महाश्वेता देवी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahashveta devi
mahashveta devi
janm 14 janavari, 1926
janm bhoomi dhaka
mrityu 28 julaee, 2016
mrityu sthan kolakata
abhibhavak pita- manish ghatak, mata- dharitri devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahityakar, upanyasakar, nibandhakar
mukhy rachanaen 'agnigarbh', 'jngal ke davedar', '1084 ki man', 'maheshvar', 'gram bangla', 'jhansi ki rani', 'matrichhavi' aur 'jakadan' adi.
bhasha hindi, bangla
vidyalay 'vishvabharati vishvavidyalay', shantiniketan; kalakatta vishvavidyalay
shiksha bi.e., em.e., angrezi sahity men mastar digri
puraskar-upadhi 'megsese puraskar' (1977), 'sahity akadami puraskar' (1979), 'padmashri' (1986), 'gyanapith puraskar' (1996), 'padm vibhooshan' (2006)
prasiddhi samajik karyakarta aur lekhika
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari mahashveta devi ki kritiyon par kee filmon ka nirman bhi hua, jaise- 1968 men 'sngharsh', 1993 men 'rudali', 1998 men 'hajar chaurasi ki man' tatha 2006 men 'mati maee' adi.
adyatan‎ 12:30, 30 julaee, 2016 (IST)
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

mahashveta devi (angrezi: Mahasweta Devi, janm- 14 janavari, 1926, dhaka; mrityu- 28 julaee, 2016, kolakata) bharat ki prasiddh samajik karyakarta aur lekhika thin. unhonne bangla bhasha men behad snvedanashil tatha vaicharik lekhan ke madhyam se upanyas tatha kahaniyon se sahity ko samriddhashali banaya. apane lekhan kary ke sath-sath mahashveta devi ne samaj seva men bhi sadaiv sakriyata se bhag liya aur isamen poore man se lagi rahin. stri adhikaron, daliton tatha adivasiyon ke hiton ke lie unhonne joojhate hue vyavastha se sngharsh kiya tatha inake lie suvidha tatha nyay ka rasta banati rahin. 1996 men unhen 'gyanapith puraskar' se sammanit kiya gaya tha. mahashveta ji ne kam umr men hi lekhan kary shuroo kar diya tha aur vibhinn sahityik patrikaon ke lie laghu kathaon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan diya.

parichay

14 janavari, 1926 ko mahashveta devi ka janm avibhajit bharat ke dhaka men jindabahar len men hua tha. unake janm ke samay man dharitri devi mayake men thin. man ki umr tab 18 varsh aur pita manish ghatak ki 25 varsh thi. pita manish ghatak khyati prapt kavi aur sahityakar the. man dharitri devi bhi sahity ki gnbhir adhyeta thin. ve samaj seva men bhi snlagn rahati thin. mahashveta ne jab bachapan men saph-saph bolana shuroo kiya to unhen jo jis nam se pukarata, ve bhi usi nam se use pukaratin. pita unhen 'tutul' kahate the to ye bhi pita ko tutul hi kahatin. ajivan pita unake lie 'tutul' hi rahe.[1] bharat ke vibhajan ke samay kishor avastha men hi unaka parivar pashchim bngal men akar rahane laga tha. isake uparant unhonne 'vishvabharati vishvavidyalay', shantiniketan se bi.e. angrezi vishay ke sath kiya. phir 'kalakatta vishvavidyalay' se em.e. bhi angrezi men kiya. mahashveta devi ne angrezi sahity men mastar ki digri prapt ki thi. isake bad ek shikshak aur patrakar ke roop men unhonne apana jivan prarambh kiya. isake turnt bad hi kalakatta vishvavidyalay men angrezi vyakhyata ke roop men apane naukari prapt kar li. san 1984 men unhonne sevanivritti le li.

