माणिक्यनन्दि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

achary manikyanandi nandisngh ke pramukh achary the. inake guru ramanandi dadaguru vrishabhanandi aur paradadaguru padmanandi the. inake kee shishy hue. prabhachandr[1] ne nyay shastr inhin se padha tha tatha unake 'parikshamukh' par vishalakay 'prameyakamalamarttand' nam ki vyakhya likhi thi, jisake ant men unhonne bhi manikyanandi ko apana guru bataya hai.

jivan parichay

manikyanandi ki ganana jain darshan ke pramukh acharyon men hoti hai. ve dhara nagari ke rahane vale the. nandi sngh ke achary ganiramanandi unake guru the. 'pramey ratnamala' ke anusar manikyanandi athavin shati men hue the, kintu nayanandi virachit 'sudarshanacharit' ke anusar unaka samay ee. ki gyarahavin shati hai. adhunik vidvanh daauktar hira lal jain ne 'siddhivinishch' tika ki prastavana men unaka samay ee. 993-1053 bataya hai. daauktar mahendr kumar jain yah sambhavana vyakt karate hain ki manikyanandi vidyanand ke samakalin rahe honge aur unaka samay ee. ki 9vin shati ho sakata hai. 'jain dharm darshan' men daauktar mohan lal mehata likhate hain-

dasavin shatabdi men manikyanandi ki ek hi amarakriti 'parikshamukh' is granth ka adhyayan karane se aisa spasht maloom hota hai ki unhonne akalnk ke granthon ka poornaroopen adhyayan karake unake siddhanton ko atmasath kar dala tha, sath hi bharatiy darshan ki any shakhaon men bhi achchha parichay prapt kar liya tha. unake prakand pandity evn adhyatmik vikas ko dekhate hue 'nyayadipika' men unhen bhagavan kaha gaya hai.

nayanandi ke anusar

ady vidya-shishy nayanandi the, jinhonne 'sudnsanachariu' evn 'sayalavihivihan' in apabhrnsh rachanaon se apane ko unaka ady vidya-shishy tatha unhen 'pnditachoodamani' evn 'mahapndit' kaha hai. nayanandi[2] ne apani guru-shishy parampara ukt donon granthon ki prashastiyon men di hai. inake tatha any pramanon ke anusar manikyanandi ka samay ee. 1028 arthat 11vin shatabdi siddh hai.

manikyanandi ke granth

manikyanandi ka 'parikshamukh' sootrabaddh granth nyayavidya ka pravesh dvar hai. khas kar akalnkadev ke jatil nyay-granthon men pravesh karane ke lie yah nishchay hi dvar hai. tatpary yah ki akalnkadev ne jo apane karikatmak nyayavinishchayadi nyay granthon men durooh roop men jain nyay ko nibaddh kiya hai, use gady-sootrabaddh karane ka shrey inhin achary manikyanandi ko hai. inhonne jain nyay ko isamen badi saral evn vishad bhasha men usi prakar grnthit kiya hai jis prakar malakar mala men yathayogy sthan par praval, ratn adi ko goonthata hai. is par prabhachandr ne 'prameyakamalamarttand', laghuanantaviry ne 'prameyaratnamala', ajitasen ne 'nyayamanidipika', charukirti nam ke ek ya do vidvanon ne 'arthaprakashika' aur 'prameyaratnalnkar' nam ki tikaen likhi hain.

parikshamukh men samuddeshy

'parikshamukh' men chh: samuddeshy hain.

  • pratham samuddeshy men praman ki pratishtha huee hai aur is sambandh men mimansakon ke mat par vishesh roop vichar kiya gaya hai.
  • dvitiy samuddeshy men praman sambandhi charvak evn bauddhamaton par vichar-vimarsh prastut karate hue sanvyavaharik pratyaksh par prakash dala gaya hai.
  • tritiy samuddeshy men smriti adi paroksh praman ka pratipadan karate hue nyay mat par vichar kiya gaya hai.
  • chaturth samuddeshy men samany vishesh sambandhi siddhant ko spasht kiya gaya hai.
  • pncham samuddeshy men keval tin sootr hain, jinamen praman ke phal ka vivechan hua hai.
  • shashth samuddeshy men abhason evn nayon ke svaroop par prakash dalate hue vadalakshan aur patralakshan ke prastut kiya gaya hai.

parikshamukh par prabhanand ne 'prameyakamalamartand' namak ek brihath tika likhi hai, jisamen 12 hazar shlok hain. laghu anantaviry ne is par 'prameyaratnamala' namak tika ki rachana ki hai. is par tisari tika 'prameyaratnalnkar' hai, jisake rachayita bhattarak charookirti hain. 'prameyakanthika' jisake rachayita shantivarni hain, ko 'parikshamukh' ki tika to nahin man sakate, parantu isase sambandhit ya is par adharit pustak avashy kahenge, kyonki 'parikshamukh' ke pratham sootr ka hi yah vivechan vishleshan karata hai.

