रबीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rabindranath thakur
Rabindranath-Tagore.jpg
poora nam rabindranath thakur
any nam rabindranath taigor, gurudev
janm 7 mee, 1861
janm bhoomi kalakatta, pashchim bngal
mrityu 7 agast, 1941
mrityu sthan kalakatta, pashchim bngal
abhibhavak devendranath taigor aur sharada devi
pati/patni mrinalini devi
karm bhoomi pashchim bngal
karm-kshetr sahity ki sabhi vidhaen
mukhy rachanaen rashtr-gan jan gan man aur bangladesh ka rashtr-gan 'amar sonar bangla', 'gitanjali', postamastar, mastar sahab, gora, ghare-baire adi.
vishay sahity
bhasha hindi, angrezi, bangla
vidyalay sent zeviyar skool, lndan kaaulej vishvavidyalay
puraskar-upadhi san 1913 ee. men 'gitanjali' ke lie nobel puraskar, naitahud (jaliyanvala kand ke virodh men upadhi vapis ki)
vishesh yogadan rashtr gan ke rachayita
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari 1901 men taigor ne pashchim bngal ke gramin kshetr men sthit shantiniketan men ek prayogik vidyalay ki sthapana ki. jahan unhonne bharat aur pashchimi parnparaon ke sarvashreshth ko milane ka prayas kiya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

rabindranath thakur athava rabindranath taigor (angrezi: Rabindranath Thakur, janm- 7 mee, 1861, kalakatta, pashchim bngal; mrityu- 7 agast, 1941, kalakatta) ek bangla kavi, kahanikar, gitakar, sngitakar, natakakar, nibndhakar aur chitrakar the. bharatiy snskriti ke sarvashreshth roop se pashchimi deshon ka parichay aur pashchimi deshon ki snskriti se bharat ka parichay karane men taigor ki badi bhoomika rahi tatha amataur par unhen adhunik bharat ka asadharan srijanashil kalakar mana jata hai.

jivan parichay

rabindranath thakur ka janm 7 mee, 1861 kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men devendranath taigor aur sharada devi ke putr ke roop men ek snpann bangla parivar men hua tha. bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani shri taigor sahaj hi kala ke kee svaroopon ki or akrisht hue jaise- sahity, kavita, nrity aur sngit. duniya ki samakalin sanskritik rujhan se ve bhali-bhanti avagat the. sath ke dashak ke uttarardh men taigor ki chitrakala yatra shuroo huee. yah unake kavity sajagata ka vistar tha. halanki unhen kala ki koee aupacharik shiksha nahin mili thi unhonne ek sashakt evn sahaj drishy shabdakosh ka vikas kar liya tha. shri taigor ki is upalabdhi ke pichhe adhunik pashchaty, puratan evn baly kala jaise drishy kala ke vibhinn svaroopon ki unaki gahari samajh thi.

shiksha

rabindranath taigor ki skool ki padhaee pratishthit sent zeviyar skool men huee. taigor ne bairistar banane ki chahat men 1878 men inglaind ke brijaton pablik skool men nam darj karaya. unhonne lndan kaaulej vishvavidyalay men qanoon ka adhyayan kiya lekin 1880 men bina digri hasil kie hi vapas a ge. rabindranath taigor ko bachapan se hi kavitaen aur kahaniyan likhane ka shauq tha. unake pita devendranath thakur ek jane-mane samaj sudharak the. ve chahate the ki rabindr bade hokar bairistar banen. isalie unhonne rabindr ko qanoon ki padhaee ke lie lndan bheja. lekin rabindr ka man sahity men hi ramata tha. unhen apane man ke bhavon ko kagaz par utarana pasnd tha. akhirakar, unake pita ne padhaee ke bich men hi unhen vapas bharat bula liya aur un par ghar-parivar ki zimmedariyan dal din. rabindranath taigor ko prakriti se bahut pyar tha. ve gurudev ke nam se lokapriy the. bharat akar gurudev ne phir se likhane ka kam shuroo kiya.

