महाराष्ट्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
maharashtr
Maharashtra-Map.jpg
rajadhani munbee
rajabhasha(en) marathi, hindi, angrezi
sthapana 1 mee, 1960
janasnkhya 9,68,79,000[1]
· ghanatv 315[1] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 308,000[1] varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 18°58'30" uttar 72°49'33" poorv
zile 36[1]
mahanagar munbee
bade nagar munbee, pune, nagapur, aurngabad, kolhapur, nasik, amaravati, sangali, nanded
mukhy aitihasik sthal getave aauf indiya, ajnta-elora kevs, sinhagadh durg
mukhy paryatan sthal getave aauf indiya, ajnta-elora kevs, munbee chaupati
ling anupat 1000:922[1] ♂/♀
saksharata 76.9[1]%
rajyapal si. vidyasagar rav[1]
mukhyamntri devendr phadanavis[1]
vidhanasabha sadasy 288
lokasabha kshetr 48
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Maharashtra-Govt.Seal.png

maharashtr (angrezi:Maharashtra) bharatiy rajy, prayadvipiy bharat ke pashchimi hisse men sthit hai. maharashtr gujarat, madhy pradesh, andhr pradesh, karnatak aur gova rajyon se ghira hua hai aur isake pashchim men arab sagar hai.

itihas

prachin 16 mahajanapadon men ashmak ya assak ka sthan adhunik ahamadanagar ke asapas ka mana jata hai. samrat ashok ke shilalekh bhi munbee ke nikat pae ge hain. maharashtr ke pahale prasiddh shasak satavahan (ee.poo. 230 se 225 ee.) the jo maharashtr rajy ke snsh‍thapak the. unh‍honne apane pichhe bahut se sahityik, kalath‍mak tatha puratatvik praman chhode hain. unake shasanakal men manav jivan ke har kshetr men bharapoor pragati huee.

ajnta ki gufaon ka vishv prasiddh bhitti chitr

isake bad vakatak ae, jinh‍honne bharatiy samrajh‍y ki sh‍thapana ki. unake shasanakal men maharashtr men shiksha, kala tatha dharm sabhi dishaon men atyadhik vikas hua. unake shasan ke dauran hi 'ajnta ki guphaon' men uchh‍ch koti ke bhittichitr banae ge. vakatakon ke bad kuchh samay ke lie 'kalachuri vnsh' ne shasan kiya aur phir 'chaluky' sath‍ta men ae. isake bad tatavarti ilakon men 'shilaharon' ke alava maharashtr par 'rashtrakoot' tatha 'yadav' shasakon ka niyntran raha. yadavon ne marathi ko shasan ki bhasha banaya aur dakshin ke ek bade bhag par apana adhipath‍y sthapit kiya.

alauddin khilaji pahala muslim shasak tha jisane apana rajy dakshin men madurai tak phaila liya tha. usake bad muhammad bin tugalaq (1325) ne apani rajadhani dilli se hatakar daulatabad kar li. yah sthan pahale devagiri nam se prasiddh tha aur ahamadanagar ke pas hai. bahamani shasakon ne maharashtr tatha isaki snsh‍kriti ko samanvit kiya, par shivaji ke kushal netrith‍v men maharashtr ka sarvangin vikas hua aur yah ek alag pahachan ke sath ubharakar samane aya. shivaji ne sh‍varaj tatha rashh‍triyata ki ek nee bhavana paida ki. unaki prachnd shakti ne mugalon ko bharat ke is bhag men age nahin badhane diya. peshavaon ne dakshin ke pathar se lekar pnjab par hamala bol kar marathaon ka adhipath‍y sh‍thapit kiya.

bahamani saltanat ke tootane par yah pradesh golakunda ke shasan men aya aur usake bad aurngajeb ka snkshipt shasan raha. isake bad marathon ki shakti men uttarottar vriddhi huee aur atharahavin sadi ke ant tak maratha poore maharashtr men phail gaye the aur unaka samrajy dakshin men karnatak ke dakshini sire tak ho gaya tha. 1820 tak ate ate angrezon ne peshavaon ko hara diya tha aur yah pradesh bhi angrezi samrajy ka ang ban gaya.

