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muhammad hidayatullah
Muhammad-Hidayatullah.jpg
poora nam nyayadhish muhammad hidayatullah
janm 17 disambar, 1905
janm bhoomi nagapur (maharashtr)
mrityu 18 sitambar, 1992 (umr- 86)
mrityu sthan munbee, bharat
abhibhavak khan bahadur hafij vilayatullah, muhammadi begam
pati/patni pushpa shah
sntan arashad, avani
nagarikata bharatiy
pad bharat ke chhathe uparashtrapati, karyavahak rashtrapati, 11ven mukhy nyayadhish
shiksha snatak
vidyalay maauris kaaulej, triniti kaaulej kaimbrij
bhasha hindi, angrezi
puraskar-upadhi khan bahadur, kesari hind
rachanaen di sauth vest aphrika kes, demokresi in indiya end d jyoodishiyan proses, e jajsh miselani, e jajsh miselani seknd sirij, e jajsh miselani thard sirij adi

muhammad hidayatullah (angrezi: Mohammad Hidayatullah, janm: 17 disambar 1905; mrityu: 18 sitambar 1992) bharat ke pahale muslim mukhy nyayadhish the. muhammad hidayatullah ko bharat ke pratham karyavahak rashtrapati kahana zyada upayukt hoga, kyonki yah bharat ki snvaidhanik vyavastha ke anusar nirvachit rashtrapati nahin the. unhonne do avasaron par bharat ke karyavahak rashtrapati ke roop men bhi karyabhar snbhala tha. isake sath hi vo ek poore karyakal ke lie bharat ke chhathe uparashtrapati bhi rahe.

jivan parichay

muhammad hidayatullah ke purakhe moolat: banaras ke rahane vale the jinaki ginati shikshit viddhanon men hoti thi. muhammad hidayatullah ka janm 17 disambar 1905 ko nagapur (maharashtr) men hua tha. inake dada shri munshi kudaratullah banaras men vakil the jabaki inake pita khan bahadur hafij vilayatullah aee.es.o. majistret mukhyalay men tainat the. inake pita kafi pratibhashali the aur pratyek shaikshik imtahan men pratham shreni men uttirn hote the. inake pita hafij vilayatullah 1928 men bhandara se dipti kamishnar evn distrikt ke pad se sevanivritt hue the. muhammad hidayatullah ke do bhaee aur ek bahan thi. unamen sabase chhote yahi the. muhammad hidayatullah ki mata ka nam muhammadi begam tha jinaka talluk madhy pradesh ke ek dharmik parivar se tha, jo hndiya men nivas karata tha. muhammad hidayatullah ki mata ka nidhan 31 julaee, 1937 ko hua tha.

sarakari seva men rahate hue british sarakar ne shri hidayatullah ke pita ko khan bahadur ki upadhi, kesari hind padak, bharatiy seva samman aur sent jons embulens ka baij pradan kiya tha. inake pita akhil bharatiy star ke kavi bhi the aur matr 9 varsh ki umr men hi inhen vidvatta ki pratik muslim padavi hafij ki prapti ho gee thi. unhonne farasi evn urdoo bhasha men kavitaen likhi. munbee ke kutub prakashan ne inaki kavitaon ka sngrah 'soj-e-gudaj' ke nam se prakashit kiya tha. inake pita ki doosari pustak 'tamir-e-hayat' shirshak se prakashit huee, jo gnbhir darshanik pady roop men thi. hidayatullah ke pita 6 varshon tak vidhayika parishad ke sadasy bhi rahe. muhammad hidayatullah ke pita ka nidhan navambar, 1949 ko hua tha.

shiksha

hidayatullah ka parivar shiksha se roshan tha aur usake mahattv ko bhi samajhata tha. is karan hidayatullah evn unake donon bhaee ikaramullah aur ahamadullah ko bhi achchhi shiksha prapt karane ka mauqa shuroo se hi mila. us samay uchch koti ke skoolon men hi ganavesh paddhati thi. hidayatullah ne jivan ke 6 arnbhik varsh nagapur men hi vyatit kie. 1921 men yah maitrik pariksha hetu yogyata arjit kar chuke the. lekin inhen 1921 men maitrik pariksha men baithane ka avasar is karan nahin prapt hua, kyonki us samay inaki umr 16 varsh poori nahin huee thi. tab yah niyam tha ki maitrik ki pariksha vahi vidyarthi de sakata hai, jisane 16 varsh ki umr prapt kar li ho. is karan hidayatullah ne 1922 men maitrik ki pariksha uttirn ki. tab yah rayapur ke sarakari skool men the aur pariksha men pratham ane ke karan inhen 'philips skaaularaship' prapt huee.