rachanaen

rabindranath thakur ek bangla kavi, kahanikar, gitakar, sngitakar, natakakar, nibndhakar aur chitrakar the. jinhen 1913 men sahity ke lie nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya. taigor ne bangla sahity men ne gady aur chhnd tatha lokabhasha ke upayog ki shuruat ki aur is prakar shastriy snskrit par adharit parnparik praroopon se use mukti dilaee. dharm sudharak devendranath taigor ke putr rabindranath ne bahut kam ayu men kavy lekhan prarnbh kar diya tha. 1870 ke dashak ke uttarardh men vah inglaind men adhyayan adhoora chhodakar bharat vapas laut ae. bharat men rabindranath taigor ne 1880 ke dashak men kavitaon ki anek pustaken prakashit ki tatha manasi (1890) ki rachana ki. yah sngrah unaki pratibha ki paripakvata ka parichayak hai. isamen unaki kuchh sarvashreshth kavitaen shamil hain, jinamen se kee bangla bhasha men aparichit nee pady shailiyon men hain. sath hi isamen samasamayik bngaliyon par kuchh samajik aur rajanitik vyngy bhi hain.

ravindr nath taigor ki pratima

do-do rashtraganon ke rachayita ravindranath taigor ke parnparik dhanche ke lekhak nahin the. ve ekamatr kavi hain, jinaki do rachanaen do deshon ka rashtragan banin- bharat ka rashtr-gan jan gan man aur bangladesh ka rashtriy gan amar sonar bangla gurudev ki hi rachanaen hain. ve vaishvik samanata aur ekantikata ke pakshadhar the. brahmasamaji hone ke bavazood unaka darshan ek akele vyakti ko samarpit raha. chahe unaki zyadatar rachanaen bangla men likhi huee hon. vah ek aise lok kavi the jinaka kendriy tattv antim adami ki bhavanaon ka parishkar karana tha. vah manushy matr ke spandan ke kavi the. ek aise kalakar jinaki ragon men shashvat prem ki gahari anubhooti hai, ek aisa natakakar jisake rngamnch par sirf 'trejadi' hi zinda nahin hai, manushy ki gahari jijivisha bhi hai. ek aisa kathakar jo apane as-pas se kathalok chunata hai, bunata hai, sirf isalie nahin ki ghanibhoot pida ke avritti kare ya use hi anavrit kare, balki us kathalok men vah adami ke antim gntavy ki talash bhi karata hai.

sarvashreshth kahaniyan

siyaladah aur shajadapur sthit apani khanadani jayadad ke prabndhan ke lie 1891 men taigor ne 10 varsh tak poorvi bngal (vartaman bangala desh) men rahe, vahan vah aksar padma nadi (gnga nadi) par ek haus bot men graminon ke nikat snpark men rahate the aur un graminon ki nirdhanata v pichhadepan ke prati taigor ki snvedana unaki bad ki rachanaon ka mool svar bani. unaki sarvashreshth kahaniyan, jinamen 'din-hinon' ka jivan aur unake chhote-mote dukh' varnit hain, 1890 ke bad ki hain aur unaki marmikata men halka sa vidnbana ka put hai. jo taigor ki niji visheshata hai tatha jise nirdeshak satyajit ray apani bad ki filmon men kushalatapoorvak pakad pae hain.

rabindranath thakur stamp

galpaguchchh ki tin jildon men unaki sari chaurasi kahaniyan sngrahit hain, jinamen se keval das pratinidhi kahaniyan chunana tedhi khir hai. 1891 se 1895 ke bich ka panch varshon ka samay ravindranath ki sadhana ka mahanh kal tha. ve apani kahaniyan sabuj patr (hare patte) men chhapate the. aj bhi pathakon ko unaki kahaniyon men 'hare patte' aur 'hare gachh' mil sakate hain. unaki kahaniyon men soory, varsha, nadiyan aur nadi kinare ke saraknde, varsha ritu ka akash, chhayadar ganv, varsha se bhare anaj ke prasann khet milate hain. unake sadharan log kahani khatm hote-hote asadharan manushyon men badal jate hain. mahanta ki parakashtha chhoo ate hain. unaki mook pida ki karuna hamare hriday ko abhibhoot kar leti hai.