sh‍vatntrata sngram men maharashtr sabase age tha. bharatiy rashtriy kangres ka janh‍m bhi yahin hua. munbee tatha maharashtr ke anh‍y shaharon ke anaginat netaon ne pahale tilak aur bad men mahatma gandhi ke margadarshan men kangres ke andolan ko age badhaya. gandhi ji ne bhi apane andolan ka kendr maharashtr ko banaya tha aur gandhi yug men rashh‍travadi desh ki rajadhani sevagram thi.

sthapana

maharashtr aur gujarat ka sthapana divas 1 mee ko manaya jata hai kabhi ye donon rajy munbee ka hissa the. jab munbee rajy se maharashtr aur gujarat ke gathan ka prastav aya to tatkalin pradhanamntri javaharalal neharoo ne munbee ko alag kendrashasit pradesh banane ki vakalat ki. unaka tark tha ki agar munbee ko desh ki arthik rajadhani bane rahana hai to yah karana avashyak hai. kintu pndit neharoo ki nahin chali. desh ke pahale vittamntri aur vitt visheshgy chintamani deshamukh ne isaka prakhar virodh kiya aur isi mudde par kendriy mntrimandal se istipha de diya. desh ki azadi ke bad madhy bharat ke sabhi marathi bhasha ke sthanon ka samikaran karake ek rajy banane ko lekar bada andolan chala aur 1 mee, 1960 ko konkan, marathavada, pashchimi maharashtr, dakshin maharashtr, uttar maharashtr (khanadesh) tatha vidarbh, sabhi snbhagon ko jod kar maharashtr rajy ki sthapana ki gee.

maharashtr rajy ka gathan

desh ke rajh‍yon ke bhashayi punargathan ke phalash‍varoop 1 mee, 1960 ko maharashtr rajh‍y ka prashasanik pradurbhav hua. yah rajh‍y asapas ke marathi bhashi kshetron ko milakar banaya gaya, jo pahale char alag alag prashasanon ke niyntran men tha. inamen mool british munbee prant men shamil daman tatha gova ke bich ka zila, haidarabad ke nizam ki riyasat ke panch zile, madhh‍y prant (madhy pradesh) ke dakshin ke ath zile tatha asapas ki aisi anek chhoti-chhoti riyasaten shamil thi, jo samipavarti zilon men mil gee thi.

bhaugolik snrachana

maharashtr bharat ke uttar men basa hua hai aur bhaugolik drishti se yah rajh‍y mukhh‍yat: pathari hai. maharashtr patharon ka pathar hai. isake uthe hue pashchimi kinare sahyadri pahadiyon ka nirman karate hai aur samudr tat ke samanantar hain tatha isaki dhalan poorv tatha dakshin poorv ki or dhire dhire badhati hai. rajh‍y ke uttari bhag men satapuda ki pahadiyan hai, jabaki ajnta tatha satamala pahadiyan rajh‍y ke madhh‍y bhag se hokar jati hai. arab sagar maharashtr ki pashchimi sima ka prahari hai, jabaki gujarat aur madhh‍y pradesh isake uttar men hain. rajh‍y ki poorvi sima par chhattisagadh hai aur karnatak tatha andhr pradesh isake dakshin men hai.

