मैकल पर्वतमाला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maikal parvatamala kanha bagh araksh ki sabase pramukh bhaugolik bhoo-akriti hai. yah parvatamala uttar-dakshin disha men nikali huee hai aur trikonakar satapuda parvat shrinkhala ki poorvi bhuja hai.

bhaugarbhik itihas

araksh ki poorvi sima par sthit yah parvatamala narmada aur mahanadi ke jalagrahan kshetron ke bich ki vibhajan rekha hai. yah parvatamala araksh men pashchim or bhainsanaghat tak phaili hai aur narmada ke jalagrahan kshetr ko dakshin-pashchim aur pashchim men bnjar, tatha poorv aur uttarapoorv men halon men bantati hai. mukhy maikal shreni aur bhainsanaghat se uttar ki or anek skndh nikale hue hain jo halon nadi ki or badh rahe pani ko anek sar-saritaon men bant dete hain, jaise phen, gauradhuni, kashmiri aur gondala. bhainsanaghat parvatashreni bamhanidadar par pahunchakar do bhagon men bnt jati hai- mukhy bhag uttar ki or nikalata hai aur shakhaen pashchim ki or nikalakar bnjar ke jalagrahan kshetr ko svayn bnjar aur usaki sahayak nadi sulakum (jise usake nichale bhagon men surapan bhi kahate hain) ke jalagrahan kshetron men bant deti hain. mukhy shreni ki oonchaee samudr tal se 800 se lekar 900 mitar hai.

apavah

satapuda aur maikal ke jalagrahan kshetr ko bharat ka doosara sabase bada jalagrahan kshetr mana jata hai. narmada, son, mahanadi, tapti, pandu, kanhar, rihnd, bijul, gopad aur banas uttar se dakshin ki or lagabhag samantar bahati hain aur inhonne maikal parvatashreni ki or apekshakrit naram chattanon men vishal jaladroniyan utkirn ki hain.

chapate shikharavali pahadiyan jinhen dadar kaha jata hai, apane oopari bhagon men sphotagarti (vesikular) aur mrinamayi makharala (kleyi letarait) chattanon se avritt hain. inamen kee bar boksait ki matra kafi adhik hoti hai. lauh yaugikon ke karan in chattanon ka lal rng rahata hai. maidanon aur ghatiyon men grenaitayukt pattitashm (grenaitik nis) aur maika yukt starit chattanen (maikeshiyas sist) paee jati hain jo sal vanon ko samarthit karati hain. dadaron men mausami prabhavon se kshin hua asitashm (basalt) hota hai jo mishrit vanon ke lie upayukt hai.

vanaspati jivan

vanaspati men kafi vibhinnata paee jati hai aur yahan ghas aur kntili jhadiyon se lekar patajhadi vanon ke danav- sal aur sagaun, prachurata se milate hain. krishi, jo yahan ka mukhy vyavasay hai, jalodh mittivali nadi droniyon men hoti hai. mukhy phasalon men shamil hain dhan, chana, jvar, jee, makee dalen til aur sarason.

yahan koyala, choona, baauksait, kurnd (korndam), dolomait, sngamaramar, slet aur balukashm (saindaston) ke nikshep bahut adhik matra men hain. nrijativarnan (ethanographi) ki drishti se maikal parvatamala anek janajatiy samoohon ka nivasasthan hai, jaise gond, halba, bhariya, baiga aur korakoo.

bhoo-vaigyanik

is kshetr men ek bahut hi rochak bhoo-vaigyanik visheshata paee jati hai. jisake bare men sarvapratham ostriyaee bhoovaigyanik eduard sues (1831-1914) ne apani prasiddh pustak 'd phes oph di erth' (prithvi ka chehara) men likha tha. unhonne sujhaya ki purajiv kalp men, lagabhag 16.5 karod varsh poorv, 'gondavana' namak ek ativishal mahadvip ka astitv tha. yah nam madhy bharat men rahane vale gond janajati ke nam se liya gaya hai. is vishal mahadvip ke ghatak pradeshon men, arthat ajakal ke astreliya, antarktika, dakshini nav gini, aphrika, dakshin amarika aur bharat men parmiyan aur karbonipheras kal ke praroopik bhoovaigyanik lakshan milate hain. parmiyan gondavana men milane vala sabase samany patta glosopteris hai, jo jibh ke akar ka ek patta hai jisamen jatil jalidar shiravinyas hota hai. glosopteris ke patte aur kuchh prakar ke kasheruki jivon ka samast gondavana deshon men milana pichhali shatabdi ke prarnbh men pratipadit mahadvipiy apasaran siddhant ke lie ek mahattvapoorn praman hai. vaigyanikon men yah siddhant kafi arse tak vivadaspad raha kyonki plet tektonik ki (arthat bhoo-patalon ke khisakane ki) jis avadharana par vah tiki hai usake kam karane ki riti abhi hal hi men gyat huee hai. plet tektonik ke anusar gondavana ek chalayaman bhoo-patal par sthit tha jo khisakata raha aur tootata raha aur usake tukade abhi ke mahadvip bane.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh