रसखान की भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rasakhan vishay soochi
rasakhan ki bhasha
Raskhan-1.jpg
poora nam saiyyad ibrahim (rasakhan)
janm sanh 1533 se 1558 bich (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi pihani, haradoee zila, uttar pradesh
karm bhoomi mahavan (mathura)
karm-kshetr krishn bhakti kavy
mukhy rachanaen 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'
vishay sagun krishnabhakti
bhasha sadharan braj bhasha
vishesh yogadan prakriti varnan, krishnabhakti
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhakton ke liye kaha tha, "in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie" unamen "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
rasakhan ki rachanaen

hindi sahity men krishn bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyon men rasakhan ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. rasakhan ko 'ras ki khan' kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrringar ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. rasakhan krishn bhakt hain aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu hain.

rasakhan ki bhasha

solahavin shatabdi men brajabhasha sahityik asan par pratishthit ho chuki thi. bhakt-kavi sooradas ise sarvadeshik kavy bhasha bana chuke the kintu unaki shakti bhasha saushthav ki apeksha bhav dyotan men adhik rami. isilie baboo jagannathadas 'ratnakar' brajabhasha ka vyakaran banate samay rasakhan, bihari lal aur ghananand ke kavyadhyayan ko sooradas se adhik mahattv dete hain. bihari ki vyavastha kuchh kadi tatha bhasha parimarjit evn sahityik hai. ghananand men bhasha-saundary unaki 'lakshana' ke karan mana jata hai. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhonne brajabhasha ke sath khilavad n kar usake madhur, sahaj evn svabhavik roop ko apanaya. sath hi bolachal ke shabdon ko sahityik shabdavali ke nikat lane ka saphal prayas kiya.

shabd-shakti-chamatkar

pratyek shabd ke arth ka bodh shabd ki shakti dvara hota hai. vaiyakaranon ne 'shabdarth-sambandh: shakti' kahakar isi paribhasha ko sarthak kiya hai. shabd ki shakti hi usaki sarthakata ki dyotak hoti hai. kavy men abhipsit arth ki spasht abhivyakti ke atirikt, yah bhi avashyak hai ki bhasha men shishtata, ramaniyata, chamatkarita aur snvedanashilata ho. rasakhan ki bhasha ki shakti is lakshy ki poorti men kahan tak saphal ho saki hai isi ka vivachen prastut shirshak ke antargat kiya gaya hai.

  • shabd shaktiyan tin mani gee hain-
  1. abhidha- abhidha shakti vah shakti hai jisase sanketik (prasiddh) arth ka avabodh hua karata hai. aur isilie use shabd ki pratham (mukhy) shakti kahate hain. [1]
  2. lakshana- lakshana shakti vah shakti hai jo kahin mukhyarth ke (anvayabodh ke) badhit athava anupapann ho jane par vahan ek aise arth ka avabodhan karavaya karati hai jo ki mukhyarth se (sarvatha asnbaddh nahin apitu) kisi n kisi roop se snbaddh to avashy raha karata hai kintu mukhyarth ke svabhav se bhinn svabhav ka hi hua karata hai aur aisa hone ke karan roodhi hai ya prayojan-vivaksha.[2]
  3. vynjana- vynjana shakti vah shakti hai jo abhidha adi shaktiyon ke shant ho jane par (apane-apane kary kar chukane ke bad kshin samarthy ho jane par) ek aise arth ka avabodhan karaya karati hai jo badhy, lakshyadi roop arthon se sarvatha ek vilakshan prakar ka arth hua karata hai.[3]

abhidha shakti

rasakhan ke kavy men bhakti tatha prem sambandhi padyon men, vatsaly-varnan men, snyog lila tatha roop-chitran ke samany itivrittatmak anshon men abhidha shakti se dyotit vachyarth ki pradhanata svabhavat: hai hi, vishesh bhavapoorn sthalon par abhidha men bhi chamatkar ka niroopan hai—

  • bain vahi unako gun gai au kan vahi un bain so sani.[4]
  • sesh sures dines ganes prajes dhanes mahes manavau.[5]
  • des bides ke dekhe naresan rijh ki kooo n boojh karaigo.[6]
  • veee brahm brahma jahi sevat hain rain-din, sadasiv sada hi dharat dhyan gadhe hain.[7]
  • suniye sab ki kahiye n kachhoo rahiye imi ya man-bagar men.[8]
  • gavain guni ganika gndharabba au sarad sabai gun gavat.[9] uparyukt pnktiyon men rasakhan ne abhidha shakti dvara apane man ki abhilasha ko bade sundar dhng se vyakt kiya hai. bhaktipoorn manobhilasha ki is hridayaharini abhivyakti men chamatkar ka vaisheshty hai.
  • rasakhan ne krishn ke bal-roop ka chitran abhidha ke dvara kiya hai-

aju gee huti bhor hi haun rasakhani ree vahi nnd ke bhaunahin.
vakau jiyau jug lakh karor jasomati ko sukh jat kahyau nahin.
tel lagai lagai kai anjan bhaunh banai banai dithaunahin.
dali hamelani har niharat varat jyau chuchakarat chhaunahin॥[10]

dhoori bhare ati sobhit syamajoo taisi bani sir sundar choti.
khelat khat phiren angana pag paijani bajati piri kachhauti.[11]

  • lakshana aur vynjana ki nibndhana n hone par bhi krishn ke bal saundary ki abhivyakti nissndeh shaktimati hai-

maiya ki saun soch katoo mataki utare ko n
goras ke dhare ko n chir chiri dare ko.
yahai du:kh bhari gahai dagar hamari manjh,
nagar hamare gval bagar hamare ko.[12]

gauraj birajai bhal lahalahi banamal,
age gaiyan gval gavain mridu bani ri.
taisi dhuni bansuri ki madhur madhur jaisi,
bnk chitavani mnd mnd musakani ri.

kadam vitap ke nikat tatani ke tat,
ata chadhi chahi pit pata phaharani ri.
ras barasavai tanatapati bujhavai nain,
pranani rijhavai vah avai rasakhani ri.[13]

rasakhan ne padyon men abhidha shakti ka prayog kiya hai. antim pady abhidha ka sundar udaharan hai. rasakhan ke bhakti prem tatha balalila snbndhi padyon men abhidhashakti ke chamatkarapoorn darshan hote hain. unaki pray: sabhi rachanaen rasapoorn ya bhavapoorn hain. atev unake kavy men abhidha ka ekant prayog adhik nahin hai. jahan ras ya bhav ki vynjana hoti hai vahan vynjana-shakti ka astitv svayn siddh hai.

lakshana-shakti

lakshana shabd shakti vah shabd shakti hai jo kahin mukhyarth ke (anvayabodh) badhit ho jane par vahan ek aise arth ka avabodhan karavaya karati hai, jo mukhyarth se kisi n kisi roop men snbndh to avashy raha karata hai, kintu mukhyarth ke svabhav se bhinn svabhav ka hi hua karata hai aur aisa hone ka karan ya to roodhi hai ya prayojan-vivaksha.[14] lakshana shakti ke anek bhedopabhed hain. ham keval pramukh bhedon ke adhar par rasakhan ke kavy men prayukt lakshana shakti ka vivechan karenge.

roodhi-lakshana

roodhi-lakshana vah hai jisamen roodhi ke karan mukhyarth ko chhodakar usase snbndh rakhane vala any arth grahan kiya jay.[15] rasakhan ke kavy men roodhi-lakshana yatr-tatr mil jati hai. roodhi-lakshana ka saphal prayog kavi ke bhashadhikar ka parichayak hai—

kunjagali men ali nikasi tahan sankare dhota kiyau bhatabheri.
mai ri va mukh ki musakan gayau man boodi phirai nahin phero.
dori liyau drig chori liyo chit darayau hai prem ko phnd ghanero.
kaisi karaun ab kyaun nikasaun rasakhani parayau tan roop ko ghero॥[16]

  • 'man boodane' men roodhi-lakshana hai. man vastav men dooba nahin. isaka lakshyarth yah hai ki man krishn ke saundary ke vashibhoot ho gaya.
  • 'roop ke ghero' ka lakshyarth yah hai ki ek bar dekhane ke bad gopi ka hriday krishn ke svaroop se prabhavit ho gaya hai.
  • bar hi gauras benchi ri aj toon maee ke mood chadhai kat maudi.[17] mood chadhane men roodhi lakshan hai.