svarn padak

hidayatullah ne age ki padhaee ke lie maauris kaaulej men dakhila liya aur kala ki snatak stariy pariksha di. is pariksha men inhen doosara sthan prapt hua. yah ek nambar se pratham sthan pane se vnchit rah ge tathapi inhen svarn padak se sammanit kiya gaya. sanh 1926 men hidayatullah apane bhaee ahamadullah ke sath lndan ge. vahan unhonne kuchh imtahan die. usake bad 1927 men triniti kaaulej kaimbrij men qanoon vishay men dakhila le liya. inhen padhane ka shauq tha. is karan angrezi ko bhi inhonne atirikt vishay ke roop men liya. phir joon, 1930 men bharat ane se poorv unhonne vakalat ki pariksha 'linkns inn' se uttirn ki. lekin vah vakalat ki uchch shiksha nahin prapt kar sake.

hidayatullah ki ichchha

bharat ane ke bad hidayatullah ne 1930 se 1936 tak nagapur haee kort men praivet praiktis ki. in chhah varshon men bataur edavoket inhonne kafi khyati arjit ki. unaki ichchha thi ki vah jivan men adhyapan ka kary karen. bhagy ne em. hidayatullah ko yah avasar bhi 1934 se 1942 tak pradan kiya. vah part taim profesar ke roop men nagapur vishvavidyalay men qanoon vishay ka adhyapan karane lage.

hidayatullah behad saralata evn manornjakata ke sath kaksha men lekchars dete the. inake vidyarthiyon ko inake lekchars kafi prabhavit karate the. inake sathi vyakhyata bhi inhen kafi pasnd karate the. kuchh samay uparant vah nagapur vishvavidyalay dvara snchalit vidhi snkay ke din bhi ban ge. bahut kam logon ko yah janakari hogi ki hamare poorv pradhanamntri pi.vi. narasimharav bhi vahan inake vidyarthi the.

is prakar sidhi dar sidhi chadhate hue muhammad hidayatullah ne jivan men oonche mukam hasil kie. vah nagapur haee kort men 1936 se 1942 tak edavoket tatha 1942 se 1943 tak sarakari vakil rahe. is prakar taraqqi karate hue yah british saltanat ke samay 24 joon 1946 ko nagapur haee kort ke karyavahak jaj bhi bane. inhen 13 agast 1946 ko paramparagat roop se jaj banaya gaya aur 1954 tak yah is pad par rahe.

dampaty jivan

5 mee 1948 ko em. hidayatullah ne 43 varsh ki umr men ek hindoo yuvati pushpa ke sath antarjatiy vivah kar liya. pushpa achchhe khanadan se thin aur unake pita e. en. shah (aee.si.es. cheyaramain) akhil bharatiy inakam taiks apilet tribyoonal the. is vivah ka nagapur men tatkalin paristhitiyon men kafi samman hua aur samaj ke sabhi vargon ne donon ke parivaron ko hardik shubhakamanaen bhi din.

shadi ke agale hi varsh hidayatullah ko putr ki prapti huee, jisaka nam arashad rakha gaya. doosari sntan ke roop men inhen putri huee, jisaka nam avani rakha gaya. lekin 9 joon 1960 ko putri avani ki mrityu ho gee. bad men arashad bhi ek saphal edavoket bane aur unaka vivah deshapnt ki bhanji nayanatara ke sath 1977 men sampann hua.

vyavasayik jivan

1956 tak em. hidayatullah nagapur haeekort ke chiph jastis pad par the. isake poorv yah skool kod kameti aur kort phi rivijan kameti ke prabhari bhi rahe. 1 navambar 1956 ko jab rajyon ke punargathan ka kary sampann hua to unhen jabalapur (madhy pradesh) uchch nyayalay ka mukhy nyayadhish banaya gaya. vahan unhonne 25 mah tak us pad par kary kiya. 1958 men yah uchchatam nyayalay ki bainch men a ge aur jaj ka ohada prapt hua.

kam umr ke mukhy nyayadhish

is prakar 1942 tak hi em. hidayatullah ke vyaktitatv ke kee pahaloo samane a ge the. yah shikshavid the, jyoorist the, sabase kam umr ke sarakari vakil the aur edavoket janaral bhi the. 1954 men yah haee kort ke sabase kam umr ke mukhy nyayadhish bhi bane. lekin inake jivan ko sarvochchata pradan karane vala saubhagyashali din to 25 faravari 1968 ka tha, jab yah uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish bane.

