki prerana dete the. man se suni ek karun katha ko mainne prayah sau chhndon men lipibaddh kiya tha. pados ki ek vidhava vadhoo ke jivan se prabhavit hokar mainne vidhava, abala shirshakon se shabd chitr likhe the jo us samay ki patrkiaon men prakashit bhi hue the. vyaktigat duahkh samashtigat gnbhir vedana ka roop grahan karane laga. karuna bahul hone ke karan bauddh sahity bhi mujhe priy raha hai.“ mahadevi varma ne apane aradhy ko, priyatam ko karunamay (brahm) ke roop men sambodhit kiya hai. mahadevi pooja aur archana ke bahy upakaranon ko svikar nahin karati hain. unaka laghutam jivan hi us asim ka sundar mndir hai.

kya pooja kya archana re
us asim ka sundar mndir
mera laghutar jivan re.[16]

adhunik miran

mahadevi varma ko adhunik yug ki miran bhi kaha jata hai. bhakti kal men jo sthan krishn bhakt miran ko prapt hai, adhunik kal men vah sthan mahadevi varma ko mila hai. miran ka priyatam sagun, sakar giradhar gopal hai jisake prati ve samarpit rahi, to doosari or mahadevi ke priyatam asim nirgun nirakar (brahm) hain aur usake prati ve samarpit hain. mahadevi apane ap men ek jivan gatha hain. mahadevi ka prasiddh git, ‘main nir bhari duahkh ki badali’ is bat ka parichayak hai ki unaka yah jivan darshan hai jo miranbaee jaisa hi hai.[16]

vyaktitv men ekakipan ki jhalak

mahadevi ki ghanishthatam mitr, sahapathini kavi subhadra kumari chauhan aur mahadevi ke antarng kshanon ki bat ka ullekh karate hue prasiddh kathakar aur premachand ki jivani 'kalam ka sipahi' ke lekhak amrit ray ne likha haiah- "donon striyan apani baton men lin, apane paritript bal bachchon men magan batiyaye ja rahi thin ki ekaek laga ki jaise koee phoot phoot kar ro pada. vah rona jaise phoota tha vaise hi bhitar sama bhi gaya par kamare men ekaek sannata chha gaya. jo vyakti ro pada usaka yah roop itana apratyashit tha ki sab jaise sakate men a gaye. shubhravasana, prasannavadana mahadevi ji jinako logon ne sada hnsate hi dekha tha, vo kabhi is tarah phoot kar ro bhi padengi, isaki kisi ko kalpana bhi nahin thi par anajane hi, apane sukh duahkh men bhooli, apane parivar men magan un grihaniyon ne unaki kaun si dukhati rag chhoo di thi ki unaka vah hnsamukh mukhauta barabas hat gaya. us kshan mainne jis nichat soone ekakipan ki ek jhalak payi, vah sachamuch dara dene vali thi par usi ke sath sath aisi stri ke lie mere man ka adar jaise aur sau guna badh gaya jisane is purushashasit roodhigrast samaj men akele rah kar jivan ko bina kisi dainy ya kamazori ke is bahaduri ke sath jiya."[17]

vishisht sthan

mahadevi varma chhayavad ke kaviyon men auron se bhinn apana ek vishisht aur nirala sthan rakhati hain. is vishishtata ke do karan hain-

  1. ek to unaka komal hridaya nari hona.
  2. angrezi aur bangla ke romani aur rahasyavadi kavy se prabhavit hona. in donon karanon se ek or to unhen apane adhyatmik priyatam ko purush manakar svabhavik roop men apani stri-janochit pranayanubhootiyon ko nivedit karane ki suvidha mili, doosari or prachin bharatiy sahity aur darshan tatha sant yug ke rahasyavadi kavy ke adhyayan aur apane poorvavarti tatha samakalin chhayavadi kaviyon ke kavy se nikat ka parichay hone ke phalasvaroop unaki kavyabhivynjana aur bauddhik chetana shat-pratishat bharatiy parampara ke anuroop bani rahi. is tarah unake kavy men jahan krishn bhakti kavy ki virah-bhavana gopiyon ke madhyam se nahin, sidhe apani adhyatmik anubhooti ki abhivyakti ke roop men prakashit huee hai, vahin soophi purush kaviyon ki bhanti unhen paramatma ko nari ke pratik men pratishthit karane ki avashyakata nahin padi.