unaki kahani postamastar is bat ka sajiv udaharan hai ki ek sachcha kalakar sadharan upakaranon se kaisi adbhut srishti kar sakata hai. kahani men keval do sajiv sadharan-se patr hain. bahut kam ghatanaon se bhi ve apani kahani ka mahal khada kar dete hain. ek chhoti ladaki kaise bade-bade insanon ko apane sneh-pash men bandh deti hain. 'qabulivala' bhi is bat ka jita-jagata udaharan hai. ravindranath ne pahali bar apani kahaniyon men sadharan ki mahima ka bakhan kiya.
patni mrinalini ke sath rabindranath taigor
ravindranath ki kahaniyon men apadh 'qabulivala' aur susnskrit bngali bhoot bhavanaon men ek saman hain. unaki qabulivala, mastar sahab aur 'postamastar' kahaniyan aj bhi lokapriy kahaniyan hain-lokapriy aur sarvashreshth bhi aur bani rahengi. unaki kahaniyan sarvashreshth hote hue bhi lokapriy hain aur lokapriy hote hue bhi sarvashreshth hain.

apani kalpana ke patron ke sath ravindranath ki adbhut sahanubhootipoorn ekatmakata aur usake chitran ka ativ saundary unaki kahani ko sarvashreshth bana dete hain jise padhakar dravit hue bina nahin raha ja sakata. unaki kahaniyan faulad ko mom banane ki kshamata rakhati hain.

atithi ka tarapad ravindranath ki avismaraniy srishtiyon men hai. isaka nayak kahin bndhakar nahin rah pata. ajivan 'atithi' hi rahata hai. kshudhit pashan, adhi rat men (nishithe) tatha 'mastar sahab' prastut sngrah ki in tin kahaniyon men daivi tattv ka sparsh milata hai. inamen pahali 'kshudhit pashan' men kalakar ki kalpana apane sundaratam roop men vyakt huee hai. yahan atit vartaman ke sath vartalap karata hai-rngin prabhamay atit ke sath niras vartaman. samaj men mahilaon ka sthan tatha nari jivan ki visheshataen unake lie gnbhir chinta ke vishay the aur is vishay men bhi unhonne gahari antardrishti ka parichay diya hai.

sngit

rashh‍tragan (jan gan man) ke rachayita taigor ko bngal ke gramyanchal se prem tha aur inamen bhi padma nadi unhen sabase adhik priy thi. jisaki chhavi unaki kavitaon men bar-bar ubharati hai. un varshon men unake kee kavita sngrah aur natak ae, jinamen sonar tari (1894; sunahari nav) tatha chitrangada (1892) ullekhaniy hai. vastav men taigor ki kavitaon ka anuvad lagabhag asnbhav hai aur bangla samaj ke sabhi vargon men aj tak janapriy unake 2,000 se adhik giton, jo 'rabindr sngit' ke nam se jane jate hain, par bhi yah lagoo hota hai.

chitrakala

rabindranath thakur

sath ke dashak ke uttarardh men taigor ki chitrakala yatra shuroo huee. yah unake kavity sajagata ka vistar tha. halanki unhen kala ki koee aupacharik shiksha nahin mili thi unhonne ek sashakt evn sahaj drishy shabdakosh ka vikas kar liya tha. shri taigor ki is upalabdhi ke pichhe adhunik pashchaty, puratan evn baly kala jaise drishy kala ke vibhinn svaroopon ki unaki gahari samajh thi. ek avachetan prakriya ke roop men arnbh taigor ki pandulipiyon men ubharati aur mitati rekhaen khas svaroop lene lagin. dhire-dhire taigor ne kee chitron ko ukera jinamen kee behad kalpanik evn vichitr janavaron, mukhauton, rahasyamayi manaviy cheharon, goodh bhoo-paridrishyon, chidiyon evn phoolon ke chitr the. unaki kritiyon men phntasi, layatmakata evn jivntata ka adbhut sngam dikhata hai. kalpana ki shakti ne unaki kala ko jo vichitrata pradan ki usaki vyakhya shabdon men snbhav nahin hai. kabhi-kabhi to ye aprakritik roop se rahasyamayi aur kuchh dhundhali yad dilate hain. takaniki roop men taigor ne sarjanatmak svatntrata ka annd liya. unake pas kee udvelit karane vale vishay the jinako lekar beshak kainavas par rngin roshanaee se lipa-puta chitr banane men bhi unhen hichak nahin huee. roshanaee se bane unake chitr men ek svachchhndata dikhati hai jisake tahat koochi, kapada, ruee ke phahon, aur yahan tak ki anguliyon ke bakhoobi istemal kie ge hain. taigor ke lie kala manushy ko duniya se jodane ka madhyam hai. adhunikavadi hone ke nate taigor vishesh kar kala ke kshetr men poori tarah samakalin the.