prarambhik shiksha tatha natakhat svabhav

bachapan se hi mahashveta matribhakt rahin. thodi badi hueen to dhaka ke 'inden mantesari skool' men bharti karaya gaya. char varsh ki umr men hi bangla likhana-padhana sikh gee thin. pita ko naukari mil gee thi. kee bar badali huee. tabadale par unhen dhaka, manamanasinh, jalapaeegudi, dinajapur aur pharidapur jana pada. dhaka ke jindabahar len men mahashveta ka nanihal tha aur natoon bhorenga men pita ka ganv. nanihal ana-jana laga rahata tha. durga pooja ki chhuttiyan to nanihal men hi katatin. bachapan men mahashveta natakhat thin. itani ki ek bar nanihal men rahate hue bhorenga ki durga pooja dekhane gee thin. char bhaee-bahanon ke sath. bhaee bahanon ko lekar ve ek snan ghat se utarin. snan karane aur tairane ka maza kaphoor ho gaya, jab charon bachche doobane se bache. us din saptami ki pooja thi. ghar aeen to khoob dant padi thi.

shantiniketan men shiksha

1935 men mahashveta ji ke pita ka tabadala medinipur hua to mahashveta ka vahan ke mishan skool men dakhila karaya gaya, lekin usake agale varsh hi medinipur se nata toot gaya; kyonki unhen shantiniketan bhejane ka phaisala kiya gaya. tab ve das varsh ki thin. shantiniketan ke niyamanusar lal rng ke kinare vali sadi, bistar, lota, gilas vagairah kharida gaya. shantiniketan men mili nee jagah, sundar bhavan, laibreri adi men mahashveta ko unmukt prakriti mili. nee saheliyan milin. ashram ki dinacharya aisi thi ki sabhi chhatr subah se der rat tak vyast rahate. shiksha ka madhyam bangla hone ke bavajood angrezi anivary thi.

shantiniketan men mahashveta ka jaldi hi man lag gaya. vahan unhen shreshth shikshak mile. bakaul mahashveta, ‘achary hazariprasad dvivedi hindi padhate the. sabhi ashramavasi unhen 'chhota pndit' ji kahate the. 1937 men gurudev ravindranath thakur ne bhi bangla ki kaksha li thi. tab satavin kaksha ki chhatra mahashveta ke lie yah avismaraniy ghatana thi. gurudev ne path parichay se balaee padhaya tha. isake pahale 1936 men bnkim shatavarshiki samaroh men ravindranath ka bhashan suna tha mahashveta ne.[1]

kalakatta agaman

mahashveta shantiniketan men tin sal hi rah sakin, kyonki 1939 men unhen kalakatta bula liya gaya. shantiniketan jane par ve jitana roee thin, usase jyada usake chhootane par roee thin. 1939 men shantiniketan se lautane ke bad kalakatta ke 'belatala balika vidyalay' men athavin kaksha men mahashveta ka dakhila hua. usi sal unake kaka ritvik ghatak bhi ghar akar rahane lage. ve 1941 tak yahan rahe. 1939 men belatala skool men mahashveta ki shikshika thin aparna sen. unake bade bhaee khegendranath sen ‘rngamashal’ nikalate the. unhonne ek din ravindranath ki pustak ‘chhelebela’ dete hue mahashveta se us par kuchh likhakar dene ko kaha. mahashveta ne likha aur vah ‘rngamashal’ men chhapa bhi. yah mahashveta ki pahali rachana thi. skooli jivan men hi mahashveta ne rajalakshmi aur dhiresh bhattachary ke sath milakar ek alpayu svahastalikhit patrika nikali – ‘chhannachhada.’

nani, dadi v man ne mahashveta ko achchhe sahity padhane ke snskar die. koee qitab padhane ke bad koee prasng dadi man poochh bhi leti thin. bachapan men dadi ki laibreri se hi lekar mahashveta ne ‘tam kakar kutir’ padha tha. ghar ka poora mahaul hi shiksha aur snskritamay tha. isalie likhane-padhane ka ek niyamit abhyas chhutapan men hi ho gaya. hem-bndhu-bnkim-navin-rngalal ko unhonne 12 varsh ki umr men hi padh liya.