samman aur puraskar

san 1955 men mahadevi ji ne ilahabad men 'sahityakar snsad' ki sthapana ki aur pn. ila chndr joshi ke sahayog se 'sahityakar' ka snpadan snbhala. yah is snstha ka mukhapatr tha. svadhinata prapti ke bad 1952 men ve uttar pradesh vidhan parishad ki sadasya manonit ki geen. 1956 men bharat sarakar ne unaki sahityik seva ke lie 'padm bhooshan' ki upadhi aur 1969 men 'vikram vishvavidyalay' ne unhen di.lit. ki upadhi se alnkrit kiya. isase poorv mahadevi varma ko 'niraja' ke lie 1934 men 'sekasariya puraskar', 1942 men 'smriti ki rekhaon' ke lie 'dvivedi padak' prapt hue. 1943 men unhen 'mngala prasad puraskar' evn uttar pradesh sarakar ke 'bharat bharati puraskar' se sammanit kiya gaya. 'yama' namak kavy snkalan ke lie unhen bharat ka sarvochch sahityik samman 'gyanapith puraskar' prapt hua.

puraskar soochi

googal doodal

mahadevi varma par jari googal doodal

sarch injan googal ne sahity jagat ki adhunik 'mira' mahadevi varma par bhi apana doodal banaya. aksar googal kisi mahan shakhs ke janmadivas ya punyatithi par doodal banakar unhen shraddhanjali deta hai, lekin 27 apral, 2018 ko googal ne mahadevi varma par kisi aur vajah se doodal banaya. ullekhaniy hai ki 27 apral hi ke din sal 1982 men mahadevi varma ko bharatiy sahity men yogadan ke lie 'gyanapith puraskar' se sammanit kiya gaya tha. is googal doodal ko kalakar sonali zohara ne banaya tha. doodal men mahan kavayitri ko hathon men dayari aur kalam lie apane vicharon men khoya hua dikhaya gaya hai.[18]


mahadevi varma ko 'maaudarn mira' bhi kaha jata hai. googal ke blaaug ke mutabik, 'mata-pita donon ne hi mahadevi ko unaki padhaee jari rakhane ke lie protsahit kiya, lekin unaka man hi thin, jinhonne apani beti ko snskrit aur hindi men likhane ki prerana di.' snskrit men mastar digri ki padhaee ke dauran, unhonne apana pahala chhnd snskrit men likha, jise bad men unaki dost aur roomamet rahin jani-mani kavayitri subhadra kumari chauhan ne khoja.

nidhan

mahadevi varma ka nidhan 11 sitambar, 1987, ko prayag men hua tha. mahadevi varma ne nirih vyaktiyon ki seva karane ka vrat le rakha tha. ve bahudha nikatavarti gramin anchalon men jakar gramin bhaee-bahanon ki seva sushrusha tatha dava niahshulk dene men nirat rahati thi. vastav men ve nij nam ke anuroop mamatamayi, mahiyasi mahadevi thi. bharatiy snskriti tatha bharatiy jivan darshan ko atmasat kiya tha. unhonne bharatiy snskriti ke sambandh men kabhi samajhauta nahin kiya. mahadevi varma ne ek nirbhik, svabhimanani bharatiy nari ka jivan jiya. rashtr bhasha hindi ke sambandh men unaka kathan hai ‘‘hindi bhasha ke sath hamari asmita judi huee hai. hamare desh ki snskriti aur hamari rashtriy ekata ki hindi bhasha snvahika hai.’’ [16]

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 srijanagatha (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2010.
  2. shabdanjali (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2010.
  3. abhivyakti (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2010.
  4. yah kavayitri ka pratham kavy-sngrah hai.
  5. isaki rachanaen adhyatmikata se prabhavit hain.
  6. kavayitri ki jivan drishti ka vikasit roop isake giton men vyakt hua hai.
  7. isake git milanotkntha se ot-prot hain.
  8. isake giton men rahasy bhavana ka madhur snsparsh hai.
  9. yah bhavasamy se yukt giton tatha chitron ka abhinav sngrah hai.
  10. yah rigved ke mntron ka hindi men kavyanuvad hai.
  11. inake atirikt mahadevi varma ne bngal ke akal ke samay 'bng darshan' tatha chin ke akraman ke samay 'himalay' ka snpadan bhi kiya.
  12. rashmi bhoomika, prishth 7
  13. rashmi bhoomika, prishth 7
  14. hindi sahity ka itihas, prishth 719
  15. sahity kunj (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2010.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 shirsh kavayitri mahiyasi mahadevi varma (hindi) rajasthan sahity akadami. abhigaman tithi: 31 march, 2013.
  17. jinaki yad sada rahegi -amrit ray
  18. googal doodal: mahan kavayitri mahadevi varma ko kiya ja raha hai yad (hindi) navbharattimes.indiatimes.com. abhigaman tithi: 27 apral, 2018.

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