bhoomi

bhoo-akriti v apavah

maharashtr men kee prakar ki akarshak bhoo- akritiyan hain. narmada nadi, jo vibhrnsh ghati se hokar bahati huee arab sagar men girati hai, rajy ki uttari sima ke ek hisse ka nirman karati hai. arab sagar men hi milane vali tapti nadi ki vibhrnsh ghati isaki uttari sima ke doosare hisse ko chihnit karati hai. ye do nadi ghatiyan satapuda shrinkhala namak utkhnd se vibhakt hoti hain. tapti ghati ke dakshin men arab sagar ke kinare konkan ka tatiy kshetr hai, jisake poorv men pashchimi ghat ya sahyadri pahadiyon ke nam se vikhyat kagar sthit hai. sahyadri pahadiyon ki taraee konkan men arab sagar se 6.4 kimi ki doori tak pahunchati hai, konkan ka tatiy kinara snkara hai. isake bich-bich men sahyadri pahadiyon ke parvatiy skndh hain aur is kshetr ko kee pashchimavarti drutagami nadiyan apavahit karati hain: uttar men sthit ulhas inamen sabase badi hai. sahyadri pahadiyan uttar-dakshin disha men divar ki tarah lagabhag 640 kimi. tak lagatar sthit hain. lekin isase guzarane vale kee darre tatiy bhoomi aur bhitari kshetr ke bich mahattvapoorn sadak aur rel snpark upalabdh karate hain. sahyadri ki poorvi dhalan ka utar dakkan ke pathar ki or kramik hai, jo poorv ki or dhalan vali godavari, bhima aur krishna nadi ki ghatiyon dvara nirmit hain. in nadiyon ke ant:pravah se mahadev, ajnta, balaghat aur any prarvat shrinkhalaon ko akar mila hai. maharashtr men sthit ye parvat shrinkhalaen aur ghatiyan ruke hooe lave se nirmit hain. jinaki motaee kee sthanon par 3,050 mitar hai. kee pahadiyon men lave ke vibhinn prakar ke aparadan ke karan pathari samatal jaise oopari hisse se yukt sidhinuma kagar ki vishesh snrachanaen ban gee hain. poorv men nagapur ke bad yah pashit chattani kshetr samapt ho jata hai aur prachin ravedar chattanon se bani bhoo-akriti shuroo ho jati hai. mahadev pahadiyon aur maikal shreni se age poorv ki or godavari nadi ki kee mahattvapoorn sahayak dharane dakshin-poorv disha men bahati hain, jiname vardha, venagnga aur penagnga sarvapramukh hain. is kshetr men kee jhilen hain. sudoor poorv men is kshetr men kee vanachchhadit parvat hai, jo apekshakrit durgam hain.

jalavayu

mumbee tat par dakshin-pashchim maaunasoon ki pahali barish joon ke pahale saptah men hoti hai aur yah sitambar tak chalati hai. is dauran yahan varshik varsha ka 80 pratishat darj kiya jata hai. samanyatah char mausam hain-

  1. march-mee (garm v shushk)
  2. joon-sitambar (garm v nam)
  3. aktoobar-navnbar (ushn v shushk)
  4. disnbar-faravari (thnda v shushk)

sahyadri tatha uttari shrinkhalaen parvatiy avarodh ki bhoomika nibhati hain aur atynt nam vatavaran ko konkan tat ki pavanamukhi disha tak simit rakhati hain. pavanamukhi disha men bhitari pathar apekshakrit shushk rahata hai. konkan men ausat varsha 2,540 mimi hai aur sahmadri samet kuchh atyadhik varsha vale kshetron men 6,350 mimi tak varsha hoti hai. pashchimi ghat ke poorv men konkan ki varsha ka matr panchavan hissa hi varsha hoti hai. pahadiyon ke anukool poorvi kshetron men varsha dar badhati chali jati hai, yahan 1,016 se 2,032 mimi tak varsha darj ki gee hai. tatiy kshetron men tapaman samaroop rahata hai aur mumbee men yah lagabhag 27° se. se kuchh kam ya zyada rahata hai. pune (bhootapoorv poona) ke pathar kshetr men lagabhag sal bhar thnda mausam rahata hai. maharashtr ke madhyavarti aur poorvi hisse men garmi ke mausam men ausat tapaman 43° se. aur shit ritu men lagabhag 20° se. hota hai. maharashtr men varsha ki dar pratyek sal bhinn hoti hai, jisase nipatane ke lie, 20vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men sinchaee ke sadhanon ka vikas kiya gaya, taki fasalon ko nasht hone se bachaya ja sake.