man desh prem aur itihas ki pustaken padhane ko detin aur kahatin- "abhi in pustakon ko padhana zaroori hai. bad men apani ichchha se padhana." pita ki bhi badi samriddh laibreri thi. tab ke 'nobel puraskar' prapt kee lekhakon ki rachanaen mahashveta ne pita ki laibreri se hi lekar padhi thin. 1939-1944 ke dauran mahashveta ke pita ne kalakatta men sat bar ghar badale. 1942 men ghar ke sare kamakaj karate hue mahashveta ne maitrik ki pariksha pas ki. us varsh (1942) 'bharat chhodo andolan' ne mahashveta ke kishor man ko bahut udvelit kiya. 1943 men akal pada. tab 'mahila atmaraksha samiti' ke netritv men unhonne rahat aur seva karyon men badh-chadhakar hissa liya tha. akal ke bad mahashveta ne kamyunist parti ke mukhapatr ‘pipuls var’ aur ‘janayuddh’ ki bikri bhi ki thi, par parti ki sadasy ve kabhi nahin hueen.[1]

vyavasayik shuruat

kishoravay men hi kndhe par a chuke parivarik dayitv ko nibhane ke prati bhi mahashveta sada sajag rahatin. man ke jivan ke akhiri varshon men mahashveta ne purani silaee mashin chalakar kapadon ki silaee ki. 1944 men mahashveta ne kalakatta ke 'ashutosh kaaulej' se intaramidiet kiya. parivarik dayitv se kuchh mukti mili yani vah bhar chhoti bahan mitul ne snbhala to mahashveta phir shantiniketan geen kaaulej ki padhaee karane. vahan ‘desh’ ke snpadak sagaramay ghosh ate-jate the. unhonne mahashveta se ‘desh’ men likhane ko kaha. tab mahashveta bi.e. tritiy varsh men thin. us dauran unaki tin kahaniyan ‘desh’ men chhapin. har kahani par das rupaye ka parishramik mila tha. tabhi unhen bodh hua ki likh-padhakar bhi gujara snbhav hai. unhonne shantiniketan se 1946 men angrezi men aaunars ke sath snatak kiya.

usake sal bhar bad 1947 men prakhyat rngakarmi vijan bhattachary se unaka vivah hua. 1948 men padamapukur instityooshan men adhyapan kar mahashveta ne ghar ka kharcha chalaya. usi varsh putr navarun bhattachary ka janm hua. 1949 men mahashveta ko kendr sarakar ke dipti ekauntet janaral, post end teligraph aauphis men apar divijan klark ki naukari mili. lekin ek varsh ke bhitar hi, choonki pati kamyunist the, so unaki naukari chali gee. mahashveta atul gupt ke pas geen. unaki notis ke dabav men mahashveta ki phir bahali huee lekin is bar mahashveta ki daraj men marks aur lenin ki kitaben rakhakar kamyunist hone ka arop lagakar aur asthayi hone ke chalate dubara naukari se unhen hata diya gaya. naukari jane ke bad jivan-sngram jyada kathin ho gaya. mahashveta ne kapada saph karane ke sabun ki bikri se lekar tyooshan karake ghar ka kharcha chalaya. yah kram 1957 men ramesh mitr balika vidyalay men mastari milane tak chala. vijan bhattachary se vivah hone se hi mahashveta jivan sngram ka yah paksh mahasoos kar sakin aur ek sushikshit, susnskrit parivar ki ladaki hone ke bavajood svechchha se sngrami jivan ka rasta chun sakin.

'jhansi ki rani' ki rachana

sngharsh ke in dinon ne hi lekhika mahashveta ko bhi taiyar kiya. us dauran unhonne khoob rachanaen padhin. vishv ke mashahoor lekhakon-chintakon ki rachanaen, iliya erenabarg, eleksi taaulastaauy, maiksim gorki, chekhav, soljhenitsin, mayakovaski aur roos ke kee any lekhakon ki pustaken padhin. usi samay vijan bhattachary ko ek hindi film ki kahani likhane ke silasile men munbee jana pada. unake sath mahashveta bhi geen. munbee men mahashveta ke bade mama sachin chaudhari the. mama ke yahan hi mahashveta ne padha – vi.di. savarakar, 1857. usase itani prabhavit hueen ki unake man men bhi isi tarah ka kuchh likhane ka vichar aya. tay kiya ki 'jhansir rani' (jhansi ki rani) par ve kitab likhengi. un par jitani kitaben thin, sab jutakar padha. munbee se ane ke bad tyooshan vagairah to chal hi raha tha, lekhan ko bhi jivika ka sadhan banane ka vichar dridh hota gaya.