Blockquote-open.gif yits dvara anuvad
rashtragan (jan gan man) ke rachayita taigor ko bngal ke gramyanchal se prem tha aur inamen bhi padma nadi unhen sabase adhik priy thi. jisaki chhavi unaki kavitaon men bar-bar ubharati hai. un varshon men unake kee kavita sngrah aur natak ae, jinamen sonar tari (1894; sunahari nav) tatha chitrangada (1892) ullekhaniy hai. Blockquote-close.gif

taigor ki kavitaon ki pandulipi ko sabase pahale viliyam rothenastain ne padha tha aur ve itane mugdh ho ge ki unhonne angrezi kavi yits se snpark kiya aur pashchimi jagath ke lekhakon, kaviyon, chitrakaron aur chintakon se taigor ka parichay karaya. unhonne hi indiya sosayati se isake prakashan ki vyavastha ki. shuroo men 750 pratiyan chhapi geen, jinamen se sirf 250 pratiyan hi bikri ke lie thin. bad men march 1913 men mekamilan end knpani lndan ne ise prakashit kiya aur 13 navnbar 1913 ko nobel puraskar ki ghoshana se pahale isake das snskaran chhapane pade. yits ne taigor ke angrezi anuvadon ka chayan karake unamen kuchh sudhar kie aur antim svikriti ke lie unhen taigor ke pas bheja aur likhaah 'ham in kavitaon men nihit ajanabipan se utane prabhavit nahin hue, jitana ki yah dekhakar ki inamen to hamari hi chhavi nazar a rahi hai.' bad men yits ne hi angrezi anuvad ki bhoomika likhi. unhonne likha ki kee dinon tak in kavitaon ka anuvad lie main relon, bason aur restaraon men ghooma hoon aur mujhe bar-bar in kavitaon ko is dar se padhana bnd karana pada hai ki kahin koee mujhe rote-sisakate hue n dekh le. apani bhoomika men yits ne likha ki ham log lnbi-lnbi kitaben likhate hain jinamen shayad ek bhi panna likhane ka aisa annd nahin deta hai. bad men gitanjali ka jarman, phrainch, japani, roosi adi vishv ki sabhi pramukh bhashaon men anuvad hua aur taigor ki khyati duniya ke kone-kone men phail gee.

shantiniketan

1901 men taigor ne pashchim bngal ke gramin kshetr men sthit shantiniketan men ek prayogik vidyalay ki sthapana ki. jahan unhonne bharat aur pashchimi parnparaon ke sarvashreshth ko milane ka prayas kiya. vah vidyalay men hi sthayi roop se rahane lage aur 1921 men yah vishv bharati vishvavidyalay ban gaya. 1902 tatha 1907 ke bich unaki patni tatha do bachchon ki mrityu se upaja gahara du:kh unaki bad ki kavitaon men parilakshit hota hai, jo pashchimi jagath men gitanjali, sang aaufarings (1912) ke roop men pahuncha. shanti niketan men unaka jo samman samaroh hua tha usaka sachitr samachar bhi kuchh british samachar patron men chhapa tha. 1908 men kolakata men hue kangres adhiveshan ke sabhapati aur bad men briten ke pratham lebar pradhanamntri remje mekdonald 1914 men ek din ke lie shanti niketan ge the. unhonne shanti niketan ke snbndh men parliyament ke ek lebar sadasy ke roop men jo kuchh kaha vah bhi british samachar patron men chhapa. unhonne shanti niketan ke snbndh men sarakari niti ki bhartsana karate hue is bat par chinta vyakt ki thi ki shanti niketan ko sarakari sahayata milana bnd ho gee hai. pulis ki blek list men usaka nam a gaya hai aur vahan padhane vale chhatron ke mata-pita ko dhamaki bhare patr mil rahe hain. par british samachar patr barabar ravindranath thakur ke is prakar prashnsak nahin rahe.

