मोक्ष  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy darshan men nashvarata ko du:kh ka karan mana gaya hai. snsar avagaman, janm-maran aur nashvarata ka kendr hain. is avidyakrit prapnch se mukti pana hi moksh hai. pray: sabhi darshanik pranaliyon ne snsar ke du:khamay svabhav ko svikar kiya hai aur isase mukt hone ke liye karm marg ya gyan marg ka rasta apanaya hai. moksh is tarah ke jivan ki antim parinati hai. ise paramarthik mooly manakar jivan ke param uddeshy ke roop men svikar kiya gaya hai.[1]

jivan mukti

moksh ko vastu saty ke roop men svikar karana kathin hai. sabhi pranaliyon men moksh ki kalpana pray: atmavadi hai. antatogatva yah ek vaiyaktik anubhooti hi siddh ho pata hai. yadyapi vibhinn pranaliyon ne apani apani gyanamimansa ke anusar moksh ki alag-alag kalpana ki hai, tathapi agyan, du:kh se mukt ho sakata hai. ise jivan mukti kahenge.

kuchh pranaliyan, jinamen nyay, vaisheshik evn vishishtadvait ullekhaniy hain, jivan mukti ki snbhavana ko asvikar karate hain. doosare roop ko 'videh mukti' kahate hain. jisake sukh du:kh ke bhavon ka vinash ho gaya ho, vah deh tyagane ke bad avagaman ke chakr se sarvada ke liye mukt ho jata hai. use nigrahavadi marg ka anusaran karana padata hai. upanishadon men annd ki sthiti ko hi moksh ki sthiti kaha gaya hai, kyonki annd men sare dvndvon ka vilay ho jata hai. yah advaitanubhooti ki sthiti hai. isi jivan men ise anubhav kiya ja sakata hai.

manasik kriyaen

vedant men mumukshu ko shravan, anan evn nidhidhyasan, ye tin prakar ki manasik kriyaen karani padati hain. is prakriya men nanatv ka jo avidyakrit hai, vinash hota hai aur atma, jo brahmasvaroop hai, usaka sakshatkar hota hai. mumukshu 'tatvamasi' se 'ahnbrahyasmi' ki or badhata hai. yahan atm sakshatkar ko moksh mana gaya hai. vedant men yah sthiti jivan mukti ki sthiti hai. mrityu uparant, vah brahm men vilin ho jata hai. eeshvaravad men eeshvar ka sannidhy hi moksh hai. doosare vadon men snsar se mukti hi moksh hai. lokayat men moksh ko asvikar kiya gaya hai.

bauddh darshan men

bauddh darshan men nirvan ki kalpana moksh ke samanantar hi ki gee hai. 'nirvan' ka arth hai, bujh jana. snkshep men ise chitt nirodh ki sthiti svikar kiya gaya hai. bauddh darshan men bhi bndhan ka karan avidya ko mana gaya hai. yah bndhan gyan ke madhyam se hi kata ja sakata hai. kintu is tarah ka gyan kathor anushasan ka palan karane par hi upalabdh ho sakega. isake liye ashtangik marg ki vyavastha ki gee hai. ve is prakar hain: samyak drishti, samyak snkalp, samyak vachan, samyak karm, samyak jivika, samyak prayatn, samyak smriti aur samyak samadhi.

inamen se pratham do gyan, madhy ke tin shil evn antim tin samadhi ke antargat ate hain. is marg ka anusaran karane par trishna ka nirodh hota hai, trishna ke nirodh se sngrah pravritti ka nirodh hota hai, phir bhav ka virodh hota hai aur janm ka nirodh hota hai. is prakar sknrdhon ka sarvakalik lop ho jata hai. is prakar ki mukti jivan men bhi snbhav hai, kintu mrityu uparant nirvan ka kya svaroop hoga, ise nishedhatmak roop se batalaya gaya hai. ek prakar se vah shalnay ke saman hai.

jain darshan men

jain darshan men jiv aur ajiv ka sabndh karm ke madhyam se sthapit hota hai. karm ke madhyam se jiv ko ajiv ya jad se bndh jana hi bndhan hai. is prakriya ka asrav shabd se vyakt karate hain. asrav ka nirodh hone par hi jiv ajiv se mukt ho sakata hai. isake liye trividh snyam ki vyavastha ki gee hai. samyak darshan (shraddha), samyak gyan aur samyak charitr ka palan karate hue moksh ki prapti hoti hai. in 'triratnon' ke palan se asrav nirooddh hota hai. mukt hone ke kram men do sthitiyan ati hain-

  1. pahale navin karmon ka pravah niruddh hota hai, ise 'snvar' kahate hain.
  2. doosari avastha men poorv janmon ke snchit karmon ka bhi vinash ho jata hai. ise 'nirjara' kahate hain.

isake bad ki hi sthiti moksh kahalati hai. yah jivanamukti ki sthiti hai, lekin videh mukti ke bad jain kisi eeshvar ya brahm ki satta ko svikar nahin karate. phir bhi yah spasht roop se paramarthik svaroop mana gaya hai. videh mukti ki avastha men 'keval gyan' ki upalabdhi ho jati hai. aisi sthiti men atma sarvangin snpoorn hoti hai. annt gyan, annt shanti evn annt aishvary use sahaj hi prapt ho jate hain.