arthavyavastha

baaumbe uchch nyayalay

niji aur sarvajanik udyamon ke madhyam se maharashtr bharat ka ek suvikasit aur samriddh rajy ban gaya hai. vidyut utpadan is disha men sabase mahattvapoorn sahayak karakon men se ek hai. maharashtr men pashchimi ghat sthit jalaprapaton ke zariye panabijali utpadan kiya jata hai. poorvi kshetron men tap- vidyut utpadan ki pradhanata hai. nagapur aur chndrapur men bade tap vidyut grih sthit hain. bharat ka pahala paramanu bijali snyntr munbee se 113 kilomitar uttar men sthit hai. bijali ki badhati huee mang ko poora karane ke lie ne vidyut snyntr lagae ja rahe hain. maharashtr ke khanij snsadhanon men mainganij, koyala, choona- patthar, lauh ayask, tanba, baauksait aur silikayukt ret shamil hai. inamen se adhikansh khanij padarth, bhndara, nagapur aur chndrapur zilon men pae jate hain aur dakshin konkan men bhi kuchh bhndar hain. sahyadri kshetr ke kee hisson men baauksait bhi paya jata hai. baaumbe haee men haidrokarban ka utpadan bhi badh raha hai.

krishi

maharashtr ke lagabhag 65 pratishat shramik krishi tatha snbndhit gatividhiyon par nirbhar hai. yahan ki pramukh fasalen hain- dhan, jh‍var, bajara, gehoon, toor (arahar), udad, chana aur dalahan. yah rajh‍y tilahanon ka pramukh uth‍padak hai aur moongaphali, soorajamukhi, soyabin pramukh tilahan fasalen hai. mahath‍vapoorn nakadi fasalen hai kapas, ganna, haldi aur sabjiyan. rajh‍y men 12.90 lakh hekh‍teyar kshetr men vibhinh‍n prakar ke phal, jaise am, kela, sntara, angoor adi ki fasalen ugaee jati hai.

maharashtr ke do- tihaee nivasi krishak hain. fasal utpadan sunishchit karane ke lie vidyutikaran, unnat bijon ka upayog, vyapak kheti aur kisanon ko suvidha pradan karane jaise upay kie ja rahe hain. aparyapt tatha asaman varsha se nipatane ke lie kee sinchaee pariyojanaen banaee gee hain aur kee pariyojanaen nirmanadhin hain. fasalon men bajara, jvar aur dalahan pramukh hai. 1,016 milimitar se adhik varsha vale kshetron men chaval ki kheti hoti hai. nami dharan karane ki kshamata vale kheton men shit ritu men gehoon ki fasal ugaee jati hai. 610-990 milimitar varsha vale kshetron men kapas, tnbakoo aur moongaphali pramukh fasalen hain. ajakal bagavani par bhi zor diya ja raha hai. phalon ki kheti men angoor, am, kela aur kajoo zyada lokapriy hain. sinchaee ki suvidha ne maharashtr bharat ka sabase bada ganna aur chini utpadak kshetr bana diya gaya hai. chini ne krishi- audyogik kshetron ko badhava diya hai.

udyog

maharashtr ko poore desh ka audyogik kshamata ka kendr mana jata hai aur rajh‍y ki rajadhani munbee desh ki vith‍tiy tatha vanijyik gatividhiyon ka kendr hai. rajh‍y ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha men audyogik kshetr ka mahath‍vapoorn sh‍than hai. khady uth‍pad, tnbakoo aur isase bani chizen, sooti kapada, kapade se bana saman, kagaz aur isase bani chizen, mudran aur prakashan, rabad, ph‍lastik, rasayan v rasayanik uth‍pad, mashinen bijali ki mashin, yntr v upakaran tatha parivahan upakaran aur unake kal purje adi ka rajh‍y ke audyogik uth‍padan men mahath‍vapoorn yogadan hai. varsh 2005-06 men audyogik uth‍padan (nirman) varsh 2004-05 ke muqabale 8.9 pratishat adhik raha.