kalhi parayau murali-dhuni main rasakhani joo kanan nam hamaro.
ta din te nahin dhir rahyau jag jani layau ati kino pnvaro.
ganvan ganvan main ab tau badanam bhee sab sau kai kinaro.
tau sajani phiri kahaun piy mero vahi jag thonki nagaro.[18]

is pad men rasakhan ne tin bar roodhi-lakshana ka saphal prayog kiya hai. vastav men nagada thonka nahin gaya. kahane ka tatpary yah hai ki bat sab men prasiddh ho gee hai.
  • kahan laun sayani chnda hathan chhipaibo.[19] chndrama ko hath se chhipaya nahin ja sakata. chnda ko chhipane men lakshyarth bat chhipane se hai. is pnkti men roodhi lakshana ko chamatkarik dhng se vyakt kiya gaya hai.
  • ankh se ankh ladi jabahin tab saun ye rahain ansuva rng bhini.[20] yahan ankh ladane ka lakshyarth darshan hone se hai. rasakhan ke kavy men roodhi lakshana ke anek udaharan milate hain. ye prayog bhav evn bhasha sundar banane men sahayak hue hain.

prayojanavati lakshana

  • prayojanavati lakshana vah hai jisamen kisi vishesh prayojan ki siddhi ke lie lakshana ki jay.[21]
  • rasakhan ke kavy men prayojanavati lakshana ke pray: sabhi bhedon ke darshan hote hain.
  • va chhabi rasakhani bilokat varat kam kala nij koti.[22] krishn-roop ke samane karodon kamadevon aur chndrama ke saundary varane se prayojan krishn ko adhik roopavan siddh karana hai.
  • main tabahi nikasi ghar ten taki nain bisal ko chot chalaee.[23] chot chalane se prayojan prahar karane se hai. nayanon ki kataksh-prabhav ka yahan varnan hai.

aju hi barak 'lehoo dahi' kahi kai kachhu nainan men bihnsi hai.
bairini vahi bhee musakani ju va rasakhani kai pran basi hai.[24]

  • 'nainan men vihnsane' men shararat ke lakshyarth dvara prayojanavati lakshana hai.
  • bairini men musakan ke dukhadayi hone ki vynjana hai.
  • muskan vedana ka karan ban gee.

har hiyain bhari bhavan saun pat dine lala vachanamrit bauri.[25]
bachanamrit ka prayojan prem bhare vachanon se hai.
meri sunau mati ai ali uhan jauni gali hari gavat hai.
hari laihai bilokat pranan kon puni gadh paren ghar avat hai.
un tan ki tan tani braj main rasakhani sayan sikhavat hai.
taki pay dharau rapatay nahin vah charo saun dari phndavat hai.[26]

  • dvitiy pnkti men prayojanavati gauni lakshana hai aur chaturth pnkti men chetavani dvara ki tum murali ki dhvani sunakar phisal n jao, snbhal kar chalo men prayojanavati shuddha lakshana hai.

upadan lakshana

jahan vakyarth ki sngati ke lie any arth ke lakshit kiye jane par bhi apana arth n chhoote vahan upadan lakshana hoti hai.[27] rasakhan ke kavy men upadan lakshana ke saphal prayog ke darshan hote hain.

ant te n ayau yahi ganvare ko jayau
maee bapare jivayau pyai doodh bare bare ko.
soee rasakhani pahivani kani chhandi chahai,
lochan nachavat nachaiya dvare dvare ko.
maiya ki saun soch kachhoo mataki utare ko n
goras ke dhare ko n chir chiri dare ko.
yahai du:kh bhari gahai dagar hamari manjh,
nagar hamare gval bagar hamare ko.[28]

tisari pnkti men upadan lakshana hai. dvar-dvar nachane vala aj hamare samane ankhen nacha raha hai. upadan lakshana se vidit ho raha hai ki vah hamare sath chhal kar raha hai.

lakshanalakshana

  • jahan vachyarth ki siddhi ke lie vakyarth apane ko chhod kar keval lakshyarth ko soochit kare, yahan lakshanalakshana hoti hai.[29]
  • pai rasakhani vahi mero sadhan, aur trilok rahau ki nasavau.[30] yahan trilok se lakshy shesh jo kuchh bhi hai us aishvary ki mujhe kamana nahin. yahan karyakarak sambandh se lakshanalakshana hai.
  • mangat dan main an liyo su kiyau nilaji ras joban khayau.[31] 'ras joban' khane ki vastu nahin hai. isaka lakshyarth rati krida se hai. kam rati ke anand ki vynjana ki gee hai. vachyarth ke tyag se yahan lakshanalakshana hai.