mahashveta ne pratul gupt ko apane man ki bat bataee ki ve jhansi ki rani par likhana chahati hain. mahashveta ne jhansi ki rani ke bhatije govind chintamani se patr vyavahar shuroo kiya. samagri jutane aur padhane ke sath-sath utsahit hokar mahashveta ne likhana bhi shuroo kar diya. phataphat char sau pej likh dale. par itana likhane ke bad unake man ne kaha – yah to kuchh bhi nahin hua. unhonne use phadakar phenk diya. jhansi ki rani ke bare men aur janana padega. to isake lie chhah varsh ke bete navarun bhattachary aur pati ko kalakatta men chhodakar antatah jhansi hi chali geen. tab n pati ke pas naukari thi aur n hi unake pas. jaise-taise shubhachintakon se paise lekar ve 1954 men jhansi ki yatra par nikalin. akele unhonne bundelakhnd ke chappe-chappe ko apane kadamon se napa. vahan ke lokagiton ko qalamabaddh kiya. tab jhansi ki rani ki jivani likhane vale vrindavanalal varma jhansi kntonament men rahate the. unase bhi ve milin. unake paramarsh ke mutabik jhansi ki rani se jude kee sthanon ka daura kiya. bundelakhnd se lautakar mahashveta ne ne sire se ‘jhansi ki rani’ likhi aur ‘desh’ men yah rachana dharavahik chhapane lagi. nyoo ej ne ise pustak ke roop men chhapane ke lie mahashveta ko panch sau rupaye die. is tarah mahashveta ki pahali qitab 1956 men aee.[1] ‘jhansi ki rani’ (1956) ke bad mahashveta ki doosari pustak ‘nati’ 1957 men aee. usi kadi men ‘jali thi agnishikha’ aee. ye tinon kitaben 1857 ke mahasngram par kendrit hain. hyooroj ne hi kaha hai ki- "samay aur yug ki sabhi roodhiyon ko todakar lakshmibaee ne apane ko ek yogy v saksham senanayak siddh kiya tha." hyooroj ke is kathan ko mahashveta ne ‘jali thi agnishikha’ men bhi uddhrit kiya hai.[1]

pati se sambndh vichchhed

sath ka dashak mahashveta ke jivan ke lie bada uthal-puthal vala raha. 1962 men vijan bhattachary se unaka vivah-vichchhed ho gaya. asit gupt se doosara vivah hua. kintu unase bhi 1975 men vivah-vichchhed ho gaya. usake bad unhonne lekhan aur adivasiyon ke bich kary kar hamesha srijanatmak karyon men apane ko vyast rakha. yah bhi gaur karane yogy hai ki mahashveta kabhi kartavy se chyut nahin hueen. ghar men beti, didi, patni, man aur dadi man ki bhoomika unhonne bakhoobi nibhaee. mahashveta arnbh se hi alag kism ki mahila rahin. isalie do-do bar vivah-vichchhed hone ke bavajood unake samman par koee anch nahin aee. ve vahi mahashveta rahin. mahashveta ka unake pati bhi bahut samman karate the. isalie vivah-vichchhed ke bad bhi vijan ya asit ne mahashveta ke viruddh ya mahashveta ne un donon ke viruddh kabhi kuchh nahin kaha. vijan ki mutyu ke bad mahashveta din bhar vahan rahin. vahan mahashveta ki upasthiti ko bahut samman diya gaya.

