मौर्य काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maury kal
ashok ke samrajy ki sima ka manachitr
vivaran 'maury kal' prachin bharat ke itihas men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai. chndragupt maury, chanaky, bindusar tatha samrat ashok adi jaise prasiddh vyakti isi kal men hue.
maury kal 322-185 eesa poorv
pramukh shasak chndragupt maury, bindusar, ashok, kunal
shasan is kal men kendriy shasan ka prachalan tha aur raja ko daiviy adhikar prapt the.
prasiddh nagar pali evn snskrit grnthon men ullekhit magadh, pataliputr, takshashila, kaushanbi, shravasti, ayodhya, kapilavastu, varanasi, vaishali, rajagir, kndhar adi nagar maury kal men kafi samriddh the.
snbndhit lekh ashok ke shilalekh, mauryayugin puratatvik snskriti, mauryakal men das pratha, maury kal ka shasan prabndh, mauryakalin kala, bauddh dharm, maury samrajy ka patan
any janakari mauryayugin puratatvik snskriti men uttari kali paaulish ke mridabhandon ki jis snskriti ka pradurbhav mahatma buddh ke kal men hua tha, vah maury yug men apani charam sima par drishtigochar hoti hai. is snskriti ka vivaran uttar, uttar pashchim, poorv evn dakkan ke vihngam kshetr men prasar ho chuka tha.

maury rajavnsh (322-185 eesa poorv) prachin bharat ka ek rajavnsh tha. eesa poorv 326 men sikandar ki senaen pnjab ke vibhinn rajyon men vidhvnsak yuddhon men vyast thin. madhy pradesh aur bihar men nnd vnsh ka raja dhanannd shasan kar raha tha. sikandar ke akraman se desh ke lie snkat paida ho gaya tha. dhanannd ka saubhagy tha ki vah is akraman se bach gaya. yah kahana kathin hai ki desh ki raksha ka mauqa padane par nnd samrat yoonaniyon ko pichhe hatane men samarth hota ya nahin. magadh ke shasak ke pas vishal sena avashy thi, kintu janata ka sahayog use prapt nahin tha. praja usake atyacharon se pidit thi. asahy kar-bhar ke karan rajy ke log usase asntusht the. desh ko is samay ek aise vyakti ki avashyakata thi, jo magadh samrajy ki raksha tatha vriddhi kar sake. videshi akraman se utpann snkat ko door kare aur desh ke vibhinn bhagon ko ek shasan-sootr men bandhakar chakravarti samrat ke adarsh ko charitarth kare. shighr hi rajanitik mnch par ek aisa vyakti prakat bhi hua. is vyakti ka nam tha- 'chndragupt'. jastin adi yoonani vidvanon ne ise 'sendrokottas' kaha hai. viliyam jaauns pahale vidvanh the, jinhonne sendrokottas' ki pahachan bharatiy grnthon ke 'chndragupt' se ki hai. yah pahachan bharatiy itihas ke tithikram ki adharashila ban gee hai.

chndragupt maury

chndragupt ke vnsh aur jati ke sambandh men vidvanh ekamat nahin hain. kuchh vidvanon ne brahman grnthon, mudrarakshas, vishnupuran ki madhyakalin tika tatha 10vin shatabdi ki dhundiraj dvara rachit 'mudrarakshas' ki tika ke adhar par chndragupt ko 'shoodr' mana hai. chndragupt ke vnsh ke sambandh men brahman, bauddh evn jain paramparaon v anushrutiyon ke adhar par keval itana hi kaha ja sakata hai ki vah kisi kulin gharane se sambandhit nahin tha. videshi vrittanton evn ullekhon se bhi sthiti kuchh aspasht hi bani rahati hai.

rajanitik paristhitiyan

jis samay chndragupt maury samrajy ke nirman men tatpar tha, sikandar ka senapati selyookas apani mahanata ki ninv dal raha tha. sikandar ki mrityu ke bad usake senaniyon men yoonani samrajy ki satta ke lie sngharsh hua, jisake parinamasvaroop selyookas, pashchim eshiya men prabhutv ke mamale men, aintigonas ka pratidvandvi bana. ee. poo. 312 men usane bebilon par apana adhikar sthapit kiya. isake bad usane eeran ke vibhinn rajyon ko jitakar baiktriya par adhikar kiya. apane poorvi abhiyan ke dauran vah bharat ki or badha. ee. poo. 305-4 men kabul ke marg se hote hue vah sindhu nadi ki or badha. usane sindhu nadi par ki aur chndragupt ki sena se usaka samana hua. selyookas pnjab aur sindhu par apana prabhutv punah sthapit karane ke uddeshy se aya tha. kintu is samay ki rajanitik sthiti sikandar ke akraman ke samay se kafi bhinn thi. pnjab aur sindhu ab paraspar yuddh karane vale chhote-chhote rajyon men vibhikt nahin the, balki ek samrajy ka ang the. ashchary ki bat hai ki yoonani tatha romi lekhak, selyookas aur chndragupt ke bich hue yuddh ka koee vistrit byaura nahin dete.

  • keval eppiyanas ne likha hai ki- "selyookas ne sindhu nadi par ki aur bharat ke samrat chndragupt se yuddh chheda. ant men unamen sndhi ho gee aur vaivahik sambandh sthapit ho gaya."
  • jastin ke anusar chndragupt se sndhi karake aur apane poorvi rajy ko shant karake selyookas entigonas se yuddh karane chala gaya. eppiyanas ke kathan se spasht hai ki selyookas chndragupt ke viruddh saphalata prapt nahin kar saka. apane poorvi rajy ki suraksha ke lie selyookas ne chndragupt se sndhi karana hi uchit samajha aur us sndhi ko usane vaivahik sambandh se aur adhik pusht kar liya.