jahadajahallakshana

jahan par kisi shabd ka vachyarth anshat: svikrit kiya jata hai aur anshat: badhit hota hai vahan jahadajahallakshana hoti hai. isi visheshata ke karan ise bhag tyagalakshana bhi kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men jahadajahallakshana ke bhi udaharan milate hain-

ari anokhi bam, toon aee gaune nee.
bahar dharasi n pam, hai chhaliya tuv tak main.[32]

'tuv tak men' dekh raha hai, is vachyarth ke hote hue bhi lakshyarth yah nikal raha hai ki vah tumhen pakadana chahata hai. dhvani yah hai ki tum savadhan ho jao.

niken nihari kai dekhe n ankhin, haun kabahoon bhari nain n jagi.
mo pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalnk lagyau par ank n lagi.[33]

jahadajahallakshana ke dvara yah charitarth ho raha hai ki main badanam bhi huee kintu krishn ke alingan ka anand bhi nahin prapt hua. rasakhan ke kavy men lakshana shakti ke anek saphal udaharan milate hain.

vynjana-shakti

vynjana-shakti shabd aur arth adi ki vah shakti hai jo abhidha adi shaktiyon ke shant ho jane par (apane-apane kary kar chukane ke bad kshin samarthy ho jane par) ek aise arth ka avabodhan karaya karati hai jo vadhy, lakshyadiroop arthon se sarvatha ek vilakshan prakar ka arth hua karata hai.[34] rasakhan ki bhasha paradarshi hai. shabdon men nibaddh bhav anubhooti ko moortata pradan karate hain. netron ke samane ek sajiv chitr khinch jata hai. isake lie rasakhan ne vynjana shakti ka ashray liya. shaktibhav se bhare hue padon men bhi vynjana dvara apane bhavon ka sundar niroopan kiya hai-

kaha rasakhani sukhasnpati sumar kaha
kaha tan jogi hvai lagae ang chhar ko.[35]

yahan yah vynjit ho raha hai ki samast aishvary aur bahari niyam, vrat adi vyarth hain. arthat unaka sevan nahin karana chahie.

aise hi bhe tau nar kaha rasakhani jau pai,
chit dai n koni priti pit patavare son॥[36]

vynjana dvara dhvanit ho raha hai ki krishn-prem ke bina sab chizen vyarth hain.

kahe ko soch karai rasakhani kaha kari hai rabi nnd bicharo.
ta khan ja khan rakhiyai makhan chakhanaharau so rakhanaharo॥[37]

yahan vivakshitany par vachy dhvanit hai. prashnatmak vaky se nakaratmak dhvani yah nikal rahi hai ki rasakhan ko soch karane ki tanik bhi avashyakata nahin hai.

kag ke bhag bade sajani hari-hathh saun lai gayau makhan-roti.[38] yah vyngy dhvanit ho raha hai ki kauve jaise chhote se pakshi ka itana bada bhagy hai ki vah krishn ke hath se makhan-roti le gaya. mujhe yah saubhagy bhi prapt nahin.

kooo n kahoo ki kani karai kachhu chetak so ju kiyau jaduraiya.[39] 'prabhav chetak saun' main hai. vastav men jadoo nahin kiya gaya hai. arthantarasnkramitavachy dvara 'so' men chamatkar hai.

gauras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[40] uparyukt pnktiyon men abhidhamoola vynjana hai. goras aur jo ras men aindriy sukh bhog, kamarati ke anand ki vynjana hai.

hansi main har harayau rasakhani joo jau kahoon neku taga tuti jaihain.
ekahi moti ke mol lala sigare braj hatahi hat bikaihain॥[41]

vaky dhvani yah hai ki yadi hamara har toot gaya to tumhara bada apaman hoga. nayika ke man men vidyaman krishn vishayak prem ki bhi vynjana ho rahi hai.

kariyai upay bans dariyai katay
nahin upajaigo bans nahin bajai pheri bansuri.[42]

yahan lokokti ke adhar par murali ko samool nasht karane ki vynjana hai.

mohan ke man bhai gayau ik bhai saun gvalinain godhan gayau.
takon lagyau chat, chauhat saun duri auchak gat son gat chhuvayau.
rasakhani lahi ini chaturata chupachap rahi jab laun ghar ayau.
nain nachai chitai musakai su ot hvai jai angootha dikhayau.[43]

is pad men gopi ki buddhimani ki vynjana ho rahi hai. yah krishn ki sab cheshtaon par chup rahi, kintu ghar ane par usane nayan nachakar muskara kar angootha dikha diya. yahan par vynjana hai ki ab krishn isaka kuchh nahin kar sakate. sath hi gopi ki shararat aur chatury bhi dhvanit ho rahe hain.