mumbee ka tifin vala

mitti aparadan tatha krishi utpadon ke bhndaran, parivahan aur vipanan ki samasyaon ke mamale men ullekhaniy saphalata mili hai. samudri machhali pakadane men maharashtr ka sthan keral ke bad ata hai. yahan ke sabase purane nirman karakhane sooti vastron ki milen hai. halanki kuchh bimar ikaiyan hain, lekin inamen se adhikansh munbee aur nagapur ke vishalatam adhunik udyogon ka hissa hain. munbee-pune udyog kshetr men is rajy ke sabase adhik bhari aur uchch praudyogiki vale udyog kendrit hain. 1976 men munbee ke pas samudr men bharat ke pahale samudri tel kuen ki sthapana se petro rasayan udyog ka bhi kafi tezi se vikas hua hai. tel parishkaran aur krishi upakaran, parivahan upakaran, rabad utpad, bijali v tel ke pnp, kharad, knpresar, chini mil ki mashinari, taiparaitar, refrijaretar, ilektraaunik upakaran, telivijan aur rediyo set jaisi vastuon ka utpadan mahattvapoorn hota ja raha hai. yahan vahan nirman udyog arnbhik avastha men hai. bnbee bharat ke film udyog ka rashtriy kendr hai. pavaraloom se vastrotpadan ke lie ichalakarnji aur maleganv prasiddh hain. munbee, nagapur, akola, amaravati aur solapur men vibhinn prakar ke audyogik utpadanon ka tezi se vikas ho raha hai. parnparik krishi udyog kendron men jalaganv, dhule, kolhapur, sangali aur miraj shamil hain. nagapur, bhusaval, mahabaleshvar, ratnagiri aur munbee men phalon ko dibbabnd karane ka udyog arthik drishti se mahattvapoorn hai. yahan ke vanotpadon men imarati lakadi, bans, chndan aur tendoo patte (bidi banane ke kam ane vale) shamil hain. bekari ko bhi mahattv mil raha hai.

sinchaee aur bijali

joon 2005 ke ant tak 32 badi, 178 mnjholi aur rajh‍y ke kshetr ki 2,274 laghu sinchaee pariyojanaen poori ho chuki thin isake alava 21 badi 39 mnjholi sinchaee pariyojanaon ka nirman kary jari hai. 2004 se 2005 men rajh‍y men kul sinchit kshetr 36.36 lakh hekh‍teyar tha. 2004-05 men maharashtr ki kul sh‍thapit vidyut uth‍padan kshamata 12,909 megavat thi. rajh‍y men ph‍lant lod phaikh‍tar (pi.el.eph) 81.6 pratishat tha aur bijali uth‍padan 68,507 karod kilovat ghnta tha.

parivahan

maharashtr ka manachitr

sadak

march 2005 tak rajh‍y men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 2.29 lakh kimi thi, jisamen rashh‍triy rajamargon ki lnbaee 4, 367 kimi prantiy rajamargon ki 33,406 kimi, pramukh zila sadakon ki 48,824 kimi, anh‍y zila sadakon ki lnbaee 44,792 kimi aur gramin sadakon ki kul lnbaee 97,913 kimi thi. sarvajanik kshetr ke nivesh men pratyek ganv ko kisi pramukh sadak ke 8 kilomitar ke dayare men pahuncha diya hai. rajy ke rajamargon ke bich chhute hue hisson ko poora kar liya gaya hai tatha durgam kshetron men zila sadakon ka vikas kar liya gaya hai. panch rashtriy rajamarg is rajy ko dilli, ilahabad, kolakata (bhootapoorv kalakatta), haidarabad aur bngalor se jodate hain. in rajamargon aur any sadakon par trak parivahan men bhari vriddhi huee hai. rajy parivahan ki bason aur niji udyamiyon dvara snchalit vishesh bason ke madhyam se savariyon ke yatayat men bhi vriddhi huee hai.

relave

maharashtr men 5,527 ki.mi. rel marg hai. isamen se lagabhag 78.6 pratishat badi rel lainen, 7.8 pratishat mitar gej tatha 13.6 pratishat chhoti rel lainen hai. parivahan pranaliyon men sabase pahala sthan munbee men kendrit rel netavark ka hai. munbee aur arab sagar ke tatiy maidan ke shaharon ko jodane vale konkan relave ne ise mazabooti pradan ki hai. relamargon par vardha aur nagapur mahattvapoorn jnkshan hain.