bindusar

  • chndragupt ki mrityu ke pashchath usaka putr 'bindusar' samrat bana. yoonani lekhon ke anusar usaka nam 'amitrakete' tha. vidvanon ke anusar 'amitrakete' ka snskrit roop hai- 'amitraghat' ya 'amitrakhad' arthat "shatruon ka nash karane vala".
  • straivo ke anusar selyookas ke uttaradhikari 'entiyokas pratham' ne apana rajadoot 'dayamekas' bindusar ke darabar men bheja tha.
  • plini ke anusar 'taaulami dvitiy' philedelphas ne dayoniyas ko bindusar ke darabar men niyukt kiya.
  • apane pita ki bhanti bindusar bhi jigyasu tha aur vidvanon tatha darshanikon ka adar karata tha. aitheniyas ke anusar bindusar ne entiyokas (siriya ka shasak) ko ek yoonani darshanik bhejane ke lie likha tha. divyavadan ki ek katha ke anusar ajivak parivrajak bindusar ki sabha ko sushobhit karate the.
  • puranon ke anusar bindusar ne 24 varsh tak, kintu mahavnsh ke anusar 27 varsh tak rajy kiya. daau. radha kumud mukharji ne bindusar ki mrityu tithi eesa poorv 272 nirdharit ki hai. kuchh any vidvanh yah manate hain ki bindusar ki mrityu eesa poorv 270 men huee.

ashok

ashok
Ashoka

ashok (kal eesa poorv 269-232) prachin bharat men maury rajavnsh ka raja tha. ashok ka 'devanam priy' evn 'priyadarshi' adi namon se bhi ullekh kiya jata hai. usake samay maury rajy uttar men hindukush ki shreniyon se lekar dakshin men godavari nadi ke dakshin tatha maisoor, karnatak tak tatha poorv men bngal se pashchim men afaganistan tak pahunch gaya tha. yah us samay tak ka sabase bada bharatiy samrajy tha. samrat ashok ko apane vistrit samrajy ke behatar kushal prashasan tatha bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie jana jata hai. jivan ke uttarardh men ashok gautam buddh ke bhakt ho gaya aur unhin mahatma buddh ki smriti men unhonne ek stambh khada kar diya jo aj bhi nepal men unake janmasthal-lumbini men mayadevi mandir ke pas ashok sh‍tamh‍bh ke roop men dekha ja sakata hai. usane bauddh dharm ka prachar bharat ke alava shrilnka, afaganistan, pashchim eshiya, misr tatha yoonan men bhi karavaya. ashok ke abhilekhon men praja ke prati kalyanakari drishtikon ki abhivyakti ki gee hai|

bindusar ka putr "ashok mahan"

ashok prachin bharat ke maury samrat bindusar ka putr tha, jisaka janm lagabhag 304 ee. poorv men mana jata hai. bhaiyon ke sath grih-yuddh ke bad 272 ee. poorv ashok ko rajagaddi mili aur 232 ee. poorv tak usane shasan kiya. arnbh men ashok bhi apane pitamah chndragupt maury aur pita bindusar ki bhanti yuddh ke dvara samrajy vistar karata gaya. kashmir, kaling tatha kuchh any pradeshon ko jitakar usane snpoorn bharat men apana samrajy sthapit kar liya, jisaki simaen pashchim men eeran tak phaili huee thin. parntu kaling yuddh men jo janahani huee usaka ashok ke hriday par bada prabhav pada aur vah hinsak yuddhon ki niti chhodakar dharm vijay ki or agrasar hua. ashok ki prasiddhi itihas men usake samrajy vistar ke karan nahin varanh dharmik bhavana aur manavatavad ke pracharak ke roop men adhik hai.

bindusar ki mrityu ke bad ashok raja hua. ashok ke sambandh men janakari prapt karane men pramukh sadhan usake shilalekh tatha stnbhon par utkirn abhilekh hain. kintu ye abhilekh ashok ke prarambhik jivan par koee prakash nahin dalate. inake lie hamen snskrit tatha pali men likhe hue bauddh grnthon par hi nirbhar rahana padata hai. paramparanusar ashok ne apane bhaiyon ka hanan karake sinhasan prapt kiya tha.

takshashila aur kaling

apane rajyabhishek ke naven varsh tak ashok ne maury samrajy ki paramparagat niti ka hi anusaran kiya. ashok ne desh ke andar samrajy vistar kiya, kintu doosare deshon ke sath maitripoorn vyavahar ki niti apanaee.

bharat ke andar ashok ek vijeta raha. usane khas, nepal ko vijit kiya aur takshashila ke vidroh ka shant kiya. apane rajyabhishek ke naven varsh men ashok ne kaling par vijay prapt ki. aisa pratit hota hai ki nnd vnsh ke patan ke bad kaling svatntr ho gaya tha. plini ki pustak men uddhat megasthaniz ke vivaran ke anusar chndragupt maury ke samay men kaling ek svatntr rajy tha. 'ashok ke shilalekh' ke anusar yuddh men mare ge tatha qaid kie hue sipahiyon ki snkhya dhaee lakh thi aur isase bhi kee gune sipahi yuddh men ghayal hue the. magadh ki simaon se jude hue aise shaktishali rajy ki sthiti ke prati magadh shasak udasin nahin rah sakata tha. kharavel ke samay magadh ko kaling ki shakti ka katu anubhav tha. suraksha ki drishti se kaling ka jitana avashyak tha. kuchh itihasakaron ke anusar kaling ko jitane ka doosara karan bhi tha. dakshin ke sath sidhe sampark ke lie samudri aur sthal marg par mauryon ka niyntran avashyak tha. kaling yadi svatntr desh rahata to samudri aur sthal marg se hone vale vyapar men rukavat pad sakati thi. atah kaling ko magadh samrajy men milana avashyak tha. kintu yah koee prabal karan pratit nahin hota, kyonki is drishti se to chndragupt ke samay se hi kaling ko magadh samrajy men mila lena chahie tha. kautily ke vivaran se spasht hai ki vah dakshin ke sath vyapar ka mahattv deta tha. vijit kaling rajy magadh samrajy ka ek ang ho gaya. rajavnsh ka koee rajakumar vahan vaisaray (uparaja) niyukt kar diya gaya. tosali is prant ki rajadhani banaee gee thi.