upanyas 'aranyer adhikar' ka lekhan

apane upanyas ‘aranyer adhikar’ (jngal ke davedar) men mahashveta devi samaj men vyapt manaviy shoshan aur usake viruddh ubalate vidroh ko umda tarike se rakhankit karati hain. ‘aranyer adhikar’ men us birasa munda ki katha hai, jisane sadi ke mod par british samrajyavad ke viruddh janajatiy vidroh ka bigul bajaya. munda janajati men samanata, nyay aur ajadi ke andolan ka sootrapat birasa ne angrezon ke khilaph kiya tha. ‘aranyer adhikar’ adivasiyon ke sashakt vidroh ki mahagatha hai jo manaviy moolyon se sarabor hai. mahashveta ne mukhy mudde par ungali rakhi hai. masalan birasa ka vidroh sirph angrezi shasan ke viruddh nahin tha, apitu samakalin samnti vyavastha ke viruddh bhi tha. birasa munda ke in pakshon ko sahejakar sahity aur itihas men prakashit karane ka shrey mahashveta ko hi hai. ‘aranyer adhikar’ likhane ke pichhe ki kahani ye hai ki 1974 men philm nirmata shanti chaudhari ne mahashveta se birasa munda par kuchh likhakar dene ko kaha. shri chaudhari, birasa par philm banana chahate the. birasa par likhane ke lie mahashveta ne pahale to kumar suresh sinh ki kitab padhi. phir dakshin bihar geen, vahan ke logon se milin. kee tathy sngrah kie. phir likha ‘aranyer adhikar’. 1979 men jab is kitab par sahity akadami puraskar mila to adivasiyon ne jagah-jagah dhak baja-bajakar gaya tha- ‘hamen sahity akadami mila hai.’ tab munda nam se hi unamen asim gaurav bodh jaga tha. jo munda bhoomij nam se sarakari rekard men darj the, unhonne upane ko munda nam se darj karane ki prashasan se darakhast ki thi. sahity akadami milane par mundaon ne mahashveta ka abhinndan karane ke lie unhen apane yahan (medinipur men) bulaya. 1979 ki us sabha men adivasi vaktaon ne kaha tha- "mukhyadhara ne hamen kabhi svikriti nahin di. ham itihas men nahin the. tumhare likhane se hamen svikriti mili." sahity akadami pane par mahashveta ko jitani khushi nahin huee, usase jyada in adivasiyon ki prasannata se huee. mahashveta ko laga, adivasiyon ke bare men unaka dayitv aur badh gaya hai. unhonne adivasiyon ke lie yathasnbhav kam karate jane aur unake bare men aur bhi janane ki koshish jari rakhi.[1]

rachanaen

mahashveta devi ne vibhinn sahityik patrikaon ke lie laghu kathaon adi ka yogadan diya. unaka pratham upanyas 'nati' 1957 men prakashit kiya gaya tha. 'jhansi ki rani' mahashveta devi ki pratham rachana hai, jo 1956 men prakashit huee. unhonne svayn hi apane shabdon men kaha tha ki- "isako likhane ke bad main samajh paee ki main ek kathakar banoongi." is pustak ko mahashveta ji ne kolakata men baithakar nahin, balki sagar, jabalapur, poona, indaur aur lalitapur ke jngalon; sath hi jhansi, gvaliyar aur kalapi men ghatit tamam ghatanaen yani 1857-1858 men itihas ke mnch par jo kuchh bhi hua, sabako sath lekar likha. apani nayika ke alava lekhika ne kranti ke tamam agradooton aur yahan tak ki angrez afasar tak ke sath nyay karane ka prayas kiya hai. mahashveta ji kahati thin- "pahale meri mool vidha kavita thi, ab kahani aur upanyas hain." unaki kuchh mahattvapoorn kritiyon men 'agnigarbh', 'jngal ke davedar' aur '1084 ki man', 'maheshvar' aur 'gram bangla' adi hain. pichhale chalis varshon men unaki chhoti-chhoti kahaniyon ke bis sngrah prakashit kiye ja chuke hain aur sau upanyason ke qarib prakashit ho chuke hain.[2] unaki kritiyon par philmen bhi banin. 1968 men 'sngharsh', 1993 men 'roodali', 1998 men 'hajar chaurasi ki man', 2006 men 'mati maee'.[3] mahashveta devi ki kuchh pramukh rachanaen nimnalikhit hain-