navarng anng bhari chhabi saun vah moorati ankhi gadi hi rahai.
batiyan man ki man hi main rahai ghatiya ur bich adi hi rahai.
tabahoon rasakhani sujan ali nalinidal boond padi hi rahai.
jiy ki nahin janat hon sajani rajani ansuvan ladi hi rahai.[44]

navarng men atishay saundary ki jo nity ne roop men dikhaee deta hai, vynjana ho rahi hai. 'ankhi hi gadi rahai' arthat ankh men aisi basi hai ki hilati hi nahin hai. ankh men koee chiz padane se pida hoti hai. yahan krishn prem ke karan kasak ho rahi hai. rajani men ekant ho jane par sab ke so jane ke uparant ashruon men kisi prakar ki badha nahin padati. yahan nayika ke rodan ke sath-sath prem ki atishayata ki vynjana hai.
  • kou rahi putari si khari kou ghat dari kou bat pari joo.[45] yahan gopiyon ke kinkartavyavimoodh ho jane ki vynjana hai.
  • pai kaha karau va rasakhani bilauki hiyau hulasai hulasai hulasai.[46] nayika ke premavashibhoot hone ki vynjana hai.
  • lakhi nain ki kor katachh chalai kai laj ki ganthan kholat hai.[47] yahan lajja ke bndhanon ko tod dene ki vynjana hai. usake kataksh ke prabhav se lajja ke bndhan toot ge hain. lajja ki parakashtha ki hridayasparshi abhivynjana hain.

bhatoo sundar syam siromani mohan johan men chit chorat hai.
avalokan bnk bilokan main brajabalan ke drig jorat hai.[48]

yahan prem ke vashibhoot hone ki vynjana hai.

mohani mohan saun rasakhani achanak bhent bhee ban mahin.
jeth ki gham bhee sukhadham anand hi ang hi ang samahin.
jivan ko phal payau bhatoo rasabatan keli saun torat nahin.
kanh ko hath kngha par hai mukh oopar morakirit ki chhahin॥[49]

priy ki nikatata ke karan kashtadayak vastuon ke sukhad pratit hone ki vynjana dvitiy pnkti men hai. jeth ki dhoop isalie sukhad pratit ho rahi hai ki garmi men koee van men nahin ghoomata. isase nayak-nayika ko ekant men milane ki suvidha prapt hai. 'ang hi ang samahi' men pragadh alingan se utpann atishay sukh ki abhivyakti hai. roopak aur shlesh alnkar ke dvara rati ke atishay anand ko kisi bhi prakar badhit nahin karana chahatin. sukh ki parakashtha par pahunchi huee preyasi ke rati anandatirek ki vynjana ho rahi hai.

pichaka chalaee aur juvati bhijai neh,
lochan nachai mere angahi nachai gau.
samahin nachai bhauri nandahi nachai khori
bairin sachai gauri mohi sakuchai gau.[50]

chnchal netron ka prabhav itana adhik tha ki satvik bhavon ka uday hone laga. 'bairin sachai' men pichhale bair ka badala nikalane ki vynjana hai. pahale kabhi gopi ne krishn-prem ki avahelana ki hogi. 'sakuchane' men yah vynjana hai ki log dekhakar bhanp ge ki usake man men prem hai. rasakhan ke kavy ka avalokan karane par yah bhali-bhanti vidit ho jata hai ki rasakhan ne vynjana shabdashakti ke ashray se uttam koti ke dhvani kavy ki rachana ki. rasakhan dvara 'vynjana' ke bahudha prayog se bhi yah siddh hota hai ki bhasha par unaka poorn adhikar tha. rasakhan prasoot lakshanik prayogon aur dhvanyatmak abhivynjana shaili ki samyak pratiti n hone ke karan hi hindi ke ek alochak ne unake kavy ko abhidhakavy mana hai.[51] uparyukt vivechan se yah spashtataya siddh hai ki unaki yah manyata sarvatha asngat hai.