hriday parivartan

kaling yuddh men hue narasnhar tatha vijit desh ki janata ke kasht se ashok ki antaratma ko tivr aghat pahuncha. yuddh ki bhishanata ka ashok par gahara prabhav pada. ashok ne yuddh ki niti ko sada ke lie tyag diya aur 'digvijay' ke sthan par 'dhamm vijay' ki niti ko apanaya. da. hemachndr rayachaudhari ke anusar magadh ka samrat banane ke bad yah ashok ka pratham tatha antim yuddh tha.

samrajy ki sima

ashok ke shilalekhon tatha stnbhalekhon se ashok ke samrajy ki sima ki thik janakari prapt hoti hai. shila tatha stnbhalekhon ke vivaran se hi nahin, varanh jahan se abhilekh pae ge hain, un sthanon ki sthiti se bhi sima nirdharan karane men sahayata milati hai. in abhilekhon men janata ke lie raja ki ghoshanaen thin. atah ve ashok ke vibhinn pranton men abadi ke mukhy kendron men utkirn karae ge. kuchh abhilekh simant sthanon par pae jate hain. uttar-pashchim men shahabazagadhi aur manasehara men ashok ke shilalekh pae ge. isake atirikt takshashila men aur qabul pradesh men lamagan men ashok ke lekh aramaik lipi men milate hain. ek shilalekh men entiyokas dvitiy thiyos ko padosi raja kaha gaya hai. isase spasht hai ki uttar-pashchim men ashok ke samrajy ki sima hindukush tak thi.

shilalekh aur stoop

poorv men bngal tak maury samrajy ke vistrit hone ki pushti mahasthan shilalekh se hoti hai. yah abhilekh brahmi lipi men hai aur maury kal ka mana jata hai. 'mahavnsh' ke anusar ashok apane putr ko vida karane ke lie tamralipti tak aya tha. chini yatri hvenasang ko bhi tamralipti, karnasuvarn, samatat, poorvi bngal tatha pundravardhan men ashok ke stoop dekhane ko mile the. 'divyavadan' men kaha gaya hai ki ashok ke samay tak bngal magadh samrajy ka hi ek ang tha. asam kadachith maury samrajy se bahar tha. vahan par ashok ke koee smarak chini yatri ko dekhane ko nahin mile.

rajyon se snbndh

yadyapi ashok ka samrajy vistrit tha tathapi samrajy ke antargat sabhi deshon par usaka sidha shasan tha. ashok ke panchave aur terahaven shilalekh men kuchh janapadon tatha jatiyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. jaise- yavan, kamboj, nabhak, nabhapnkti, bhoj, pitanik, andhr, pulind. repsan ka vichar hai ki ye desh tatha jatiyan ashok dvara jite ge rajy ke antargat n hokar prabhav kshetr men the.

dharm parivartan

isamen koee sndeh nahin ki apane poorvajon ki tarah ashok bhi brahman dharm ka anuyayi tha. 'mahavnsh' ke anusar vah pratidin 60,000 brahmanon ko bhojan diya karata tha aur anek devi-devataon ki pooja kiya karata tha. kalhan ki 'rajatarngini' ke anusar ashok ke isht dev bhagavan shiv the. pashubali men use koee hichak nahin thi. kintu apane poorvajon ki tarah vah jigyasu bhi tha. maury rajy sabha men sabhi dharmon ke vidvanh bhag lete the, jaise- brahman, darshanik, nigrnth, ajivak, bauddh tatha yoonani darshanik.

snsar ke itihas men ashok isalie vikhyat hai ki usane nirantar manav ki naitik unnati ke lie prayas kiya. jin siddhanton ke palan se yah naitik utthan sambhav tha, ashok ke lekhon men unhen 'dhamm' kaha gaya hai. doosare tatha sataven stnbh-lekhon men ashok ne dhamm ki vyakhya is prakar ki hai- "dhamm hai sadhuta, bahut se kalyanakari achchhe kary karana, paparahit hona, mriduta, doosaron ke prati vyavahar men madhurata, daya-dan tatha shuchita." age kaha gaya hai ki- "praniyon ka vadh n karana, jivahinsa n karana, mata-pita tatha badon ki agya manana, gurujanon ke prati adar, mitr, parichiton, sambandhiyon, brahman tatha shravanon ke prati danashilata tatha uchit vyavahar aur das tatha bhrityon ke prati uchit vyavahar."

bauddh dharm

isamen koee sndeh nahin ki ashok bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha. sabhi bauddh grnth ashok ko bauddh dharm ka anuyayi batate hain. ashok ke bauddh hone ke sabal praman usake abhilekh hain. rajyabhishak se sambaddh laghu shilalekh men ashok ne apane ko 'buddhashaky' kaha hai. sath hi yah bhi kaha hai ki vah dhaee varsh tak ek sadharan upasak raha. bhabru laghu shilalekh men ashok triratn- buddh, dhamm aur sngh men vishvas karane ke lie kahata hai aur bhikshu tatha bhikshuniyon se kuchh bauddh grnthon ka adhyayan tatha shravan karane ke lie kahata hai.

dharm snbndhi shilalekh

shilaon tatha stnbhon par utkirn lekhon ke anushilan se ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki 'ashok ka dhamm' vyavaharik phalamoolak (arthat phal ko drishti men rakhane vala) aur atyadhik manaviy tha. is dharm ke prachar se ashok apane samrajy ke logon men tatha bahar achchhe jivan ke adarsh ko charitarth karana chahata tha. isake lie usane jahan kuchh baten lakar bauddh dharm men sudhar kiya, vahin logon ko dharm parivartan ke lie vivash nahin kiya.