is prakar uchch pnkti ke vakil se es. hidayatullah ne nyayik vyavastha ka sarvochch pad prapt kiya. desh ke vibhajan ke bad inhen pakistan le jane ke lie lubhane ki bhi koshishen ki gee thin. inhen bharat men zindagi kho dene ka bhay bhi dikhaya gaya tha, lekin bharat ka mukhy nyayadhish banakar unhonne yah sabit kar diya ki dharmik adhar par muslimon ke man men jo ashnkaen thin, vah sarvatha nirmool thin.

nyayadhish ke roop men

ek jaj ke roop men hidayatullah ke karyakal ka arnbh 24 joon 1946 se arnbh hua jo 16 disambar 1970 tak jari raha. bharat men is pad par rahate hue kisi bhi any vyakti ne itana lamba karyakal nahin guzara. sevanivritt hone ke do din bad yah munbee chale ge. 1971 men inhonne belagred men vishv ke jajon ki asembali men shirakat ki. ravindranath taigor aur pandit neharoo ke bad inhen hi nait aauf mark tven ki upadhi 1972 men amerika ki 'intaraneshanal mark tven sosaiti' ne pradan ki.

karyavahak rashtrapati pad par

bharat ke gyani snvidhan nirmataon ne rashtrapati nirvachan ke snbndh men to avashyak niyam banae the, lekin unhonne ek bhool kar di thi. unhonne uparashtrapati ko rashtrapati pad ka davedar man liya, yadi kisi karanavash rashtrapati ka pad rikt ho jata hai to aisi sthiti men rashtrapati pad kise aur kaise pradan kiya jae? yah sthiti 3 mee, 1969 ko daau. zakir husain ke rashtrapati pad par rahate hue mrityu hone se utpann huee. tab varahagiri venkat giri ko anan-phanan men karyavahak rashtrapati banaya gaya, jisaka snvidhan men pravadhan tha. lekin bharatiy snvidhan ke anusar rashtrapati pad hetu nirvachan kiya jata hai. karyavahak rashtrapati banane ke bad bhi shri vi.vi giri rashtrapati ka chunav ladana chahate the. lekin isake lie vah karyavahak rashtrapati athava uparashtrapati pad ka tyag karake hi ummidavar ban sakate the. aisi sthiti men do snvaidhanik prashn uth khade hue jisake bare men snvidhan men koee vyavastha nahin ki gee thi. pratham prashn yah tha ki karyavahak rashtrapati rahate hue shri vi.vi giri apana tyagapatr kisake supurd karen aur dvitiy prashn tha ki vah kis pad ka tyag karen- uparashtrapati pad ka athava karyavahak rashtrapati ka? tab vi.vi. giri ne visheshgyon se paramarsh karake uparashtrapati pad se 20 julaee 1969 ko din ke 12 baje ke poorv apana tyagapatr de diya. yah tyagapatr bharat ke rashtrapati ko sambodhit kiya gaya tha. yahan yah batana bhi prasngik hoga ki karyavahak rashtrapati pad par vah 20 julaee, 1969 ke prat: 10 baje tak hi the. yah sara ghatanakram is karan sampadit hua kyonki 28 mee 1969 ko snsad ki sabha ahoot ki gee aur adhiniyam 16 ke antargat yah qanoon banaya gaya ki rashtrapati aur uparashtrapati donon ki anupasthiti men bharat ke uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish athava inaki anupasthiti men uchchatam nyayalay ke sabase varishth nyayadhish ko rashtrapati pad ki shapath grahan karaee ja sakati hai. isi pariprekshy men nee vyavastha ke antargat yah sambhav ho paya ki rashtrapati evn uparashtrapati donon ka pad rikt rahane ki sthiti men mukhy nyayadhish, sarvochch nyayalay ko karyavahak rashtrapati banaya ja sakata hai. is vyavastha ke pashchatt sarvochch nyayalay ke tatkalin mukhy nyayadhish muhammad hidayatullah bharat ke ne karyavahak rashtrapati ke roop men shapath grahan kar sake. is prakar 1969 ko parit adhiniyam 16 ke anusar ravivar 20 julaee 1969 ko prat:kal 10 baje rashtrapati bhavan ke ashok kaksh men inhen karyavahak rashtrapati ke roop men pad evn gopaniyata ki shapath dilaee gee. karyavahak rashtrapati banane se poorv em. hidayatullah ko sarvochch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ka pad chhodana pada tha. tab us pad par je. si. shah ko naya karyavahak mukhy nyayadhish banaya gaya tha. inhin karyavahak mukhy nyayadhish, sarvochch nyayalay ne em. hidayatullah ko karyavahak rashtrapati pad ki shapath dilaee. vah 35 din tak karyavahak rashtrapati ke pad par rahe. 20 julaee 1969 ke madhyahn se 24 agast, 1969 ke madhyahn tak ka samay inake karyavahak rashtrapati vala samay tha. is prakar apratyashit paristhiti ke chalate inhen karyavahak rashtrapati ka padabhar snbhalana pada.