laghukathaen - miloo ke lie, mastar sab
kahaniyan - svaha, riportar, vanted
upanyas - nati, agnigarbh, jhansi ki rani, mardarar ki man, 1084 ki man, matrichhavi, jali thi agnishikha, jakadan
atmakatha umrakaid, aklant kaurav
alekh - krishn dvadashi, amrit snchay, ghaharati ghataen, bharat men bndhua mazadoor, untisavin dhara ka aropi, gram bangla, jngal ke davedar, adivasi katha
yatra snsmaran - shri shri ganesh mahima, eent ke oopar eent
natak - terodaiktil, daulati[2]

pramukh rachanaon ki kathavastu

  • mahashveta devi ne ‘shalagirah ki pukar par’ kriti men snthal jivan aur angrezon ke viruddh unake aitihasik sngram ko darj kiya hai.
  • ‘chotti munda aur usaka tir’ men adivasi samaj ki hakikat ko darshaya gaya hai.
  • ‘amrit snchay’ upanyas 1857 se thoda pahale prarnbh hota hai. 'amrit snchay’ men pratikool sthitiyon men bhi jivan ke prati jo lalak hai aur pratirodh ki jo chetana hai, us chetana par mahashveta ki barabar najar rahi hai. gauron ke viruddh hi vah chetana nahin thi, balki azad bharat men bhi pratirodh ki chetana rahi hai, jise mahashveta poore sahas ke sath abhivyakt karati hain.
  • ‘apareshan basaeetudu’, 'jagamohan ki mrityu' men mahashveta ki vedana aur sngharsh ki smriti bhi snchit hai. mahashveta itihas, mithak aur vartaman rajanaitik yatharth ke tane-bane ko snjote hue samajik parivesh ki manaviy pida ko svar deti hain.
  • ‘agnigarbh’ men mahashveta devi poochhati hain- "jab bataeedari-adhiya jaisi ghrinit pratha men kisan pis rahe hon, khetihar majadooron ko nyoonatam majadoori n mile, bij-khad-pani-bijali ke lale pade hon, unaka astitv danv par ho, aise men vah samnti hinsa ke viruddh hinsa ko chun le to kya ashchary? 'agnigarbh' men un sngharshashil logon ki katha hai, jinhonne samajik nyay ke lie apane pran utsarg kar die.
  • sarkas ki prishthabhoomi par likha ‘prematara’ prem ki katha hai, phir bhi usaki prishthabhoomi men sipahi vidroh rahata hai.
  • ‘aklant kaurav’ ki katha chhoti hai, lekin apane garbh men visphotak tathy chhipae hai.
  • shoshan aur utpidan ke khilaph nirntar sngharsh karane vale garib aur samarpit skool mastar ki katha ke jarie sath-sattar ke dashak men apane naksal andolan ke vaicharik sarokaron aur logon men ati pratirodh ki chetana ko lekhika ne ‘mastar sab’ upanyas men darshaya hai. yah ek jivaniparak, vicharottejak aur marmik upanyas hai.
  • mahashveta ne ‘hajar chaurasi ki man’ men naksal andolan ko man ki najar se dekha. naksal andolan ki ve sakshi rahi thin. janasngharshon ne unake jivan ko bhi parivartit kiya aur lekhan ko bhi. ‘hajar chaurasi ki man’ us man ki marmasparshi kahani hai, jisane jan liya hai ki usake putr ka shav pulis hirasat men kaise aur kyon hai.
  • apane upanyas ‘nil chhavi’ men unhonne rochak dhng se bataya hai ki drags aur bloo philmen kis tarah samaj ko bhitar se khokhala kar rahi hain aur kala-jagat, patrakarita aur uchch v nimn madhy varg kin vidnbanaon ka shikar hai? poori aur buri tarah upabhokta snskriti men jakada samaj kis tarah apani vilasita aur mahatvakanksha ki poorti ke lie sare manaviy aur naitik moolyon ko tilanjali de chuka hai.
  • ‘kavi vaidyaghoti giner jivan aur mrityu’ men mahashveta ne nichali jati ke yuvak ke manavadhikar hasil karane ke sngharsh ko vani di hai.[1]