praman ke lakshan ko batate hue manikyanandi ne kaha hai ki vah gyan jo sv ka arthath apane ap ka tatha apoorvarth ka yani jise kisi any praman se nahin jana gaya hai, us vastu ka nishchay karata hai, use praman kahate hain. kintu nirvikalpak pratyaksh nishchayatmak nahin hota. at: ise praman ki koti men nahin rakh sakate. is vichar ki pushti ke lie praman ko vyavasayatmak mana gaya hai. vyavasayatmak hone ke lie gyan ka savikalpak hona avashyak hai. naiyayikon ke dvara sannikarshadi ko praman mana gaya hai. parantu manikyanandi aisa nahin manate. ve prakarsh ko praman ka lakshan manate hain. snshay, viparyay aur anadhyavasay ke vyavachchhedan ke roop men 'prakarsh' shabd ata hai. isake lie akalnk ne 'avisnvadi' shabd ka prayog kiya hai.

gyan hit prapti men sahayak hota hai aur ahit ka parihar karata hai. agyan se hit ki prapti nahin ho sakati aur n usase ahit ka parihar hi ho sakata hai, at: vah kabhi bhi praman ki koti men nahin rakha ja sakata. 'svarthapoorvarth vyavasayatmak gyann pramanamh' yah praman lakshan hai. yadyapi 'apoorvarth' visheshan kumaril ke praman lakshan men ham dekhate hain, tathapi vah akalnk aur vidyanand dvara 'kathnchith apoorvarth' ke roop men jain parampara men bhi pratishthit ho chuka tha. manikyanandi ne bhi use apana liya. manikyanandi ka yah praman lakshan itana lokapriy hua ki uttaravarti anek jain tarkikon ne use hi kuchh anshik parivartan ke sath apane tark granthon men moordhany sthan diya.

praman ke prakar

praman ke prakaron ke vishay men bharatiy darshan men ekamat nahin hai. do hi prakar ke praman mane ge hain- pratyaksh aur paroksh. manikyanandi bhi praman ke inhin do prakaron ko manate hain.

pratyaksh

pratyaksh ko paribhashit karate hue manikyanandi ne kaha hai ki jo gyan 'vishad' hai, vahi pratyaksh hai. vishad ka ve vahi arth lete hain, jo ki akalnk ne liya hai. unake anusar bhi vishad shabd ka spashtata aur nirmalata ke lie prayog hua hai. tatpary yah hai ki jo gyan spasht hai, nirmal hai use hi pratyaksh ki sngya mil sakati hai. pun: vaishady ki vyakhya unhonne is prakar ki hai- vah gyan jo doosare gyan ke vyavadhan se rahit hota hai tatha visheshata ke sath pratibhasit hota hai, vishad kahalata hai.

pratyaksh ke prakar

pratyaksh ke do prakar hain- mukhy aur sanvyavaharik. manikyanandi ne pahale sanvayavaharik pratyaksh ki paribhasha bataee hai. vah gyan jo indriy aur man ke madhyam se prapt hota hai tatha ekadeshat: vishad hota hai, sanvyavaharik pratyaksh kahalata hai. naiyayikon ka kathan hai ki yadi indriy aur anindriy ko gyan ka karan ya utpadak mana jata hai to kyon nahin arth aur alok ko bhi gyan ka karan mana jae, kyonki gyan tatha alok ke nimitt se gyan hota hai. isaka samadhan karate hue manikyanandi ne kaha hai ki arth aur alok sanvyavaharik pratyaksh ke karan banane ke yogy nahin hain, kyonki ye to svayn gyan ke vishay hain. jo gyan ka vishay hai, vah gyan ka karan ya utpadak kaise ban sakata hai. jisake sabhi avaran hat ge hain tatha jo samagri ki visheshata se door ho gaya hai, aise atindriy evn poorn vishad gyan ko mukhy pratyaksh kahate hain. jo gyan indriyon se utpann hota hai, tatha jisaka avaran poornaroopen hatata nahin, us gyan par pratibandh ki snbhavana rahati hai. aisi sthiti men usaki vishadata snkuchit ho jati hai. phir vah mukhy pratyaksh ki koti men nahin a sakata. mukhy pratyaksh men avadhi gyan, man paryaygyan aur keval gyan ate hain tatha sanvyavaharik pratyaksh men matigyan.

paroksh

jo pratyaksh se bhinn hota hai, use paroksh kahate hain. aisa bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki jisaka nimitt pratyaksh hota hai, vah paroksh hai. usake panch bhed hote hain- smriti, pratyabhigyan, tark, anuman aur agam. dharan kiye hue snskar ke prakat hone par 'tath' arthath 'vah' ke akar men jo gyan prapt hota hai, use smriti kahate hain. 'yah vahi hai', is gyan men 'yah' vartaman se sambandhit hai aur is 'vahi' ka sambandh bhoot se hai. at: is gyan ka sambandh vartaman aur bhoot donon se hi hai. aise gyan ko pratyabhigyan kahate hain. naiyayik adi darshanikon ne sadrishy ke lie upaman praman mana hai. kintu manikyanandi ne kaha hai ki yadi sadrishy ya sadharmy ke ke lie upaman praman hoga to vaidharmy ke lie kaun sa praman hoga. sngyi padarthon ke pratipadan ke lie kaun sa praman hoga aur 'yah isase alp hai', 'yah isase mahanh hai', 'yah isase door hai' adi aur (isake nishedhatmak roop, jaise) 'yah isase saty nahin hai', 'yah isase mahanh nahin hai', 'yah isase door nahin hai' adi ke lie kaun kaun se praman honge. atev upaman praman ko alag se nahin mana ja sakata. use bhi sadrishy pratyabhigyan men samavisht samajhana chahie.

