रबर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(रबड़ se punarnirdeshit)
Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"
rabar ka phool

rabar ki krishi ka prarambh sanh 1900 men marakkis aauph selisabari ke prayatnon se hua tha. isi varsh dakshin amerika se pararabar ke bij mnga kar keral men periyar nadi ke kinare lagaye gaye the. isaki uttam krishi ke lie 250 se 320 sengre. tak ka uchch tapaman, atyadhik varsha, lal, laitarait, chikani evn domat mitti tatha adhik manav-shram ki avashyakata hoti hai. isaki krishi ki upayukt dashaon ki upalabdhata ke karan yah dakshin bharat men paida kiya jata hai. isake pramukh utpadak rajy hain - keral, tamilanadu tatha karnatak. isake atirikt andaman-nikobar dvip samooh men bhi kuchh rabar paida kiya jata he. 2007-2008 men desh men kul 9 lakh tan rabad ka utpadan hua. desh men rabar bord ka mukhyalay kottayam (keral) men sthit hain.

prakritik rabar

prakritik rabar pedon aur lataon ke ras, ya rabar kshir se banata hai. yoophaaurbiesiee kul tatha artikesiee, eposainesiee kul tatha knpoziti kul ki gvayule ityadi ke bade bade vrikshon, kuchh lataon aur jhadiyon ke rabarakshir se rabar prapt hota hai. sabase adhik rabar haiviya brajiliensis se prapt hota hai. yah amarika ke amezan nadi ke jngalon men ugata tha aur ab bharatake travanakor, kochin, maisoor, malabar, kurg, salem aur shrilnka men ugaya jata hai. panch varsh ke ho jane par ped se rabarakshir nikalana shuroo hota hai aur lagabhag 40 varshon tak nikalata rahata hai.
rabar kshir
ek ekad men lagabhag 150 ped lagae jate hain aur unase 150 se 500 paund tak rabar prapt hota hai. ek ped se prati varsh pray: 6 paund tak rabar prapt hota hai. ek doosara ped phaikas ilaistika, rabar vat, hai, jo poorv eshiya men upajata hai. isi ped se asam, myanmar, malaya aur any nikatavarti dvipon men rabar prapt hota hai. inake atirikt mainhoti glaziyovi se amezan ghatiyon aur taigenika men, kaistila alei se amezan, meksiko aur madhy amarika men, phiksiya ilaistika se kaimeroons men aur laidolphiya se kangon men rabar prapt hota hai. inake atirikt any kee pedon aur lataon se bhi rabar prapt hota hai. ya ho sakata hai.

rabarakshir

pedon ke dhad ke chhevane, ya katane, se rabarakshir nikalata hai. rabarakshir ko ikattha karate hain. rabarakshir men shushk rabar ki matra lagabhag 32 pratishat rahati hai. rabarakshir pani se halka hata hai. isaka vishisht ghanatv 0.978 se 0.987 hota hai. rabarakshir men rabar ke atirikt rezin, sharkara, protin, khanij lavan aur enzaim rahate hain. ped se nikalane ke bad rabarakshir ka parikshan avashyak hai, anyatha rabarakshir ka skndan hone se jo rabar prapt hota hai vah utkrisht koti ka nahin hota. parirakshan ke lie 0.5 se 1.0 pratishat amoniya, phaaurmelin tatha sodiyam, ya potaishiyam haidraksaid ka prayog hota hai. inamen amoniya sarvashreshth hota hai. rabarakshir kolaauyad sa vyavahar karata hai. isaka piech 7 hota hai aur amoniya se 8 se 11 ho jata hai.

rabar prapti ke lie rabarakshir ka skndan hota hai. skndan ki purani riti hai rabarakshir ko mitti ke gaddhe men gad dena. pani bahakar mitti men mil jata hai aur thos rabar gaddhe men rah jata hai. doosari rati hai ped ke dhad par hi rabarakshir ko skndan ke lie chhod dena. pani sookhakar nikal jata hai aur rabar rah jata hai. tisari rati hai dhuan se rabarakshir ka skndan karana. kath ke patr men rabarakshir ko rakhakar dhuen ke ghar men rakh dete hain. rabarakshir pila aur dridh ho jata hai. usapar doosara star jamakar 'para rabar' prapt kar sakate hain. adhunik riti men skndan ke lie rasayanak, aml, amliy lavan, samany lavan, ailkohaaul ityadi upayukt hote hain. aisitik aml, phaaurmik aml aur haidrophlorik aml uttam pae ge hain. apakendritr se bhi skndan hota hai. vidyuth‌ pravah bhi skndan karata hai.

kritrim rabar

rabar kshir

rasayanashalaon men anusndhan ke phalasvaroop aj kritrim rabar bhi banane laga hai. kuchh gunon men kritrim rabar prakritik rabar se utkrisht hota hai. yadi kritrim rabar ka utpadan mooly adhik n hota to isamen koee sndeh nahin ki prakritik rabar ka aj namonishan n rahata. anek desh aj kritrim rabar taiyar kar rahe hain. bharat men bhi kritrim rabar taiyar karane ke karakhane isalie khol rakhe hain ki yuddhakal men yadi unhen prakritik rabar n milega, to kritrim rabar hi taiyar kar apana kam chalaenge. kuchh vishesh kamon ke lie to kritrim rabar prakritik rabar se adhik upayogi siddh hue hain.