samaj seva

bihar, madhy pradesh tatha chhattisagadh ke adivasi ilake mahashveta devi ke karyakshetr rahe. vahan unaka dhyan lodha tatha shabara adivasiyon ki din dasha ki or adhik raha. isi tarah bihar ke palamoo kshetr ke adivasi bhi unake sarokar ka vishay bane. inamen striyon ki dasha aur bhi dayaniy thi. mahashveta devi ne is sthiti men sudhar karane ka snkalp liya. 1970 se mahashveta devi ne apane uddeshy ke hit men vyavastha se sidha hastakshep shuroo kiya. unhonne pashchim bngal ki audyogik nitiyon ke khilaf bhi andolan chheda tatha vikas ke prachalit kary ko chunauti di.

adivasiyon ki sngharsh gathaen

mahashveta devi ne apane kee upanyason ki tarah apani anek kahaniyon men bhi sadiyon se mukhyadhara se bahar dhakeli gee adivasi asmita ke prashn ko shiddat se uthaya hai. mahashveta ki kee kahaniyan adivasiyon ki pramanik sngharsh gathaen hain balki unhen mahagathaen kahana jyada uchit hoga. in mahagathaon men adivasi samaj ki chinta kadachit pahali bar bechaini ke sath prakat huee. apani kathakritiyon men hashie par dhakele ge adivasi ko nayak banakar mahashveta devi hindi men premachnd to bangla men tarashnkar bndyopadhyay aur manik bndyopadhyay se bhi age nikal geen. premachnd aur tarashnkar kisan ko nayak bana chuke the to manik baboo machhuaron ko. usase kafi age jakar mahashveta ne janajatiyon aur adivasiyon ke vidrohi nayakon ko apani kathakritiyon ka nayak banaya. mahashveta apani kahaniyon men samaj ko shoshan, dohan aur utpidan se mukt karate sngharshashil nayakon ka sndhan karati hain. in sngharshashil adivasi nayakon ka sndhan mahashveta ki kahani ‘badh’ men bagadi ke roop men ‘banyen’ men dom ‘sham savere ki man’ men pakhamara ‘shikar’ men oranv ‘bij’ men gnjoo ‘mool adhikar aur bhikhari dusadh’ men dusadh ‘behula’ men mal ya ojha aur ‘draupadi’ men snthal ke roop men sahaj hi ho jata hai.

san 1984 men prakashit apane shreshth galp ki bhoomika men mahashveta devi ne likha hai- "sahity ko keval bhasha-shaili aur shilp ki kasauti par rakhakar dekhane ke mapadnd galat hain. sahity ka moolyankan itihas ke pariprekshy men hona chahie. kisi lekhak ke lekhan ko usake samay aur itihas ke pariprekshy men rakhakar n dekhane se usaka vastavik moolyankan nahin kiya ja sakata hai. main purakatha pauranik charitr aur ghatanaon ko vartaman ke pariprekshy men phir se yah batane ke lie likhati hoon ki vastav men lok-kathaon men atit aur vartaman ek avichchhinn dhara ke roop men pravahit hote hain. yah avichchhinn dhara bhi vayaviy nahin hai balki jat-pant khet aur jngal par adhikar aur sabase oopar satta ke vistar tatha usake kayam rakhane ki paddhati ko kendr men rakhakar nimn varg ke manushy ke shoshan ka kramik itihas hai."

kahaniyon ke vishay

mahashveta ki kahaniyon men samnti takaton ke shoshan, utpidan, chal-chhadm ke viruddh piditon aur shoshiton ka sngharsh anavarat jari rahata hai. sngharsh men vah mar bhi khata hai par thakakar baith nahin jata. kroorata aur barbarata men bhi pidit tabaka tike rahata hai. kee upanyason ki tarah unaki kahaniyon men bhi adim janajatiy sroton se prapt katha to hai hi, jivan aur samaj ke doosare jvalnt muddon ko bhi unhonne sadhikar sparsh kiya hai. ‘rudali’ ki kahani men mahashveta ne aurat ki asmita ka prashn umda tarike se uthaya to ‘aklant kaurav’ men vikas aur chhadm pragativad ki tikhi alochana ki.