manikyanandi ka kathan

'upalambh' arthath anvay aur anupalambh arthath vyatirek se jo vyaptigyan prapt hota hai, use 'ooh' yani tark praman kahate hain, jaise sadhy ke hone par sadhan ka hona aur sadhy ke n rahane par sadhan ka n hona. avinabhav arthath sadhy ke bina sadhan ka n hona, sadhan ka sadhy ke hone par hi hona, abhav men bilkul n hona, is niyam ko sarvopnsahar roop se grahan karana tark hai. avinabhav ka ek udaharan hai: agni hone par dhoom ka hona aur agni ke n hone par dhoom ka bhi n hona. naiyayikon ka mat hai ki keval pratyaksh se hi vyapti gyan sambhav hai, kintu manikyanandi ka kathan hai ki anuman athava agam praman se bhi vyapti gyan sambhav hai. soory ki gati ko ham nahin dekh pate, kyonki soory hamase bahut door hai. phir bhi usaki gati ke sambandh men ham anuman karate hain.

anuman ke sambandh men manikyanandi ka kathan hai ki jab sadhan se sadhy ka gyan prapt hota hai, tab us gyan ko anuman kahate hain. sadhy ke sath jisaka avinabhav sambandh nishchit hota hai aur jo sadhy ke abhav men nahin hota, use hetu arthath sadhan kahate hain. bauddhon ke anusar hetu ka yah lakshan thik nahin hai. ve pakshadharmatv, sapakshadharmatv aur vipakshadh vyavritti ko hetu ka lakshan manate hain, kyonki inhin se kramash: asiddh, viruddh aur anaikantik doshon ka nivaran hota hai. parantu manikyanandi manate hain ki avinabhav ke hone par hi ye tinon dosh door ho jate hain. at: hetu ke lie avinabhavi hona avashyak hai. agam us arthgyan ko kahate hain, jo aptavachan ke nimitt se hota hai.

samany ya vishesh ko praman mana jae, usake sambandh men vibhinn mat paye jate hain. sankhy aur vedant keval samany ko praman manate hain. bauddh darshan men vishesh ko praman mana gaya hai, nyay vaisheshik donon ko hi svatntr roop se praman manate hain, kyonki in sab ke anusar padarthon ko aise hi dekha jata hai. kintu manikyanandi ne kaha hai ki n keval samany ko, n keval vishesh ko aur n donon ko hi svatntr roop se praman mana ja sakata hai, kyonki vastu ka pratibhas hi aisa nahin hota. vastu men samany aur vishesh donon ek sath pae jate hain. at: samany visheshatmak padarth praman ka vishay ho sakata hai. samany ya vishesh ko ekant roop se athava svatntr roop se donon ko praman ka vishay manana vishayabhas hai.

praman ke char phal hote hain

agyan ki nivritti, han, upadan aur upeksha. ye phal praman se bhinn aur abhinn donon hi hote hain. inhen do vargon men rakhate hain- sakshatphal aur parnparyaphal. kisi vastu ke janate hi tatkal jo labh prapt hota hai, use sakshatphal kahate hain, jaise agyan ki nivritti. vastu ke janane ke bad paramparagat roop se jo labh prapt hota hai, use paramparyaphal kahate hain. is koti men han, upadan aur upeksha ko rakhate hain. vastu ko janane ke bad use ahitakar samajhakar tyag dena han hai. hitakar samajhakar grahan karana upadan hai aur jisase hit aur ahit ki koee bhi sambhavana n ho, use aisa samajh kar tyag dena upeksha kahi jati hai.

praman ke svaroop, snkhya, vishay aur phal par vichar karane ke bad manikyanandi bade oonche hi svar men udghosh karate hain ki inase bhinn jo kuchh bhi hain, ve tadabhas hain. ye abhas char prakar ke hote hain-

  1. svaroopabhas- jo praman ke sahi svaroop ke abhav men hi abhasit hota hai.
  2. snkhyabhas- praman ki ayatharth snkhya ka abhasit hona.
  3. vishayabhas.
  4. phalabhas- praman se usake phal ko bilkul bhinn athava abhinn samajhana.

is prakar ek hi granth ki rachana karake manikyanandi ne jain nyay men apana pratiman sthapit kar diya hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sinha, daau. vashisht narayan vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 391.

  1. ee. 1053
  2. vi. sn. 1100, ee. 1043

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