mahattvapoorn yah hai ki ek shasak jisake pas nirnkush qanooni vidhan, vishal sena evn aparimit snsadhan ho, vah apane shilalekhon men svayn ko naitik moolyon ke vistarak ke roop men prastut kyon karata hai? vastutah yogy v kushal shasakon ki niyuktiyan sadaiv samrajy ki raksha ke lie nirmit ki jati hain| bauddh dharm ki shiksha ke kendr magadh men janamanas men shoshan ke viruddh vyapak chetana thi. samrat ashok ko bauddh dharm ka prachar karane aur stoopadi ko nirmit karane ki prerana dharmachary upagupt ne hi di. jab bhagavan buddh doosari bar mathura aye, tab unhonne bhavishyavani ki aur apane priy shishy annd se kaha ki- "kalantar men yahan 'upagupt' nam ka ek prasiddh dharmik vidvanh hoga, jo unhin ki tarah bauddh dharm ka prachar karega aur usake upadesh se anek bhikshu yogyata aur pad prapt karenge." is bhavishyavani ke anusar upagupt ne mathura ke ek vanik ke ghar janm liya. usaka pita sugndhit dravyon ka vyapar karata tha. upagupt atynt roopavan aur pratibhashali tha. upagupt kishoravastha men hi virakt hokar bauddh dharm ka anuyayi ho gaya tha. annd ke shishy 'shanakavasi' ne upagupt ko mathura ke nat-bhat vihar men bauddh dharm ke 'sarvastivadi snpraday' ki diksha di thi. kintu bauddh anushrutiyon aur ashok ke abhilekhon se yah siddh nahin hota ki usane kisi rajanitik uddeshy se dhamm ka prachar kiya. terahaven shilalekh aur laghu shilalekh se vidit hota hai ki ashok dharm parivartan ka kaling ke yuddh se nikat sambandh hai. itihasakar romila thapar ka mat hai ki dhamm kalpana ashok ki niji kalpana thi.

ahinsa ka prachar

ashok ne dhamm prachar ke lie badi lagan aur utsah se kam kiya. ahinsa ke prachar ke lie ashok ne kee qadam uthae. usane yuddh bnd kar die aur svayn ko tatha rajakarmachariyon ko manav-matr ke naitik utthan men lagaya. jivon ka vadh rokane ke lie ashok ne pratham shilalekh men vikshapti jari ki ki kisi ygy ke lie pashuon ka vadh n kiya jae.

videshon se sambandh

dhamm prachar evn dhamm vijay ke sndarbh men ashok ke shilalekhon men kuchh aise vivaran bhi milate hain, jinamen usake evn videshon ke parasparik sambandhon ka abhas milata hai. ye sambandh kootaniti evn bhaugolik sannidhy ke hiton par adharit the. ashok ne jo sampark sthapit kie, ve adhikanshatah dakshin evn pashchim kshetron men the aur dhamm mishanon ke madhyam se sthapit kie the. in mishanon ki tulana adhunik sadabhavana mishanon se ki ja sakati hai. ashok ke ye mishan sthayi taur par videshon men ek ashcharyajanak tathy hain ki stnbh abhilekh nn. 7, jo ashok ke kal ki akhiri ghoshana mani jati hai, tamraparn (shrilnka) ke atirikt aur kisi videshi shakti ka ullekh nahin karati. shayad videshon men ashok ko unati saphalata nahin mili jitani samrajy ke bhitar. phir bhi itana kaha ja sakata hai ki videshon se sampark ke jo dvar sikandar ke akraman ke pashchath khule the, ve ab aur adhik chaude ho ge.

yavan, kamboj evn gandhar

jahan tak pashchimi shaktiyon ka sambandh hai, shilalekh 5 evn 13 men yavanon, kambojon evn gandharon ka ullekh hai. kintu uttar-pashchim ki in shaktiyon ke pashchim men bhi kuchh aisi shaktiyan thin, jo ki sikandar ke akraman ke bad sthapit ho gee thin aur samany roop se yavan thin. inamen se kuchh ko ashok ne nam lekar abhihit kiya hai. ek sthan par ashok ne kaha hai ki- "usake dhamm mishan simavarti rajyon aur 600 yojan jaise sudoor kshetron men bhi pahunche the". shilalekh 2 evn 13 men yavan naresh antiyok ka ullekh hai, jo akhamani shasak entiyokas dvitiy mana jata hai. kaha jata hai ki ashok ne vishal patthar par ek abhilekh utkirn karavaya, jisaki ghoshanaon ki shaili akhamani praroop se prerit thi. bhashashastriy adhyayan se bhi in samparkon ki pushti hoti hai. ashok ke shahabajagadhi evn manasehara shilalekhon men kharoshthi lipi ka prayog evn kuchh eerani shabdon ka prayog bhi isi or snket karate hain. rudradaman ke joonagadh abhilekh men aparant (pashchim bharat) men ashok ke gavarnar ke roop men yonaraj tufask ka nam milata hai, jo spashtatah ek eerani nam hai. pashchim ke hi kuchh any nareshon ke nam ashok ke shilalekh nn. 13 men milate hain-

  1. 'turamay' arthath 'tulamay' - misr ka yavan naresh talmi dvitiy philadelphas (ee. poo. 285-47) tha.
  2. 'antikitani' arthath 'antekin' - mesidoniya ka yavan naresh aintigonas gonatas (ee. poo. 277-39).
  3. 'maka' arthath 'maga' - uttari aphrika men serin ka yavan naresh maga (ee. poo. 282-58).
  4. 'alikasundar' - aipiras ka yavan naresh elekzedar (ee. poo. 272-55) athava korins ka yavan naresh elekzedar (ee. poo. 252-44).