uddayan

rajh‍y men kul 24 havaee adde / havaee pattiyan hai. inamen se 17 maharashtr sarakar ke niyntran men hai. char havaee adde antarrashh‍triy havaee adda pradhikaran / bharatiy havaee adda pradhikaran ke niyntran men hain, j‍baki baki tin raksha mntralay ke adhin hai. rajh‍y sarakar ke niyntran vale havaee addon par abhi vh‍yavasayik udanon ki suvidha nahin hai. munbee dainik havaee seva dvara pune, aurngabad, nagapur aur nasik aur bharat ke sabhi mahanagaron se juda hua hai. munbee men sthit antarrashtriy havaee adda is nagar ko uttari amerika, yoorop, dakshin- poorv v dakshin eshiya, singapur aur aaustreliya ke pramukh nagaron se jodata hai.

bndaragah

antardeshiy jal- parivahan ki bhoomika gaun hai. konkan tat ke bndaragahon par zyada dhyan diya ja raha hai. mumbnee pramukh bndaragah hai. rajh‍y men do bade aur 48 chhote adhisoochit bndaragah hain.

shiksha

inphosis, pune

hal ke dashakon men is maharashtr ne shiksha ke kshetr men pragati ki hai. ab saksharata dar (2001 janaganana) 77.27 pratishat hai, stri saksharata dar 67.51 pratishat, purush 86.27 pratishat hai. bich men padhaee chhodakar chale jane valon ke oonche pratishat, sthan ki kami, aparyapt pustakalay aur sahayogi upakaranon ke abhav ke bavajood prathamik aur madhyamik shiksha tatha shikshak prashikshan ke kshetr men vikas hua hai. yahan ke shaikshanik snsthanon men munbee vishvavidyalay, nagapur vishvavidyalay, pune vishvavidyalay, shivaji vishvavidyalay (kolhapur), es. en. di. ti. mahila vishvavidyalay (munbee), uttari maharashtr vishvavidyalay (jalaganv), amaravati vishvavidyalay, bharat vidyapith (pune), kendriy matsy palan snsthan (munbee), dkkan kaaulej post grejuet aind risarch instityoot (pune), daktar pnjabarav deshamukh krishi vidyapith (akola), gokhale instityoot aauf paaulitiks aind ikonaaumiks (pune), indira gandhi instityoot aauf devalapament risarch, intaraneshanal instityoot faaur papuleshan sainsez (munbee), tata instityoot aauf soshal sainsaz, kavi guru kalidas snskrit vishvavidyalayamh (ramatek), konkan krishi vidyapith (dapoli), mahatma gandhi antarrashtriy hindi vishvavidyalay (vardha), mahatma gandhi phule vidyapith (rahudi) aur yashavntarav chavhan maharashtr vishvavidyalay (nasik) shamil hain.

pune vishvavidyalay

munbee men indiyan instityoot aauf teknolaauji bhi hai. injiniyaring kaaulej, paauliteknik aur audyogik snsthan takaniki skool n ho. shiksha tatha prashikshan ki nigarani aur prayojan ke lie shiksha, uchch shiksha aur takaniki shiksha nideshalay hain. maharashtr men kendr aur rajy sarakar dvara prayojit kuchh agrani anusndhan snsthan bhi hain. ye snsthan jal tatha vidyut, ushnakatibndhiy mausam vigyan, rasayan vigyan, paryavaran abhiyantriki, paramanu anusndhan, vastr anusndhan, mrida sarvekshan aur bhoo- upayog niyojan se snbndh rakhate hain. ye mukhyat: munbee, pune aur nagapur men sthit hain. inake alava sarvajanik prabndhan ke tahat 60 se adhik snsthan hain, jo manaviki aur vigyan men shodh ko badhava dene ke uddeshy se sthapit kie ge hain. inamen se kuchh snsthan, jaise bhndarakar oriental risarch instityoot aur dakkan kaaulej ko antarrashtriy manyata mili hai. rajy ke shiksha karyakramon men mahattvapoorn sahayog pratiraksha mntralay dvara snchalit shikshan aur prashikshan pathyakramon se milata hai. pune ke pas khadakavasala men sthit neshanal difens akaidami ek mahattvapoorn snsthan hai, jo sashastr senaon ko adhikari upalabdh karane ke lie kaideton ko prashikshan deta hai. kaaulej aauf militri injiniyaring (khadakavasala), armd forses medikal kaaulej (pune), narson ke prashikshan, nausainik abhiyantriki aur sharirik shiksha ke snsthan bhi hain. sainik skool aur rashtriy kaidit kor, sainik prashikshan upalabdh karate hain. visphotak, shastr praudyogiki, vahan anusndhan ke vikas evn shodh ke lie snsthan aur samudri, rasayanik tatha dhatvik prayogashalaen bhi hain.