mukti ka arth

nyay, vaisheshik moksh ki kalpana bhinn prakar se karate hain. ve moksh ki sthiti ko anndamay nahin manate. kyonki du:kh aur sukh donon atma ke vishesh gun hain, isaliye donon saty hain. nyay vaisheshik abhav ko bhi ek padarth manate hain. isiliye donon saty hain. nyay, vaisheshik abhav ko bhi ek padarth manate hain. isilaye du:kh ke abhav ka arth annd ka hona, nahin hai. mukti ka arth hai 'apavarg', du:kh sukh donon se pare hona. ye donon atma ke moolabhoot gun nahin hain. isaliye moksh ki sthiti men atma donon se mukt ho jati hai. du:kh se mukti pane ke pahale hamen sukh ki asha hi chhod deni chahie. kyonki du:kh ant tak hamara pichha nahin chhodata, lekin ham usaka atikraman kar sakate hain. yah avastha sukh du:kh ke pare hone se prapt hoti hai. aisa vyakti dehatyag ke pashchath videh mukti ko prapt kar leta hai. is avastha men atma apane vishesh gunon se pare ho jata hai. ek tarah se vah snvedanahin aur ichchha shoony ho jata hai usamen pun: chaitany pravisht hoga hi nahin. jivanamukti is snpraday men asvikar ki gee hai.phir vah achchhe karmo ka snpadan karate hue, 'divy vibhooti' pad ko prapt kar sakata hai. kintu atma ke vishesh gun bane rahengen. isamen bhi yog, dhyan aur kramik abhyas ke kathor snyamon ka palan karana padata hai.

moksh ka sadhan

sankhy yog men 'kaivaly' ko jivan ka param lakshy mana gaya hai. yah moksh ke saman hi hai. yah jisase mukt hota hai, use prakriti aur jo mukt hota hai, use purush svaroop se hi asng hai. kaivaly usaka svabhav hai. prakriti ke snsarg men ane par vah apane svaroop ko bhool jata hai. vah aham buddhi ke a jane par snsar ko saty man leta hai. snsar ke prati anasakti bhav utpann karane ke liye mumuksh ko kathor tap, niyam evn snyam ka palan karana padata hai. is kathor sadhana ke ath ang hain, yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dharana, dhyan aur samadhi. is sadhana ke madhyam se v ahnbhav se mukt hota hai. yahan mukt hone ka arth kisi any satta, eeshvar ya brahm se snyog nahin hai, balki moksh yahan viyog ki sthiti hai. pravritti se mukt hokar, param shanti ka manan karata hua purush apani asaphalata ko prapt kar leta hai. is avastha men sadhak jivan mukt ho jata hai. prakriti se apani bhinnata ko samajhate hue vah rog dvesh ityadi se prabhavit nahin hoga. deh tyagane ke bad vah videh mukt ho jaega. sandhy eeshvar men vishvas nahin karata, lekin yog eeshvar ya bhakti ko bhi moksh ka sadhan manata hai. kintu yah shraddhalu athava agyaniyon ke liye svikrit kiya gaya hai, jo kathor yogangon ka abhyas karane men aksham hain.

poorvamimansa men karm ko sarvadhik mahatv diya gaya hai. isaliye jivan men du:kh se mukti aur sukh ki prapti ki ichchha karane vala dharmik karm kare. ye dharmik karm, ygy, dan, ityadi karane se svargadi ki prapti hati hai. ek tarah se moksh kar isase koee snbndh nahin hai. advait vedant men moksh ki kalpana upanishadon ke adhar par ki gee hai. vedant men karm athava bhakti ki pradhanata n dekar gyan ko pradhanata di gee hai. yadyapi mumukshu ko kuchh nishchit anushasanon ka palan karana padata hai. isake anntar advaitavadi shiksha par dhyan ekagr kiya jata hai. atma ko brahm svaroop mana gaya hai. 'ahamh‌ brahmasmi' ka gyan hona hota hai. yahi moksh hai. tab atma sat, chit, annd se poorn ho jata hai. achary shnkar is siddhant ke pradhan vyakhyata hain. vishishtadvait men gyan ki apeksha bhakti ko pradhan mana gaya hai. bhakti ke madhyam se narayan ka sannidhy prapt hota hai.

eeshvar ka chintan

narayan ke snrakshan men hi poorn mukti aur annd ki prapti hoti hai. yah sannidhy do sadhanon se prapt kiya ja sakata hai. kramash: ise bhakti aur prapatti kahate hain. prapatti ka arth hai- eeshvar ki kripa par poorn vishvas karake atmasamarpan karana. isase sahaj hi moksh labh hota hai. ramanuj ne bhakti ke antargat karmayog evn gyanayog ko bhi gaun mahatv diya hai. bhaktiyog men eeshvar ka nirntar chintan anivary batalaya gaya hai. is chintan ka roop premamay bhi ho sakata hai. kintu isake madhyam se mumukshu eeshvar ki or unmukh hota hai, use eeshvar ki pratyakshanubhooti nahin hoti. isiliye ramanuj jivan mukti ko nahin manate. vah to videh mukti ke bad narayan ke lok men hi snbhav hai. prapati aur bhakti ke madhyam se hi eeshvar kripa ke phalasvaroop mukti snbhav hai. madhvachary bhi moksh ke liye bhakti ko sadhan manate hain. isi bhakti ke karan jiv ko eeshvar ka prasad prapt hota hai aur vah moksh prapt kar leta hai .


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. moksh (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 23 sitambar, 2015.

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