(ye char naresh antiyok ke rajy ke pare batae jate hain.)

dakshin

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Ashoka.jpg
har dasha men doosare sampradayon ka adar karana hi chahie. aisa karane se manushy apane sampraday ki unnati aur doosare sampradayon ka upakar karata hai. isake viparit jo karata hai, vah apane sampraday ki (jad) katata hai aur doosare sampradayon ka bhi apakar karata hai. kyonki jo apane sampraday ki bhakti men akar is vichar se ki mere sampraday ka gaurav badhe, apane sampraday ki prashnsa karata hai aur doosare sampraday ki ninda karata hai, vah aisa karake vastav men apane sampraday ko hi gahari hani pahunchata hai. isalie samavay (paraspar melajol se rahana) hi achchha hai arthath log ek-doosare ke dharm ko dhyan dekar sunen aur usaki seva karen. - samrat ashok mahan[1]

devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja aisa kahate hain... mainne yah (prabandh) kiya ki har samay chahe main khata hooon ya antahpur men rahoon ya garbhagar (shayanagrih) men hooon ya tahalata hooon ya savari par hooon ya kooch kar raha hooon, sabhi jagah kisi bhi samay par, prativedak (guptachar) praja ka hal mujhe sunaven. main praja ka kam sabhi jagah par karata hoon.… kyonki main kitana hi parishram karoon aur kitana hi rajakary karun mujhe santosh nahin hota. sab logon ka hit karana hi main apana pradhan kartavy samajhata hoon. par sabhi logon ka hit, parishram aur rajakary sampadan ke bina nahin ho sakata. sabhi logon ka hit karane se badhakar aur koee kary nahin hai. jo kuchh bhi parakram karata hoon, vah isilie ki praniyon ke prati jo mera rin hai, usase urin ho jaoon… adhik parishram ke bina yah kary kathin hai.- samrat ashok mahan[2] Blockquote-close.gif

dakshin men maury prabhav ke prasar ki jo prakriya chndragupt maury ke kal men arambh huee, vah ashok ke netritv men aur bhi adhik pusht huee. lagata hai ki chndragupt ki sainik prasar ki niti ne vah sthayi saphalata nahin prapt ki, jo ashok ki dhamm vijay ne ki thi. gavimath, palaki gundu, brahmagiri, maski, yerragundi, jating rameshvar adi sthalon par sthit ashok ke shilalekh isake praman hain. aur phir parivarti kalin sahity men, vishesh roop se dakshin men ashokaraj ki parampara kafi prachalit pratit hoti hai. hyoonatsang ne to chol-pandy rajyon men, jinhen svayn ashok ke shilalekh 2 evn 13 men simavarti pradesh bataya gaya hai, bhi ashokaraj ke dvara nirmit anek stoopon ka varnan kiya hai. yah sambhav hai ki kaling men ashok ki sainik vijay aur phir usake pashchath unake sauhardapoorn niti ne bhoj, pattanik, andhron, rashtrikon, satiyaputron evn keral putron jaisi shaktiyon ke bich maury prabhav ke prasar ko badhaya hoga. ashok aur shrilnka ke sambandh parasparik sadabhav, adar-samman evn barabari par adharit the, n ki samrajyik shakti evn ashrit shakti ke parasparik sambandhon par.

uparyukt videshi shaktiyon ke atirikt kuchh kshetr aise bhi hain, jinake sambandh men kuchh paramparaen evn kinvadantiyan prapt hain. udaharanarth kashmir sambhavatah any simavarti pradeshon ki tarah hi ashok ke samrajy se juda tha. madhy eshiya men sthit khotan ke rajy ke bare men ek tibbati parampara hai ki buddh ki mrityu ke 250 varsh ke bad arthath ee. poo. 236 men ashok khotan gaya tha. sambhavatah yah bhi dhamm mishan ke roop men hua hoga, kintu yah drishtavy hai ki svayn ashok ke abhilekhon men isaka koee ullekh nahin hai. isi prakar nepal ka kuchh ansh ashok ki yatra ke upalakshy men vahan ke karon ko kam karana kisi videshi rajy men sambhav nahin tha. phir bhi nepal ka shesh ansh sambhavatah maury samrajy se ghanishth sambandh banae hue hoga.

ashok shasak ke roop men

shasak sngathan ka praroop lagabhag vahi tha, jo chndragupt maury ke samay men tha. ashok ke abhilekhon men kee adhikariyon ka ullekh milata hai. jaise rajuku, pradeshik, yuktak adi. inamen adhikansh rajyadhikari chndragupt ke samay se chale a rahe the. ashok ne dharmik niti tatha praja ke kalyan ki bhavana se prerit hokar unake kartavyon men vistar kiya. keval dhamm mahamatron ki niyukti ek navin prakar ki niyukti thi. bauddh dharm grahan karane ke pashchath ashok ne dhamm prachar ke lie badi lagan aur utsah se kam kiya. parantu shasan ke prati vah qatee udasin nahin hua. 40 varsh tak rajy karane ke bad lagabhag ee. poo. 232 men ashok ki mrityu huee. usake bad lagabhag 50 varsh tak ashok ke anek uttaradhikariyon ne shasan kiya. kintu in maury shasakon ke sambandh men hamara gyan aparyapt tatha anishchit hai. puran, bauddh tatha jain anushrutiyon men in uttaradhikariyon ke namon ki jo soochiyan di gee hain, ve ek-doosare se mel nahin khati hain.

brahmanon ka samman

shilalekhon men aisi paryapt samagri milati hai, jisase yah siddh hota hai ki ashok brahmanon ka adar karata tha, unaki bhalaee men dilachaspi leta tha. vah brahmanon aur shramanon ko dan deta tha. ashok ke putron tatha brahmanon ke bich sngharsh ka koee praman nahin milata. isake viparit yadi kashmir ke brahman itihasakar kalhan par vishvas kiya jae to ashok ke uttaradhikari 'jalauk' aur brahmanon ke sambandh nitant maitripoorn the. pushyamitr shung ka maury samrajy ka senapati niyukt kiya jana hi ek prabal praman hai ki mauryon ki niti brahman virodhi nahin thi.

