रघुनाथ शिरोमणि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

raghunath shiromani (janm- 1477 ee. - mrityu- 1557 ee.) ek maulik chintak aur prasiddh darshanik the. unhonne anek granthon ki rachana ki thi. unaki rachanaen mukhyat: tikaon aur nibandhon ke roop men hain. gngeshopadhyay ke prasiddh granth 'tatvachintamani' par unaki 'dighiti' namak tika sarvadhik mahattv ki mani jati hai, jisamen unhonne gngesh ke siddhanton ki alochanatmak vyakhya ki hai. unaka doosara prasiddh granth hai 'padarthatatvaniroopanamh' jo vaisheshik darshan se snbndhit hai. is granth men unhonne vaisheshik padarth vyakhya par gahara prahar kiya hai aur usamen vyapak parivartan ke sujhav diye hain. uparyukt do granthon ke alava raghunath shiromani ne prachin evn navin nyay ke anek granthon par samikshatmak tikaen likhi hain, jinaka nyay ki parampara men vishisht sthan hai.

jivan parichay

raghunath ka janm bngal ke nadiya (navadip) namak gram men 1477 eesavi men hua tha. vidyabhooshan ke anusar inaka samay 1477-1557 ee. hai. inake poorvaj mithila se asam men gaye the. inake pita ka nam govind chakravarti aur mata ka nam sita devi tha. govind chakravarti ki alpayu men hi mrityu ho jane ke karan inaki mata ne bade kasht ke sath inaka palan kiya. yatriyon ke ek dal ke sath vah gngasnan karane ke lie navadvip pahunchi. snyogavash usane vasudev sarvabhaum ke ghar par ashray prapt kiya. vasudev se hi raghunath ko vidya prapt huee. bad men raghunath ne mithila pahunch kar pakshadhar mishr se nyay ka adhyayan kiya. raghunath sabhi vidyasthanon men daksh the. unhonne apani shastrarthadhaureyata ke snbandh men jo kathan kiye, ve aj bhi vidvavarg men charcha ke vishay bane rahate hain. raghunath ne anek granthon ki rachana ki:-

  1. padarth tattv niroopanam -vaisheshik darshan par rachit
  2. udayan ke atmatattvavivek aur nyayakusumanjali par tika
  3. gngesh ki tattvachintamani par -dighiti namak tika ki.

raghunath shiromani ke guru

navyanyay ki parampara men gngeshopadhyay ke bad raghunath shiromani ka hi sthan mana jata hai. gngey yadi navyanyay ke janak the to raghunath unake shreshthatam vyakhyata evn alochak the. vasudev sarvabhaum ke margadarshan men raghunath ne nyayashastr ka adhyayan prarambh kiya. us samay navyanyas ke adhyayan ke lie mithila ki pathashalaon ki deshabhar men prasiddhi thi. visheshakar gngeshopadhyay ki 'tatvachintamani' ka adhyayan mithila ke alava anyatr asnbhav tha. isalie nadiya men apani shiksha poorn karane ke bad apane guru se anumati lekar raghunath mithila ge aur vahan par tatkalin navyanyay ke moordhany vidvanh pakshadhar mishr ki pathashala men pravesh prapt kiya. mithila men apani shiksha poorn karane ke bad raghunath nadiya laut ge aur vahan par unhonne nyayashastr ki shiksha ke lie ek navin pathashala ki sthapana ki, jo age chalakar bharat bhar men prasiddh huee.

darshanik siddhant

raghunath shiromani ne apane darshanik chintan men gngesh dvara pranit pranali tntr ka prayog kiya. any baton ke alava unhonne do siddhanton par vishesh bal diya. pratham siddhant tha ki darshanik chintan ko samany anubhav par adharit hona chahie. alaukik athava vyaktigat siddhanton ko sarvalaukik anubhav ke viruddh nahin hona chahie. doosara siddhant tha ki tatvamimansa men vibhinn tatvon ko manyata dete samay laghav ke niyam ka dhyan rakhana chahie. anavashyak roop se tatvon ko manyata dekar unaki snkhya badhana tarkik drishti se asamarthaniy hai. is siddhant ke dvara raghunath ka lakshy tatvadarshan men padarthon ki snkhya ko simit rakhana hai.