sanskritik jivan

maharashtr ka sanskritik jivan prachin bharatiy snskriti, sabhyata aur aitihasik ghatanaon ke prabhavon ka mishran hai. marathi bhasha aur marathi sahity ka vikas maharashtr ki sanskritik pahachan ki abhivyakti hai. sthaniy v kshetriy devataon ke prati bhakti, gyaneshvar v tukaram jaise snt kaviyon ki shikshaon aur chhatrapati shivaji v any rajanitik tatha samajik netaon ke prati adarabhav, maharashtr ki snskriti ki vishesh pahachan hai. kolhapur, tulajapur, pndharapur, nasik, akola, phaltan, anbejogaee aur chipaloon v any dharmik sthalon par door-door se shraddhalu ate hain. melon aur tyoharon ka bhi mahatv kam nahin hai. maharashtr ke sanskritik jivan men ganesh chaturthi, ramanavami, any sthaniy v kshetriy mele aur tyohar mahattvapoorn sthan rakhate hain. inake dvara logon ka sthaniy tatha kshetriy mel-milap hota hai aur ye samajik ekata ko badhava dete hain. andh dharmon ke tyoharon men bhi log badi snkhya men shamil hote hain, jo sanskritik jivan ke mahanagariy charitr ko darshata hai. ‘mahanubhav mat’ aur daauktar bhimarav ambedakar dvara punarjivit kie ge bauddh dharm se sanskritik jivan ko naya ayam mila hai.

rngamnch

ratnagiri ka ek drishy

1990 ke dashak men maharashtr men rngamnch par vishesh dhyan diya gaya; vi. khadilakar aur vijay tendulakar jaise natakakar aur balagndharv jaise kalakaron ne marathi natak ko kala ke roop men sthapit kar diya. bharat ke film udyog ki shuruat ka shrey dada sahab phalke aur baboorav pentar jaise agraniyon ko jata hai. pune ki prabhat film kampani, snt tukaram aur gyaneshvar ke nirman ke lie prasiddh huee. hindi sinema ke kshetr men nana patekar aur madhuri dikshit jaise marathi kalakar vishesh roop se saphal rahe hain. marathi sahity ki hi tarah maharashtr men sngit ki bhi prachin parampara hai. lagabhag 14vin shatabdi men isaka mel bharatiy sngit se hua. adhunik kal men pndit paluskar aur pndit bhatakhande ne bharatiy shastriy sngit ko nee disha di. vilayat husain, alla rakkha jaise any vadakon ki bhoomika bhi kam mahattvapoorn nahin hai. aj pndit bhimasen joshi aur lata mngeshakar jaise gayak maharashtr ke sanskritik jivan men sngit ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka pratinidhitv karate hain. maharashtr men kala ki bhi prachin parampara hai, jo ajanta v elora ki gufaon, vastr, sone-chandi ke abhooshan, lakadi ke khilaunon, chamade ke saman aur mitti ke bartan ki dizainon men dekha ja sakata hai.