rasakhan ke kavy men prayukt shabd shaktiyon ke uparyukt vivechan se yah spasht nishkarsh nikalata hai ki unhonne sthan-sthan par kavy chamatkar ko utkarsh pradan karane vali lakshana aur vynjana ka upayukt prayog kiya hai. unaki bhasha ke dharavahik aur prasad-gun poorn bahy roop ke karan anek alochakon ko yah bhranti ho gee hai ki ve avidha ke kavi hain. tatvat: abhidha aur prasad men koee virodh nahin hai. jatilata n hote hue bhi rasakhan ki rachanaon men uparyukt shabd-shaktiyon ka chamatkar asndigdh hai.

rasakhan ki bhasha men muhavaron aur lokoktiyon ka prayog

muhavaron ke prayog se bhasha sashakt evn sajiv ho jati hai. janata ke sampark men rahane vale lekhak ki bhasha men muhavare svabhavat: adhik hote hain. muhavare bhasha ki svabhavikata ke parichayak hain. jis lekhak ya kavi ki bhasha men jitane adhik muhavare honge utana hi usaka bhasha par adhikar mana jaega. rasakhan ki bhasha men muhavare bahut milate hain. unhonne apani bhasha men muhavaron ka bahut hi sahaj roop men prayog kiya hai, jisase unaka lok-prachalit bhasha par visheshadhikar soochit hota hai. sajiv aur prachalit muhavaron se alnkrit bhasha vishesh shaktimati ho gayi hai. rasakhan ke kavy men muhavaron ke saphal prayog ki nibndhana milati hai. kahin bhi aisi pratit nahin hota ki kavi ne saprayas unako apane kavy men thoonsane ka prayatn kiya hai. muhavaron dvara rasakhan ne apani bat ki pushti bade sundar dhng se ki hai. kahin-kahin ek hi pnkti men ek se adhik muhavare prayukt kie hain jisase unaki bhasha men marmik prabhavashilata a gee hai. muhavare roopi naginon ko rasakhan ne itane sundar dhng se jada hai ki ek bhi nagina nikalane par pad roopi abhooshan ki kanti kshin ho jati hai.

at: snkshep men kaha ja sakata hai ki rasakhan ki bhasha men muhavare sahaj riti se prayukt hue hain jisase arth vynjana ke sath-sath bhasha-saundary ki svabhavik abhivriddhi huee hai. rasakhan ne muhavaron ke roop bigadane ka prayatn nahin kiya. isaka suparinam yah hua hai ki unaki bhasha ki subodhata aur svachchhata sarvatr hi bani rahati hai.

ukti-vaichitry aur vakrokti-vidhan

vastav men ukti vaichitry aur vakrokti ka sambandh kavi ki chamatkarik abhivyakti se hai. achary kuntak ne isi se vakrokti ko sab kuchh manakar use kavy ke pran ke roop men svikar kiya hai. any acharyon ne vakrokti ko alnkar ke antargat rakha hai.[52] rasakhan ke kathan men vakrata kam milati hai, kyonki unaki kavy shakti kathan pranali ke chamatkar utpadan men vyay n hokar bhavabhivynjana men lagi hai. svabhavat: kuchh vakroktiyon ki nibandhana ho gee hai—

  • goras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[53] yahan gopi ke kathan ki vakrata darshaniy hai. *krishn ke dadhi mangane ke bahane gopiyon se chhed-chhad karane par gopi kahati hai-'jaihai jo bhooshan kahoo tiya ko tau mol chhala ke lala n bikaihau'.[54]
  • bhramaragit-prasng ke antargat gopiyan vakrokti ke dvara uddhav se kahati hain—'kare bisare kau chahain utarayau are vish bavare rakh lagaee kai'.[55] vakrokti dvara gopiyon ke shabdon se yah dhvanit ho raha hai ki tum kitane bhi upay kar lo kintu krishn ke prabhav evn prem ko hamase alag nahin kar sakate. sooradas ki gopiyan vagvaidagdhy ke lie prasiddh hain. unaki uktiyan uddhav ko nat mastak kar deti hain. ve poochh baithati hain, 'uddhav tum kaun desh ke vasi' tatha 'madhuvan tum kit rahat hare'. rasakhan ki gopiyan bhi ukti vaichitry men kisi se kam nahin hain. sambhavat: rasakhan ke kavy men ukti vaichitry ki marmikata ko dekhakar hi 'da. savitri sinha' ji ne kaha hai- rasakhani ke vaidagdhy men dhvani ki apeksha ukti vaichitry adhik hai.[56] gopiyan krishn ke salone roop aur banki ada se prabhavit hain. krishn ka saundary n dekhate banata hai n kahate. lok laj ki chinta n karake krishn ko samarpan karana chahati hai kintu lajja a jane se kam kharab ho jata hai yahan usi ka pashchattap ho raha hai-

aju ri nandalala nikasyau tulasiban ten banaken musakato.
dekhen banai n banai kahate ab so sukh jo mukh men n samato.
haun rasakhani bilokibe kaun kulakani ke kaj kiyau hiy hato.
aee gee alabeli alanak e bhatoo laj ko kaj kaha to॥[57]