tatv-chintan

raghunath shiromani mukhyat: tarkashastri the. gngesh ki 'tatvachintamani' par apani 'dighiti' namak tika men unhonne nyay ki praman-mimansa ka sookshm vichar kiya hai aur gngesh ke siddhanton ko parishkrit evn parivardhit kiya hai. yahan par ham raghunath ke tatv-chintan ka hi snkshep men niroopan karenge, jo hamen unake sarvadhik maulik granth 'padarthatatvaniroopanamh' se prapt hota hai. is granth men unhonne vaisheshik tatv-darshan par gahara prahar kiya hai aur anek parivartanon ke sujhav diye hain. vaisheshik men sat padarth svikar kiye ge hain. jinamen vishv ke samast vastuon ka antarbhav mana gayaya hai. ye padarth hain- dravy, gun, karm (kriya) samany, vishesh, kramavay evn abhav. raghunath ke samay tak yah padarth- vyavastha nyay-vaisheshik parampara men bina koee prashn uthaye svikar ki gee thi. itana hi nahin any darshanon ki apattiyon ke viruddh is vyavastha ki raksha bhi ki gee thi. raghunath ne hi sarvapratham nyay-vaisheshik parampara ke andar se is padarth vyavastha ki alochana ki tatha anek parivartanon ke sujhav die. yahan par ham unake dvara die ge kuchh sujhavon ka snkshep men niroopan karenge.

vaisheshik darshan ke anusar tatv

vaisheshik darshan ke anusar dravy padarthon ke antargat nau tatvon ka samavesh hota hai. ye tatv hain- prithvi, ap (jal), tejash (agni), vayu, akash, kal, dikh (desh), atma evn manash. inamen se pratham char ya to adrishy paramanu roop hain ya unake snyog se bane hue sthool padarth hain. akash, kal, dikh evn atma vibhu (sarvavyapi) mane jate hain. atmatatv ke antargat jivatma evn paramatma (eeshvar) donon ka hi samavesh kiya gaya hai. manash antarindriy hai, jisake dvara jivatma ki sukh-dukhadi antarik avasthaon ka gyan hota hai. is sambandh men raghunath yah pratipadit karate hain ki akash, kal evn dikh ko eeshvar se bhinn tatv manana avashyak nahin hai. ve adrishy paramanuon ki satta ko bhi asvikar kar dete hain. kyonki unaka astitv anubhav dvara siddh nahin hai.

vaisheshik mat

vaisheshik mat ke anusar kal ek hi hai, parantu vibhinn upadhiyon se avachchhinn (simit) hokar vah vibhinn kal khndon men vyavahrit hota hai. udaharanarth 'ghat is kal men hai', is vaky men ek hi sarvavyapi kal ghat roopi upadhi se avachhinn hokar khndakal (vartaman kal) ke roop men vyavahrit hota hai. usi prakar 'ghat yahan par hai', is vaky men ek hi sarvavyapi desh ghat se avachhinn hokar pradesh vishesh ke roop men vyavahrit hota hai. spasht hai ki vaisheshik matanusar desh evn kal ke khndon ki vastavikata satta nahin hai. is sambandh men raghunath shiromani tark karate hain ki yadi vibhinn upadhiyon se avachchhinn hokar ek hi tatv vibhakt roop men vyavahrit ho sakata hai to khnd-kal evn khnd desh ke vyavahar ke adhar ke roop men kal evn desh roopi do bhinn vibhu tatvon ko manane ki kya avashyakata hai. ek hi vibhu tatv donon prakar ke vyavahar ka adhar ban sakata hai. at: desh tatha kal ko do bhinn tatv manane ke lie koee praman nahin hai. isi tark ko ek qadam aur age badhakar raghunath shiromani pratipadit karate hain ki desh tatha kal eeshvar se abhinn hai. hamare desh evn kal sambandhi vyavahar ek hi sarvavyapi eeshvar-tatv ke vibhinn upadhiyon dvara avachchhinn hone ke karan sambhav hote hain. raghunath ke tark ka sar yah hai ki yadi ek hi eeshvar tatv ko manane se deshakal sambandhi hamare samast vyavahar sambhav ho sakate hain aur jagath ke nimittakaran ke roop men eeshvar ko manana avashyak hai, to desh tatha kal roopi do atirikt vibhutatvon ko manane ke lie koee tarkik adhar nahin hai. usi prakar vaisheshikon dvara shabd ke ashray ke roop men ek atirikt vibhutatv akash ko manana bhi tarkasngat nahin hai, kyonki eeshvar jo ki shabd sahit sabhi karyon ka samany roop se nimitt karan mana jata hai shabd ka ashray bhi mana ja sakata hai. spasht hai ki eeshvar se atirikt desh, kal tatha akash roopi vibhu dravyon ko ashray karane men raghunath laghav ke niyam ka prayog karate hain.