kritrim rabar ka nirman apekshaya adhunik hai. pratham vishvayuddh ke samay hi jarmani men pahale pahal isaka nirman bade paimane par shuroo hua tha. kritrim rabar elastamor, ilastin, ithenaauyad, thayoplast, ilastoplast ityadi namon se jane jate hain. inake nirman men anek asntript haidrokarban aisoprin, vyootadin, kloroprin, piparilin, saiklopentadin, stairin, tatha any asntript haidrokarban aisoprin, vyootadin, kloroprin, piparilin, saiklopentadin, stairin, tatha any asntript yaugik methakrilik aml, methail methakrilet vishesh ullekhaniy hain. ye rasayanak anek sroton se prapt hue hain. kuchh rasayanak petroliyam se bhi prapt hue hain. rabar banane men inaka bahulakikaran hota hai. bahulakikaran ki anek ritiyan maloom hain aur unaka upayog ho raha hai. kritrim rabar ka bhi prakritik rabar sa hi valknikaran hota hai. vyootadin se prapt kritrim rabar vyoona-es, paravyoonan aur paravyoonanekstra kahe jate hain. vyoona-es ka bana tayar paryapt tikaoo hota hai.

shuddh rabar ki pahachan

shuddh rabar men n gndh hoti hai aur n rng. yah pratyasth aur paradarshak hota hai. isaka ghanatv 0.915 se 0.930 ke bich hota hai. isaka apavartanank 1.5219 hai. baiktiriyon ki kriya ke karan rng pila ho jata aur nile dhabbe pad jate hain. dahan ki ooshma prati gram 10,700 kailar hai. isaki chalakata badi kam, 0.00032 hai. isaka vaidyuth‌ gun uttam hota hai. valkanikaran aur jirnan se yah gun ghat jata hai. shuddh rabar kathinata se prapt hata hai. yah jald aauksikrit hokar jirn ho jata hai. anek karbanik vilayakon, naiphth, benzin, taaulooeen, karban baisalphaid, karban tetrakloraid, klaropharm, petroliyam tatha eethar men ghul jata hai. eethar men ghulakar 'jel rabar' banata hai. isaka vilayan bada shyan hota hai. garam karane par 120° sen. par yah komal hone lagata hai. oonche tap par yah vighatit hota hai. bhnjak asavan se yah petrol sa drav banata hai. rabar ozon se badi jaldi akrant hokar jirn ho jata hai.

kachche rabar men bhautik ya yantrik bal nahin hata. prakash aur oochch tap se isaka hras hata hai. rabar ko adhik upayogi banane ke lie usamen kuchh milana avashyak hota hai. rabar men komalakarak, sunamyakar, poorak, varnak, tvarak, atiaauksikarak, gndhak ityadi milae jate hain. komalakarakon ke roop men vitumin, painakolatar, mom, stiyarik aml aur khanij pairaphin, kyumeron, rezin ityadi, poorakon ke roop men jink aauksaid, lauh aauksaid, lithophon, beriyam salphet, kizalagar, kailsiyam karbonet, talk, maignishiyam karbonet, kajal ityadi prayukt hote hain. varnakon ke roop men khanij varnak aur karbanik rnjak donon prayukt ho sakate hain.

sookhati huee rabar

rabar ka valkanikaran mahatv ka prakram hai. isase shuddh rabar ke anek doshon ka nirakaran ho jata hai, jisase rabar ko upayogita badh jati hai. valkanikaran ke lie kachche rabar ko gndhak ke sath lagabhag 140° sen. par tin se char ghnte tak garam karate hain. gndhak ke sath tvarak ko mila dene se valkanikaran shighr snpann ho jata aur rabar men kuchh adhik upayogi gun bhi a jate hain. tvarak ki atynt alp matra lagati hai. kuchh tvarakon se to samany tap par hi valkanikaran ho jata hai. valkanikaran se bhautik gunon ke sath sath rabar ke rasayanik gunon men bhi parivartan ho jata hai. valkanikaran men 0.15 pratishat se 32 pratishat gndhak istemal ho sakata hai. valkanikrit rabar ka gun valkanikaran ke dhng par bahut kuchh nirbhar karata hai. valkanikrit rabar par pani ka koee asar nahin hota. yah chipachipa nahin hota. vitanakshapata aur dairdhy badh jata hai. vilayakon, ooshma, vidaran aur apagharshan ke prati pratirodh badh jata hai. vaidyut gun bahut kuchh badal jata hai. valkanikaran pres men, ya bhap ki upasthiti men, ya shushk tap par snpann hata hai. valkanikaran men gndhak rabar ke sath rasayanat: snyukt hota hai.

upayog

rabar ka adimasthan amarika hai. amarika ki ek adi jati 'maya' thi, jisamen rabar ke gend prachalit the. kolnbas ne sanh‌ 1493 ee. men vahan ke adivasiyon ko rabar ke bane gedon se khelate dekha tha. aisa maloom hota hai ki dakshin poorv eshiya ke adivasi bhi rabar se parichit the aur usase tokariyan, ghade aur isi prakar ki vyavahar ki any chizen taiyar karate the. dhire dhire rabar ka prachar sare snsar men ho gaya aur aj rabar adhunik sabhyata ka ek mahattvapoorn pratik mana jata hai. rabar ke bane samanon ki snkhya aur upayogita aj itani badh gee hai ki usake abhav men kam chalana asnbhav samajha jata hai. rabar ka upayog shanti aur yuddhakal men, ghareloo aur audyogik karmon men saman roop se hota hai. snsar ke samast rabar ke utpadan ka pray: 78 pratishat gadiyon ke tayaron aur tyoobon ke banane men tatha shesh jooton ke tale aur ediyan, bijali ke tar, khilaune, barasati kapade, chadaren, khel ke saman, botalon aur baraph ke thailon, sarajari ke saman ityadi, hajaron chijon ke banane men lagata hai. ab to rabar ki sadake bhi banane lagi hain, jo paryapt tikaoo siddh huee hai. rabar ka vyavasay aj dinondin badh raha hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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