  • kishoravastha ki or badhati huee balika ki bhavanaon men vay:sandhi sthiti ki alhadata aur chnchalata ki dhvani is pad men milati hai—

bairini toon baraji n rahai abahin ghar bahir bairu badhegau.
tona su nand dhutona padhai sajani tuhi dekhi viseshi padhaigau.
hasi hai sakhi gokul ganv sabain rasakhani tabai yah lok radhaigau.
bais chadhe gharahin rahi baithi ata n chadhe badanam chadhaigau॥[58]

  • sapatni jvala se apane ap men hi jalati huee abala ki vivash bhavanaon ki ukti vaichitry ke dvara sundar abhivyakti huee hai—

sautin bhag badhyau braj men jin lootat hain nisi rng ghaneri.
mo rasakhani likhi bidhana man mari kai apu bani haun aheri.[59]

yahan ukti ki vakrata anupam hai, isamen goodh vyngy chhipa hua hai. rasakhan ke kavy men hamen sundar uktiyon ka niroopan milata hai. nimnankit pnktiyon men sakhi ki vakrokti muhavare ke prayog se aur prabhavotpak ho gee hai—

ari anokhi vam too aee gaune nee.
bahar dharasi n pam hai chhaliya tub tak men॥[60]

svabhavikata evn chitratmakata

rasakhan ki bhasha ki badi visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhonne shabdon ko tod-marodakar durooh banane ka prayas nahin kiya. unaki bhasha sukumar tatha saral hai, sath hi bhavabhivyakti men sahayak hai. pathak ko door ki kaudi nahin lani padati—

va lakuti aru kamariya par raj tihoon pur ko taji daraun.
athahun siddhi nayaun nidhi ko sukh nand ki gay charai bisaraun.
e rasakhani jabai in nainan te braj ke ban bag niharaun.
kotik ye kaladhaut ke dham karil ki kunjan oopar varaun.[61]

svabhavik shabdavali ke prayog se rasakhan ki bhasha gatimayi ho gee hai. gopiyon ki samast uktiyan svabhavik bhasha men milati hain. prem ke gambhir tattvon ke niroopan men bhi rasakhan svabhavikata ka daman nahin chhodate. kahin aisa pratit nahin hota ki rasakhan saprayas rachana kar rahe hain. unaka ek-ek pady unake ant:sthal ki anubhooti ki sakar pratima hota hai nimn pady men krishn ki rasili musakan katili chitavan, bnk vilokan, aminidh bain, bansuri ki madhur dhvani dvara prabhavit, gopi ki dasha ki marmik abhivyakti svabhavik bhasha men huee hai.

banki bilokani rng bhari rasakhani khari musakani suhaee.
bolat bol aminidhi chain maharas-ain sunen sukhadaee.
sajani pur-bithin men piy-gohan lagi phirain jit hi tit dhaee.
bansuri teri sunai ali apanai lee braj raj kanhaee.[62]

antim pnkti ki svabhavikata darshaniy hai. rasakhan ke kavy men kathor shabdon ka abhav hai. koman evn saral shabdon ke prayog ne unaki bhasha ko aur bhi svabhavik bana diya hai. kahin-kahin 'tavarg' ka bhi prayog milata hai kintu vah bhi bhavabhivyakti men sahayak hua hai.