briten men gurudev

ravindranath thakur 1878 se lekar 1930 ke bich sat bar inglaind ge. 1878 aur 1890 ki unaki pahali do yatraon ke snbndh men briten ke samachar patron men kuchh bhi nahin chhapa kyonki tab tak unhen vah khyati nahin mili thi ki unaki or kisi videshi samachar patr ka dhyan jata. us samay to ve ek vidyarthi hi the.

pahali pustak ka prakashan

jab ve tisari bar 1912 men lndan ge tab tak unaki kavitaon ki pahali pustak ka angrezi men anuvad prakashit ho chuka tha, at: unaki or briten ke samachar patron ka dhyan gaya. unaki yah tisari briten yatra vastut: unake prashnsak evn mitr brijendranath sil ke sujhav evn anurodh par ki gee thi aur is yatra ke adhar par pahali bar vahan ke pramukh samachar patr 'd taims' men unake samman men di gee ek parti ka samachar chhapa jisamen briten ke kee pramukh sahityakar yatha dablyoo.bi.yits, ech.ji.vels, je.di. endarasan aur dablyoo.robensatain adi upasthit the.
vaigyanik anisatin ke sath rabindranath taigor
isake kuchh din bad 'd taims' men hi unake kavy ki prashnsa men tin pairagraph lamba ek samachar bhi chhapa aur phir unaki mrityu ke samay tak briten ke samachar patron men unake jivan aur krititv ke snbndh men kuchh-n-kuchh barabar hi chhapata raha. is pustak se yah bhi pata chalata hai ki kis prakar paramparagat roop se bharat virodhi samachar patr unake snbndh men chuppi hi lagae rahe par nishpaksh aur bharat ke prati sahanubhooti rakhane vale samachar patron ne badi udarata se unake snbndh men samachar, lekh adi prakashit kie. udaharanat: briten ke kattar rudhivadi knjaravetiv samachar patr 'deli teligraph' ne unhen nobel puraskar milane ki soochana tak prakashit karana uchit nahin samajha jabaki us din ke any sabhi samachar patron men is soochana ke sath hi puraskrit kriti 'gitanjali' ke snbndh men vahan ke samikshakon ki sammati bhi prakashit huee.

gitanjali ka angrezi anuvad

pustak gitanjali

'gitanjali' ka angrezi anuvad prakashit hone ke ek saptah ke andar lndan se prakashit hone vale prasiddh saptahik 'taims litareri sapliment' men usaki samiksha prakashit huee thi aur bad men agami tin mah ke andar tin samachar patron men bhi usaki samiksha prakashit huee. ravindranath thakur ko nobel puraskar milane ke snbndh men british samachar patron men mishrit pratikriya huee. is snbndh men 'd taims' ne likha tha ki 'svidish ekedemi' ke is apratyashit nirnay par kuchh samachar patron men ashchary vyakt kiya gaya hai' par is patr ke staaukahom sthit snvadadata ne apane dispech men likha tha ki svidan ke pramukh kaviyon aur lekhakon ne svidish kameti ke sadasyon ki haisiyat se nobel kameti ke is nirnay par poorn sntosh vyakt kiya hai. isi snbndh men briten ke pratishthit samachar patr 'menchestar gardiyan' ne likha tha ki ravindranath taigor ko nobel puraskar milane ki soochana par kuchh logon ko ashchary avashy hua par asntosh nahin. taigor ek pratibhashali kavi hain. bad men 'd kerasent moon' ki samiksha karate hue ek samachar patr ne likha tha ki is bngali (yani ravindranath thakur) ka angrezi bhasha par jaisa adhikar hai vaisa bahut kam angrezon ka hota hai.