raghunath vaisheshikon ke paramanuvad ko amany kar dete hain. vaisheshik matanusar sthool bhautik padarthon ke mool avayav paramanu hain, jo avibhajy evn atindriy hain. is siddhant ke mool men yah manyata hai ki sookshm se sookshm indriy-gochar bhautik padarth vibhajy hai aur is karan vah vibhajy hai aur is karan vah bhautik jagath ka mool avayav nahin ho sakata. raghunath is manyata ko asvikar kar dete hain, kyonki isake lie koee tarkik adhar nahin hai. atindriy paramanu vaisheshikon ki kalpana matr hai. unake astitv ke lie samany anubhav men koee adhar nahin hai. raghunath ke anusar sab se sookshm indriy-gochar anu hi bhautik jagath ke mool avibhajy avayav hain. is prakar raghunath anuon ko to svikar karate hain par vaisheshikon ke atindriy paramanuon ko amany kar dete hain. yahan par raghunath ne samany anubhav ki kasauti ka prayog kiya hai.

vaisheshik padarth

vaisheshik padarth-vyavastha men 'vishesh' ko atirikt padarth mana gaya hai aur isi karan is darshan ka nam 'vaisheshik' pada hai. is padarth ke paksh men diya gaya tark yah hai ki bina isake nity-dravyon (paramanu, akash, kal, dikh, atma) ka paraspar bhed sthapit nahin ho sakata. pratyek mahabhoot ke paramanu anant hain. usi prakar jivatma bhi anant hai. ek paramanu ka doosare paramanu se, ek jivatma ka doosare jivatma se bhed ka prayojak koee dharm hona chahie. desh, kal, aka, ityadi vibhudravyon ka bhed bhi bina kisi adhar ke siddh nahin ho sakata. is prayojan ki poorti ke lie vaisheshik 'vishesh' padarth ko manyata dete hain. nity-dravy anant hain, isalie 'vishesh' bhi anant hai. vishesh nity dravyon ke paraspar bhed hetu hain, parantu visheshon ke paraspar bhed ke hetu koee any nahin ve svayn hain. aisa n manane par visheshon ki anant parampara (anavastha) manani hogi, jo ek tarkik dosh hai. raghunath uparyukt siddhant ko amany kar dete hain. unaka tark hai ki yadi 'visheshon' ka paraspar bhed unake svaroop men hi nihit mana ja sakata hai to nity dravyon ka paraspar bhed bhi unake svabhav ka hi ang mana ja sakata hai. pratyek nity dravy svaroopat: doosare se bhinn hai. is bhed ki siddhi ke lie 'vishesh' roopi atirikt padarth manana avashyak hai. yahan par raghunath laghav ke niyam ka prayog karate hain.

katipay siddhant

vaisheshikon ke katipay siddhanton ki raghunath dvara ki gayi alochana ka snkshep men niroopan kiya. inake atirikt aur bhi anek paramparagat vaisheshik siddhanton ka unhonne khandan kiya hai, jinamen 'satta ke samanyatatv', 'samavay snbndh ke ekatv' tatha 'abhavabhav ke bhavatv' ke siddhant ullekhaniy hai. vaisheshik padarth-vyakhya tatha tatsnbndhi siddhanton men vyapak parivartan ki avashyakata pratipadit karane ke sath hi raghunath ne ath navin padarthon ko manyata dene ka prastav kiya hai. ve padarth hain- kshan, svatv, shakti, karanatv, karyatv, snkhya, vaishishty evn vishayata. in sabhi padarthon ke snbndh men raghunath ka mat hai ki inaka antarbhav vaisheshikon dvara many padarthon men nahin kiya ja sakata. samanyat: kshan ko kal ka sookshmatam bhag mana jata hai. parantu vaisheshik matanusar kal ek evn avibhajy hone ke karan kshan ko kal ka bhag nahin mana ja sakata. is karan ve kshan ko kriya ki avastha ke roop men paribhashit karate hain. kisi bhi vastu ke ek sthan se doosare sthan par jane ki kriya se char avasthaon ka bhed kiya ja sakata hai.