1833 men sthapit sar je.je skool aauf art, kala shiksha ke kshetr men pahala adhunik snsthan tha. ab maharashtr ke adhikansh nagaron aur bade shaharon men kala snsthan hain. shastriy nrity shailiyon ne pratibhaon ko akarshit kiya hai aur pune jaise bade nagaron men inake prashikshan vidyalay phal-phool rahe hain. lavani (roomani git), povada (ojasvi nrity) aur tamasha jaisi sngit, natak v nrity se yukt lokakathaen punarjivit huee hain. kala aur film nideshalay aur sahity aur snskriti bord, rajy sarakar ki gahari ruchi ke parichayak hain. maharashtr ki snskriti ka prabhav maharashtr se bahar bhi phaila hai. bhootapoorv maratha samrajy ki rajadhaniyan, jaise badauda (ab vadodara), gvaliyar aur any nagaron men maharashtr mandal isamen sakriy bhoomika nibhate hain.

janasnkhya

maharashtr ki janasnkhya sanh 2001 men 96,752,247 thi, vishv men keval gyarah aise desh hain jinaki janasnkhya maharashtr pradesh se zyada hai.

paryatan sh‍thal

yahan ke mahath‍vapoorn paryatan kendr hai ajnta, elora, eliphenta, kanheri gufaen, pitalakhora aur karala guphaen, mahabaleshvar, matheran aur pnchagani, javahar, malashej ghat, anboli, chikaladhara aur panh‍hala parvatiy sh‍thal. pndharapur, nashik, shiradi, nanded, audhanaganath, traynbakevar, tulajapur, ganapatipule, bhimashnkar, harihareshh‍var, shegav, kolhapur, jejuri tatha anbajogee dharmik sh‍than hai.

pramukh nagar

bharat desh men maharashtr sabase bada audyogik prant hai. munbee, pune, aurngabad, nagapur aur nasik maharashtr ke bade shaharon men gine jate hain. yahan ke nivasiyon ki matribhasha marathi hai aur yahan ke logon ko maharashtriyan kaha jata hai. pahadi nagaron men 'mahabaleshvar' aur 'matheran' kafi prasiddh hai. chhuttiyon ke samay in nagaron men bahut hi bhid hoti hai aur mausam bhi bahut suhavana hota hai. dharmik nagaron men nashik ke kafi nazadik shirdi nagar hai. is nagar ka saeen baba ka mandir bahut hi prasiddh hai. isi tarah munbee ka 'mahalakshmi mandir' aur pune ke 'dagadoosheth ganapati mandir' bahut hi adhik khyati prapt hain.

munbee

munbee poorvi nyooyaaurk ke nam se bhi vikhyat hai. munbee men chaupati, getave aauf indiya, prins vels myuziyam, elifenta kevs aur madaeeland bahut hi prasiddh hai.

pune

pune maharashtr ka snskriti pradhan nagar mana jata hai. shanivaravada, lal mahal, sinhagadh jaise aitihasik sthan hain. pune ka aee.ti. park aur lakshmi rod kafi jana mana hai.

aurngabad

aurngabad nagar maharashtr ke madhy bhag men sthit hai. yahan ke ajnta-elora kevs vishv prasiddh hain. in guphaon men buddh ke takshan banaye gaye hain.

nagapur

nagapur ek bahut hi sundar shahar hai aur yahan ke sntare poori duniya men jane mane hain.

nasik

nasik ek kafi sundar shahar hai aur yahan ka mausam suhana hai. nashik ke kalaram aur doosare mandir vikhyat hai aur log godavari nadi men nahana pavitr samajhate hain.

nndurabar

nndurabar nagar bharat men maharashtr rajy ke dhooliya zile men pashchimi ghat ke parvaton ke uttari chhor par dhooliya se 45 mil uttar-pashchim men sthit hai.

any nagar

  • maharashtr ke barar men amaravati ke uttar men sthit elichapur madhyakal ka jana pahachana nagar tha.
  • maharashtr ke vardha zile men sthit pavanar ek mahattvapoorn sthan hai. pavanar ki pahachan vakatakon ki rajadhani prachin pravarapur se ki jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 MAHARASHTRA AT A GLANCE (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) maharashtr ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 3 joon, 2011.

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