uparashtrapati

31 agast 1979 ko shri hidayatullah ko sarvasammati se bharat ka uparashtrapati chuna gaya. inhonne apana uparashtrapati karyakal 31 agast 1984 ki avadhi tak poorn kiya. 1979 se 1984 tak uparashtrapati rahate hue vah jamiya miliya islamiya, dilli aur pnjab vishvavidyalayon ke kulapati bhi rahe. 4 aktoobar 1991 ko inhen 'bharatiy vidya parishad' ki manad sadasyata bhi di gee. is prakar inhonne pratyek pad ko poorn garima pradan ki. uparashtrapati pad ka karyakal poorn karane ke bad em. hidayatullah ne azad pnchhi jaisi khushi mahasoos ki. unhonne ek bahut bade dayitv ko nishthapoorvak nibhaya tha. is dauran yah uparashtrapati hone ke karan rajyasabha ke sabhapati bhi the. lekin in par kabhi bhi pad ke durupayog athava pakshapat karane ka arop nahin laga. rajyasabha men yah sabhi sadasyon ke chahete mitr ki bhanti rahe. avakash grahan kar lene ke bad jane-mane rajanetaon ne inaki muktaknth se prashnsa ki. jab yah uparashtrapati pad ka karyakal poorn karane ke bad munbee ravana hue to nee dilli relave steshan par unhen bhavabhini vidaee dene valon men pradhanamntri shrimati indira gandhi, uparashtrapati ar. venkataraman, grihamntri narasimharav aur uchch adhikarigan sammilit the.

upalabdhiyan

29 sitambar 1984 ko dilli vishvavidyalay ke vishesh dikshant samaroh men hidayatullah ko daauktar aauf sivil laau ki manad upadhi se sammanit kiya gaya. inhonne apani paitrik parampara ka nirvah karate hue paradada, dada evn pita ki bhanti upayogi pustakon ka bhi srijan kiya.

rachanaen

hidayatullah ne anek pustaken likhin jinamen se kuchh is prakar hain.

  • 'di sauth vest aphrika kes',
  • 'demokresi in indiya end d jyoodishiyan proses',
  • 'e jajsh miselani' (1972 men prakashit)
  • 'e jajsh miselani seknd sirij' (1979 men prakashit),
  • 'e jajsh miselani thard sirij' (1982 men prakashit),
  • 'kansatityooshanal laau aauf indiya' (tin khandon men) ,
  • 'taharir-o-tabir' (urdoo ke bhashan),
  • 'rait too praauparti end d indiyan kansatityooshan',
  • 'naubar-e-sikandari',
  • 'yoo es. e. end indiya',
  • 'jyoodishiyanal methads',
  • 'mullas muhammadan laau' (16 van, 17 van tatha 18 van snskaran) aur
  • 'd phiphth end d siksth shidyools too d kansatityooshan aauf indiya.'

hidayatullah ne apani jivani 'maee on baausavail' bhi likhi jo behad dilachasp bhasha men thi. yah pustak ek samany vyakti se lekar vakil tak ke lie manornjan se paripoorn thi.

nidhan

manav jivan ki antim trasadi yah hai ki vah nashvar hai, shashvat nahin. em. hidayatullah ne bhi eeshvar ki nashvarata ke niyam ka anupalan karate hue 18 sitambar 1992 ko hridayaghat ke karan apana sharir tyag diya. inaka nidhan munbee men hua tha. ek insan ke roop men inaka jivan manav jati ke lie sadaiv prerana ka srot rahega. vah ek aisi shakhsiyat the, jisake sampark men aya vyakti inhen kabhi nahin bhool sakata tha. bharat mata ke is sachche sapoot ko usake manaviy gunon ke karan yad kiya jata rahega.


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