  • vah avastha jab kriya prarambh hone hi vali hai
  • poorvasthan se viyog ki avastha
  • doosare sthan se snyog ke poorv ki avastha
  • doosare sthan se snyog ki avastha. vaisheshikon ke anusar ye charon avasthaen kshan hain, jo kal ke vibhajan men upadhi ka kary karate hain. raghunath is siddhant ko amany kar dete hain. unaka mukhy tark hai ki kriya ki uparyukt avasthaon men kriyatv hai par 'kshanatv' nahin hai aur is karan unake dvara kshan ki avadhanana utpann nahin ho sakati. kshan ki avadharana kshanatv-samany par isi prakar nirbhar hai, jis prakar gau ki avadharana gotv-samany par nirbhar hai. kshanatv kshan men hi upalabdh ho sakata hai kriya men nahin. at: kriya athava any kisi padarth men kshan ka antarbhav nahin kiya ja sakata. usako atirikt padarth manana avashyak hai.

vaisheshik darshan ki ek pramukh manyata hai ki bhinn jati ke karanon se utpann kary paraspar bhinn hote hain. udaharanarth, agni vibhinn karanon se utpann hoti hai-

  • sookhe trin tatha vayu ke snyog se
  • lakadiyon ke paraspar gharshan se
  • mani ke madhyam se kendriy soory ki kiranon se.

uparyukt tinon karan bhinn jati ke hain. at: uparyukt manyatanusar unase utpann agni bhi paraspar bhinn hai. raghunath ki drishti men yah siddhant anubhav viruddh hi nahin bojhil bhi hai. vibhinn karanon se utpann agni men koee bhed utpann nahin hota. at: yah avashyak nahin ki bhinn jati ke karanon se utpann kary bhinn hi hon. unake mat men vibhinn karanon men ek hi shakti hoti hai, jis karan ve samarth hote hain. yah shakti atirikt padarth hai kyonki isaka antarbhav kisi any padarth men nahin kiya ja sakata. isako man lene par anavashyak roop se karan bhed ke adhar par karyabhed nahin manana padega. raghunath yahan par laghav ke niyam ka prayog karate hain.

raghunath samavay snbndh ke saman vaishishty-snbndh ko bhi atirikt padarth manane par bal dete hain. vaisheshik darshan men samavay snbndh ka vishisht sthan hai. yah prithakh n ho sakane vale do vastuon ke bich ka vishisht snbndh hai, jinamen ek adhar tatha doosara adhey ke roop men grihit hota hai. udaharanarth pushp sugndhit hai, gay chalati hai, mor ek pakshi hai, in pratitiyon men pushp evn sugndh, gay evn chalane ki kriya tatha mor evn pakshitv-jati ek doosare se prithakh nahin kie ja sakate aur inamen se pratyek men pratham adhar tatha doosara adhey ke roop men grihit hota hai. in pratitiyon ke adhar ke roop men vasvatik samavay snbndh ko manana avashyak hai. raghunath ka tark hai ki jis prakar uparyukt prakar ki pratitiyon ke adhar ke roop men vastavik samavay snbndh ko mana jata hai, usi prakar abhav se vishisht vastu ki pratiti ke hetu ke roop men vaishishty snbndh ko bhi manana avashyak hai. 'bhootal par jal nahin hai', is pratiti men ghatabhav se vishisht bhital ka grahan hota hai isamen ghatabhav visheshan hai, bhoosal visheshy hai tatha in donon ke bich ka snbndh vashishty igrh yatharth pratiti men grihit is sambandh ko yadi vastut: nahin mana jata to samavay sambandh ko varatusath manane ke lie bhi koee adhar n rah jayega. vaisheshik darshan men 'vaishishty' ko svaroop sambandh mana gaya hai, arthath vah sambandhiyon ke svaroop ka hi hai, unamen atirikt nahin jabaki samavay ko vastut: mana gaya hai. raghunath is prakar bhed karane ka koee karan nahin dekhate aur samavay ke saman hi antarbhav any kisi padarth men n ho sakane ke karan usako atirikt padarth manana avashyak hai.

alochana

raghunath shiromani dvara ki gee vaisheshik padarth vyavastha ki alochana tatha unake dvara pratipadit kuchh navin padarthon ka snkshipt niroopan oopar kiya gaya. vaisheshik padarth vyavastha men unake dvara kie ge snshodhanon tatha unake dvara pratipadit navin padarthon ko nyay-vaisheshik parampara men vishesh manyata prapt nahin huee. prachin padarth vyavastha ki, jisako gngeshopadhyay ne bhi svikar kiya tha, manyata bani rahi. is bat ki ashnka svayn raghunath ko bhi thi. isalie 'padarth-tatv niroopan' ke ant men raghunath kahate hain ki unake dvara yatnapoorvak pratipadit anek padarth evn siddhant aise hain, jo any maton se mel nahin khate. parantu keval isi karan unaki upeksha nahin ki jani chahie. unaka agrah hai ki suvigy pathakonko un par savadhani se vichar karana chahie. bhale hi ek tatv chintak ke roop men bharatiy darshan ki parampara men raghunath ka vishesh samadar n hua ho, parantu ek moordhany tarkashastri ke roop men unaka sthan nyay ki parampara men akshunn bana rahega.


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