jaliyanvala kand ki ninda

1919 men hue jaliyanvala kand ki jab ravindranath thakur ne ninda ki to british samachar patron ka rukh ekaek badal gaya. ravindranath thakur ne jaliyanvala kand ke virodh svaroop apana 'sar' ka khitab lautate hue vaisaray ko jo patr likha vah bhi british samachar patron ne chhapana uchit nahin samajha. par laaurd mantegyoo ne parliyament men jab ghoshana ki ki 'sar ravindranath ko diya gaya khitab vapis nahin liya gaya hai' to yah samachar british samachar patron men avashy chhapa. 'deli teligraph' ne to vyngyapoorvak yah bhi likha ki ravindranath thakur ke angrezi prakashak mekamilans unake nam ke sath abhi bhi 'sar' chhap rahe hain. 1941 men ravindranath thakur ki mrityu par british samachar patron ne jo kuchh likha usase jan padata hai mano unake sir par se ek bahut bada bhari bojh hat gaya hai. ek samachar patr ne unake mrityu lekh men likha ki ravindranath thakur ko is bat ke lie manane ki koshish ki gee thi ki ve apane 'sar' ke khitab ko vapis karane ke nirnay par punarvichar karen. 'd taims' ne haus aauf kaaumans ki karyavahi ka ullekh karate hue likha ki andar sekretari faaur indiya ne yah mana tha ki unaki pustak 'roos ke patr' ke anuvad men ek poore parichchhed men tathyon ko janaboojhakar toda-maroda gaya tha jisase bharat men british shasan ki ninda ho. is prakar tathyon ko tode-marode jane aur tarah-tarah ke aropon ke bavazood adhikansh samachar patron men ravindranath thakur ke snbndh men pray: prashnsatmak lekh hi chhapate rahe. 1921 men chhape ek samachar se pata chalata hai ki ravindranath thakur ki lndan se peris ki pahali havaee yatra ka poora kharch chekoslavakiya ki sarakar ne diya tha.

janasnhar ki pratikriyaen

rabindranath thakur ne is hatyakand ke mukhar virodh kiya aur virodh svaroop apani 'naitahud' ki upadhi ko vapas kar diya tha. azadi ka sapana aisi bhayavah ghatana ke bad bhi past nahin hua. is ghatana ke bad azadi hasil karane ki ichchha aur zor se uphan padi. yadyapi un dinon snchar ke sadhan kam the, phir bhi yah samachar poore desh men ag ki tarah phail gaya. 'azadi ka sapana' pnjab hi nahin, poore desh ke bachche-bachche ke sir par chadh kar bolane laga. us dauran hazaron bharatiyon ne jaliyanvala bag ki mitti se mathe par tilak lagakar desh ko azad karane ka dridh snkalp liya.

rabindranath taigor aur mahatma gandhi

samman

taigor ke gitanjali (1910) samet bangla kavy sngrahalayon se li gee kavitaon ke angrezi gadyanuvad ki is pustak ki dablyoo.bi.yits aur andre jid ne prashnsa ki aur isake lie taigor ko 1913 men nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya.

videshi yatra

1912 men taigor ne lnbi avadhi bharat se bahar bitaee, vah yoorop, amerika aur poorvi eshiya ke deshon men vyakhyan dete v kavy path karate rahe aur bharat ki svatntrata ke mukhar pravakta ban ge. halanki taigor ke upanyas unaki kavitaon aur kahaniyon jaise asadharan nahin hain, lekin vah bhi ullekhaniy hai. inamen sabase zyada lokapriy hai gora (1990) aur ghare-baire (1916; ghar aur bahar), 1920 ke dashak ke uttarardh men taigor ne chitrakari shuroo ki aur kuchh ऎse chitr banae, jinhonne unhen samakalin agrani bharatiy kalakaron men sthapit kar diya.

mrityu

bharat ke rashtragan ke prasiddh rachayita rabindranath thakur ki mrityu 7 agast, 1941 ko kalakatta men huee thi.

inhen bhi dekhen: rabindranath thakur ke anamol vachan


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