ashok ki shantipriyata tatha ahinsa

hemachndr rayachaudhari ke anusar ashok ki shantipriyata tatha ahinsa ki niti samrajy ke patan ka karan bani. kaling yuddh ke bad samrajy ki sena ka samarik utsah thnda pad gaya. ashok ne ashok ne yuddh vijay ki niti ko tyagakar dhamm vijay ki niti apana li. isase bhi samrajy ki shakti kshin huee. usane apane putron ko vilay aur raktapat n karane ka upadesh diya. usake uttaradhikari 'bherighosh' ki apeksha 'dhamm ghosh' se adhik parichit the. sena se rajaon ka sampark kam raha. ve desh ki ekata ko vighatit hone se bacha n sake. rajaon ka sena se kitana kam sampark tha yah is bat se spasht hai ki pushyamitr shung ne sena ke hi samaksh antim maury shasak brihadrath ka vadh kiya.

kee itihasakar hemachandr rayachaudhari ke is mat se sahamat nahin hain. nilaknth shastri ke anusar ashok ki shantipriyata men kattarata nahin thi. vah manaviy svabhav ki jatilata se achchhi tarah parichit tha aur isalie usane shantipriyata aur yuddhatyag ki niti ko sima ke andar hi niyntrit rakha. isaka koee praman nahin hai ki ashok ne sena bhng kar di. terahaven shilalekh men ashok ne atavik jatiyon ko jo chetavani di hai, usase spasht hai ki kshamashil hote hue bhi vah avasar padane par in atavik jatiyon ko uchit dnd dene se hichakata nahin tha. yah atavik rajyon ko ek shaktishali raja ki chetavani hai, jise apani sainyashakti par vishvas hai. ashok ki niti vyavaharik thi. isilie usane kaling ko svatntr nahin kiya. usaki ahinsa ki niti bhi vyavaharik thi.

ashok ke bad

puranon ke anusar ashok ke bad 'kunal' gaddi par baitha. 'divyavadan' men use 'dharmavivardhan' kaha gaya hai, kintu ashok ke aur bhi putr the. 'rajatarngini' ke anusar jalauk kashmir ka svatntr shasak ban gaya. taranath ke anusar 'virasen' ashok ka putr tha, jo gandhar ka svatntr shasak ban gaya. is prakar ham dekhate hain ki ashok ki mrityu ke bad hi samrajy ka vighatan ho gaya. kunal andha tha, atah vah shasan kary men asamarth tha. jain tatha bauddh grnthon ke anusar shasan ki bagador usake putr snprati ke hath men thi. in anushrutiyon ke anusar snprati hi kunal ka uttaradhikari tha. puranon tatha nagarjuni pahadiyon ki gufaon ke shilalekh ke anusar 'dasharath' kunal ka putr tha. nagarjuni gufaon ko dasharath ne ajivikon ko dan men diya tha. in pramanon ke adhar par yah mat prastut kiya gaya ki magadh samrajy do bhagon men vibhakt ho gaya. dasharath ka adhikar samrajy ke poorvi bhag men tatha snprati ka pashchimi bhag men tha. 'vishnu puran' tatha 'gargi snhita' ke anusar snprati tatha dasharath ke bad ullekhaniy maury shasak 'salisuk' tha. use snprati ka putr brihaspati bhi mana ja sakata hai. puranon men hi nahin varanh 'harshacharit' men bhi magadh ke antim samrat ka nam 'brihadrath' diya gaya hai. inake anusar maury vnsh ke antim samrat brihadrath ki, usake senapati pushyamitr ne hatya kar di aur svayn sinhasan par aroodh ho gaya.

mahendr aur putri snghamitra

ashok ne bauddh dharm grahan kiya, is dharm ke upadeshon ko n keval desh men varanh videshon men bhi pracharit karane ke lie prabhavashali qadam uthae. apane putr mahendr aur putri snghamitra ko ashok ne isi kary ke lie shrilnka bheja tha. ashok ne apane karyakal men anek shilalekh khudavae jinamen dharmopadeshon ko utkirn kiya gaya. rajashakti ko sarvapratham usane hi janakalyan ke vividh karyon ki or agrasar kiya. anek stoopon aur stnbhon ka nirman kiya gaya. inhin men se saranath ka prasiddh sinhashirsh stnbh bhi hai jo ab bharat ke rajachihn ke roop men sammanit hai.

ashok ki sahridayata, sahishnuta aur udarata

kuchh itihasakaron ka mat hai ki ashok ne dharmik kshetron ki or dhyan n dekar rashtriy drishti se hit sadhan nahin kiya. isase bharat ka rajanitik vikas rooka jabaki us samay roman samrajy ke saman vishal bharatiy samrajy ki sthapana snbhav thi. is niti se digvijayi sena nishkriy ho gee aur videshi akraman ka samana nahin kar saki. is niti ne desh ko bhautik samriddhi se vimukh kar diya jisase desh men rashtriyata ki bhavanaon ka vikas avaruddh ho gaya. doosari or any ka mat isase viparit hai. ve kahate hain isi niti se bharatiyata ka any deshon men prachar hua. ghrina ke sthan par sahridayata vikasit huee, sahishnuta aur udarata ko bal mila tatha barbarata ke krityon se bhare hue itihas ko ek nee disha ka bodh hua. lokahit ki drishti se ashok hi apane samakalin itihas ka ekamatr aisa shasak hai jisane n keval manav ki varanh jivamatr ki chinta ki. is mat-vibhinnata ke rahate hue bhi yah vichar sarvamany hai ki ashok apane kal ka akela samrat tha, jisaki prashasti usake gunon ke karan hoti aee hai bal ke dar se nahin.

maury samrajy ke patan ke karan

ashok ke bad hi maury samrajy ka patan arambh ho gaya tha aur lagabhag 50 varsh ke andar is samrajy ka ant ho gaya. itane alp samay men itane bade samrajy ka nasht ho jana ek aisi ghatana hai ki itihasakaron men samrajy vinash ke karanon ki jigyasa svabhavik hi hai.