'vartika' ka sampadan

palamoo ke bndhua majadooron ke bich kam karate hue mahashveta ne kee tathy ekatrit kie the. usi ke adhar par nirmal ghosh ke sath milakar unhonne ‘bharat ke bndhua majadoor’ namak pustak likhi thi. vibhinn patr-patrikaon men adivasi anchalon ke sukh-du:kh ke bare men unhonne samay-samay par jo likha, ve bhi snkalit hokar pustak roop men chhap chuki hain- ‘dast an rod’. mahashveta ki tippaniyon ke is snkalan ko maitreee ghatak (mahashveta ke chhote bhaee) ne snpadit kiya hai. 1980 men unhonne patrika ‘vartika’ ka snpadan shuroo kiya tha. usake pahale unake pita manish ghatak use snpadit karate the. pita ka 1979 men nidhan ho gaya to mahashveta ne patrika ka charitr hi badal dala. vartika ek aisa mnch ban gaya, jisamen chhote kisan, khet majadoor, adivasi, karakhanon men kam karane vale majadoor, riksha chalak apani samasyaon aur jivan ke bare men likhate. ab bhi likhate hain. ‘vartika’ men medinipur ke lodha aur puruliya ke khediya shabar adivasiyon ne bahut kuchh likha. isake jarie adivasiyon ne jivan men pahali bar kisi prakashan men likha. pahali lodha snatak ladaki chuni kotal ne bhi 1982 men vartika men likha tha apane jivan sngharsh ke bare men. is tarah vartika ke jarie mahashveta ne bangla men vaikalpik sahityik patrakarita ki disha men mahattvapoorn prayas kie. mahashveta ne bndhua majadoor, kisan, phaiktari majadoor, eent bhattha majadoor, adivasiyon ko jamin se bedakhal kie jane aur bngal ke harek adivasi samuday par vartika ke vishesh ank nikale. unhonne bangla desh aur amerika ke adivasiyon par bhi vishesh ank nikale. vartika ne apani gahari snpadakiy drishti aur snpadakiy vivek ka parichay diya.

puraskar v samman

mahashveta devi ke samman men googal-doodal (2018)

1977 men mahashveta devi ko 'megsese puraskar' pradan kiya gaya. 1979 men unhen 'sahity akadami puraskar' mila. 1996 men 'gyanapith puraskar' se vah sammanit ki geen. 1986 men 'padmashri' tatha phir 2006 men unhen 'padmavibhooshan' samman pradan kiya gaya.

googal doodal

sahityakar mahashveta devi ke janmadin (14 janavari) par googal ne unhen doodal ke jariye samman diya. mahashveta devi poori jindagi lekhan ke sath mahilaon, daliton aur adivasiyon ke adhikaron ke lie jamin par sngharsh karati rahin. 14 janavari, 1926 ko aj ke bangladesh ki rajadhani dhaka men paida hueen mahashveta devi ko googal ne apane shanadar doodal ke jariye shraddhanjali di hai. googal dvara pesh doodal men bngali shaili men dhoti yani sadi pahane mahashveta devi kuchh likhati najar a rahi hain. doodal men unake pichhe alag-alag sabhyata, snskriti, bhasha, parivesh ke logon ka chehara najar a raha hai. jo is bat ko ingit karata hai ki mahashveta devi na sirph apani lekhani men balki dharatal par bhi poori jindagi samaj ke har tabake ke lie sngharsh karati rahin.

nidhan

mahashveta devi ka nidhan 28 julaee, 2016 ko kolakata men hua. unhen 22 mee ko kolakata ke bel vyoo narsing hom men bharti karaya gaya tha. unake sharir ke kee mahatvapoorn angon ne kam karana bnd kar diya tha. dil ka daura padane ke bad unaka nidhan ho gaya.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 mahashveta devi ka jivan aur sahity (hindi) literaturepoint.com. abhigaman tithi: 30 julaee, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 mahashveta devi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 20 sitambar, 2012.
  3. mahashveta devi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 6 janavari, 2014.

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