mahamahopadhyay haraprasad shastri ne ashok ki dharmik niti ko samrajy ke patan ka mukhy karan mana hai. usake anusar ashok ki dharmik niti bauddhon ke paksh men thi aur brahmanon ke visheshadhikaron v unaki samajik shreshthata ki sthiti par kutharaghat karati thi. atah brahmanon men pratikriya huee, jisaki charamasima pushyamitr ke vidroh men drishtigochar hoti hai. is mat ka saphalatapoorvak virodh karate hue prasiddh itihasakar hemachndr rayachaudhari ka kahana hai ki ek to ashok ne pashubali par poorn pratibndh lagaya nahin tha aur phir svayn brahman grnthon men bhi ygyadi avasaron par pashu-bali ke virodh ke svar spasht sunaee de rahe the. atah ashok ke tathakathit pratibndh ko badha-chadha kar dikhaya gaya hai. dhammamahamatron ke dayitvon men aisa koee ullekh nahin hai, jise brahman virodhi kaha jae. ve to brahman, shraman adi sabhi ke kalyan ke lie the. rajukon jaise nyayadhikariyon ko jo adhikar die ge ve bhi brahmanon ke adhikaro par aghat karane ke uddeshy se nahin apitu dnd vidhan ko lokahit evn adhik manaviy banane ke uddeshy se prerit the aur n hi senani pushyamitr shung ke vidroh ko brahmanon dvara sngathit kranti kahana uchit hoga. yah to sainik kranti thi, jisamen dharm ka put nahin tha. aise koee praman nahin hain jinake adhar par yah kaha ja sake ki pushyamitr ki rajyakranti ka karan sena par poorn adhikar rakhane vale senapati ki mahattvakanksha thi, asntusht brahmanon ke ek samuday ka netritv nahin.

mauryakalin bharat

maury samrajy ki samajik arthik, shasan prabnndh tatha dharm aur kala sambandhi janakari ke lie kautily ka arthashastr, maigasthaniz krit indika tatha ashok ke abhilekhon ka thik se arth lagaya jae to pata chalega ki ve ek doosare ke poorak hain. rudradaman ke joonagadh shilalekh se bhi prantiy shasan ke sambandh men mahattvapoorn janakari prapt hoti hai. maury kal ki janakari ke lie arthashastr ki pramanikata ke sambandh men vidvanon men matabhed hai. paramparagat dharana ke adhar par ise chndragupt maury ke mntri chanaky (vishnugupt) dvara rachit manakar ee. poo. chauthi shatabdi ka bataya jata hai. kintu vaigyanik dhng se kie ge adhunik shodh ne is mat ke prati ashnka vyakt ki hai. is sndarbh men trantamain ke shodhakary ka ullekh anuchit n hoga. arthashastr ki shaili ke sankhyakiy vishleshan dvara unhonne spasht kiya hai ki isaki rachana ek yug vishesh men nahin apitu vibhinn shatabdiyon men huee aur isilie yah kisi vyakti vishesh ki rachana n hokar vibhinn hathon ki kriti hai. jahan kuchh adhyay maury kal ke hain vahan adhikansh adhyay aise bhi hain jo tisari, chauthi shatabdi eesvi men rache ge.

mauryayugin puratatvik snskriti

mauryayugin puratatvik snskriti men uttari kali paaulish ke mridabhandon ki jis snskriti ka pradurbhav mahatma buddh ke kal men hua tha, vah maury yug men apani charam sima par drishtigochar hoti hai. is snskriti ka vivaran uttar, uttar pashchim, poorv evn dakkan ke vihngam kshetr men isaka prasar ho chuka tha. uttar pashchim men kndhar, takshashila, udegram adi sthalon se lekar poorv men chndraketugadh tak, uttar men ropad, hastinapur, tilaurakot evn shravasti se lekar dakshin men brahmapuri, chhabroli adi tak is snskriti ke avashesh milate hain. pali evn snskrit grnthon men kaushanbi, shravasti, ayodhya, kapilavastu, varanasi, vaishali, rajagir, pataliputr adi jin nagaron ka ullekh milata hai, ve sabhi maury yug men paryapt pallavit avastha men the.

mauryakal men das pratha

  • mengasthaniz ne likha hai ki sabhi bharatavasi saman hain aur unamen koee das nahin hai.
  • dayodoras ne likha hai, "qanoon ke anusar unamen se koee bhi kisi bhi paristhiti men das nahin ho sakata."
  • megasthaniz ko hi uddhrit karate hue strabon ka kahana hai, "bharatiyon men kisi ne apani seva men das nahin rakhe."
  • ek any sthal par strabo ne kaha, "choonki unake pas das nahin hain, atah unhen bachchon ki adhik avashyakata hoti hai.

videshi shaktiyon ke vaktavyon ka shabdashah svikar nahin kiya ja sakata. kyoki kam se kam buddh ke kal se hi dason ko utpadan ke kam men lagaya jata tha aur pali tripitak men isake asnkhy ullekh hain. atah uparyukt vivaranon ki vyakhya vibhinn prakar se ki ja sakati hai. ho sakata hai ki megasthaniz ko bharat men dason ke prati svamiyon ke dvara vyavahar nirmal aur sadabhavanapoorn laga ho athava yah bhi sambhav hai ki usane kisi vishesh kshetr ka hi ullekh kiya ho. ek sthan par to kautily ne likha hai ki n tvevaryasy dasavah, arthat kisi bhi paristhiti men ary ke lie dasata nahin hogi. is sndarbh men megasthaniz ke kathan ka yah arth ho sakata hai ki svatntr logon ko ajivan dasata men parinat karane ki simaen thin.

maury kal ka shasan prabndh

mauryon ke shasanakal men bharat ne pahali bar rajanitik ekata prapt ki. 'chakravarti samrat' ka adarsh charitarth hua. kautily ne chakravarti kshetr ko sakar roop diya. usake anusar chakravarti kshetr ke antargat himalay se hind mahasagar tak sara bharatavarsh hai. maury yug men rajatntr ke siddhant ki vijay hai. is yug men gan rajyon ka hras hone laga aur shasan satta atyadhik kendrit ho gee. samrajy ki sima par tatha samrajy ke andar kuchh ardh—svatntr rajy the, jaise kamboj, bhoj, paittanik tatha atavik rajy.

maury kal men praja ki shakti men atyadhik vriddhi huee. paramparagat rajashastr siddhant ke anusar raja dharm ka rakshak hai, dharm ka pratipadak nahin. rajashasan ki vaidhata is bat par nirbhar thi ki vah dharm ke anukool ho. kintu kautily ne is disha men ek naya pratiman prastut kiya.

mauryakalin dharm

vaidik dharm aur grih krity pradhan the. megasthaniz ke anusar brahmanon ka samaj men pradhan sthan tha. darshanik yadyapi snkhya men kam the kintu ve sabase shreshth samajhe jate the aur ygy—kary men lagae jate the. kautily ke anusar trayi (arthath tin vedon) ke anusar acharan karate hue snsar sukhi rahega aur avasad ko prapt nahin hoga. tadanusar rajakumar ke lie cholakarm, upanayan, godan, ityadi vaidik snskar nirdisht kie ge hain. ritvik, achary aur purohit ko rajy se niyat varshik vetan milata tha. vaidik grnthon aur karmakand ka ullekh prayah tatkalin bauddh grnthon men milata hai. kuchh brahmanon ko jo vedon men nishnat the, vedon ki shiksha dete the tatha bade—bade ygy karate the, pali—grnthon men 'brahmananissal' kaha gaya hai. ve ashvamedh, vajapey ityadi ygy karate the. aise brahmanon ko rajy se kar—mukt bhoomi dan men milati thi. arthashastr men aisi bhoomi ko 'brahmadey' kaha gaya hai aur in ygyon ki isalie ninda ki gee hai ki inamen gau aur bail ka vadh hota tha, jo krishi ki drishti se upayogi the.

kintu karmakand pradhan vaidik dharm abhijat brahman tatha kshatriyon tak hi simit tha. upanishadon ka adhyatm—jivan, chintan tatha manan ka adarh khatm nahin hua tha. sutt nipat men aise rishiyon ka ullekh hai jo pnchendriy sukh ko tyagakar idriyasnyam rakhate the. vidya aur pavitrata hi isaka dhan tha. ve bhiksha men milane vale vrihi se ygy karate the. yoonani lekhakon ne bhi in vanaprasthiyon ka ullekh kiya hai. in lekhakon ke anusar ye vanaprasthashram men rahane vale brahman kutiyon men nivas karate the. vahan snyam ka jivan—vyatit karate hue vidyadhyayan aur manan karate the. ve apana samay gahan pravachanon ko sunane aur vidya dan men bitate the. megasthaniz ne mndani kaur sikandar ke bich vartalap ka jo vrittant diya hai, usase mauryakalin brahman rishiyon ki jivanacharya par prakash padata hai.

vaidik dharm ke atirikt ek any prakar ke dharmik jivan ka chitr bhi milata hai jisaki mukhy visheshata vibhinn devataon ki pooja thi. brahma, indr, yam, varun, kuber, shiv, kartikey, snkarshan, jaynt, aparajit, ityadi devataon ka ullekh hai. inamen se bahut se devataon ke mandir the. sthaniy tatha kul devataon ke mandir bhi hote the. in devataon ki pooja pushp tatha sugandhit padarthon se hoti thi. namaskar, pranatipat ya upahar se devataon ko sntusht kiya jata tha. in mandiron men mele aur utsav hote the. yah jan—sadharan ka dharm tha. devataon ki pooja ke sath bhoot—pret tatha rakshason ke astitv men unaka vishvas tha. inhen abhichar vidya men kushal vyaktiyon ki sahayata se sntusht kiya jata tha. isake atirikt anek prakar ke jadoo—tonon ka bhi prayog kiya jata tha. akshay dhan, rajakripa, lambi ayu, shatru ka nash adi uddeshyon ko prapt karane ke lie anek abhichar kriyaen ki jati thin. chaityavrikshon tatha nagapooja ka prachalan jan—sadharan men tha. ashok ne bhi apane naven shilalekh men logon dvara kie jane vale mangalik karyon ka ullekh kiya hai. ye mangalik kary bimari ke samay, vivah, putrotpatti tatha yatra ke avasar par kie jate the.

ashok ne apane shilalekhon men brahmanon, nirgranthon ke sath—sath ajivakon ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. rajyabhishek ke 12ven varsh men ashok ne barabar ki pahadiyon men unhen do gufaen pradan kin. sampoorn maury kal men ajivakon ka prabhav bana raha. ashok ke pautr dasharath ne bhi nagarjuni ki pahadiyon men kuchh gufaen ajivakon ko bhent kin.

mauryakalin kala

kala ki drishti se hadappa ki sabhyata aur mauryakal ke bich lagabhag 1500 varsh ka antaral hai. is bich ki kala ke bhautik avashesh upalabdh nahin hai. mahakavyon aur bauddh grnthon men hathidant, mitti aur dhatuon ke kam ka ullekh hai. kintu mauryakal se poorv vastukala aur moortikala ke moort udaharan kam hi milate hain. mauryakal men hi pahale—pahal kalatmak gatividhiyon ka itihas nishchit roop se prarambh hota hai. rajy ki samriddhi aur maury shasakon ki prerana se kalakritiyon ko protsahan mila. is yug men kala ke do roop milate hain. ek to rajarakshakon ke dvara nirmit kala, jo ki maury prasad aur ashok stnbhon men paee jati hai. doosara vah roop jo parakham ke yaksh didaragnj ki chamar grahini aur vesanagar ki yakshini men dekhane ko milata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. giranar ka barahavan shilalekh "ashok ke dharm lekh" se prishth sn- 31, bharat ka prachin itihas
  2. giranar ka shashth shilalekh "ashok ke dharm lekh" se prishth sn- 28, bharat ka prachin itihas

snbndhit lekh

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