vah gherani dhenu aber saberani pherani lala lakuttani ki.
vah tichhan chachchhu kataban ki chhabi morani bhaunh bhrikuttani ki.
vah lal ki chal chubhi chit men rasakhani sngit ughattani ki.
vah pit patakkani ki chatakani latakkani mor mukuttani ki॥[63]

rasakhan ki samadhi, mahavan, mathura

snkshep men kaha ja sakata hai ki rasakhan ki bhasha bhavanukool saras, svabhavik evn saral hai. arth ko samajhane ko door ki kaudi nahin lani padati n hi mastishk evn buddhi ko vyayam ki avashyakata pratit hoti hai. kavi sahaj dhng se man men uthe vibhinn bhavon ki abhivyakti saras evn svabhavik bhasha ke madhyam se karata hai. rasakhan ne apani bhasha men karkash shabdon ka prayog n karake use durooh hone se bacha liya. usamen brajabhasha ki sahityik shabdavali ke sath-sath lok bhasha ya braj boli ki svabhavik shabdavali ke bhi darshan hote hain. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki chitratmakata hai. shabdon ko is prakar snjoya hai ki hamare samane ek drishy upasthit kar dete hain. rasakhan ne alamban ki cheshtaon ka niroopan karate hue svatantr shabd chitron ka nirman adhik kiya hai. alnkarik chitr unake kavy men kam milate hain.

  • krishn ke van se gay chara kar vapis ate samay ka chitran dekhie—

goraj birajai bhal lahalahi banamal,
age gaiyan pachhe gval gavai mridu bani ri.
taisi dhuni bansuri ki madhur, jaisi
bnk chitavani mand mand musakani ri.
kadam bitap ke nikat tatani ke tat
ata chadhi chahi pit pat phaharani ri.
ras barasavai tap-tapati bujhavai nain
pranani rijhavai vah avai rasakhani ri॥[64]

  • prakritik upadanon ki sahayata se radha ke roop ka varnan rasakhan ne chitratmak dhng se kiya hai—

ati lal gulal dukool te phool, ali ali kuntal rajat hai.
makhatool saman ke gunj chharani men kinsuk ki chhabi chhajat hai.
mukata ke kadnb te anb ke mor, sune sur kokil lajat hai.
yah avani pyari ju rasakhani basnt-si aj birajat hai.[65]

  • rasakhan ne rasalila ka varnan bhi badi chitratmak bhasha men kiya hai, in chitron men bhavon ki pradhanata hai. sajivata aur pranavatta ki drishti se usaki tulana any kaviyon ke ras-chitran se nahin ki ja sakati. parantu usamen nihit saral snigdhata men svabhavik akarshan hai; jaise—

aj bhatoo muralibat ke tat nnd ke sanvare ras rachyau ri.
nainani sainani bainani son nahin kooo manohar bhav bachyau ri.
jadyapi rakhan kaun kulakani sabai brajabalan pran pachyau ri.
tadyapi va rasakhani ke hath bikani kaun ant lachyau pai lachyau ri.[66]

is prakar rasakhan ki bhasha men chitratmak shabdavali ki yojana milati hai jo bhav ki saphal tatha sahaj abhivyakti men sahayak hai.

dharavahikata

  • rasakhan ki bhasha ki sabase badi visheshata usaki dharavahikata hai. arth par dhyan diye bina bhi inake savaiyon ko padhane se ek prakar ka anand milata hai. is anand ka karan prasann padavali bhasha hai. unhonne shabdon ko kushalata se snjoya hai ki unamen anavaruddh spndan evn gati hai. 'lal lasain pag panvariya[67] 'de gayo bhakto bhanvariya' men 'pauri', 'bhaunri' ke sthan par 'panvariya' , 'bhanvariya' hone se bhasha men svabhavik pravah a gaya hai.

gunj garen sir maur pakha aru chal gayand ki mo man bhavai.
sanvaro nand kumar sabai brajamandali men brajaraj kahavai.
saj samaj sab sirataj au chhaj ki bat nahin kahi avai.
tahi ahir ki chhohariyan chhachhiya bhari chhachh pai nach nachavain॥[68]

  • rasakhan pravahamayi bhasha ke prayog men saphal hue hain. unaki bhasha ka pravah aur gatimayata kushal kala ki parichayak hai. ek ke bad doosara shabd dharavahikata ke sath snjoya hua pratit hota hai. nimnalikhit pad men rasakhan ki bhasha ki pravahamayi gati dekhane yogy hai—

nav rng anng bhari chhabi saun vah moorati ankhi gadi hi rahai.
batiya man ki man hi men rahai, chhatiya ur bich adi hi rahai.
tabahoon rasakhani sujan ali nalini dal boond padi hi rahai.
jiy ki nahin janat haun sajani rajani ansuvan ladi hi rahai॥[69]

uparyukt pnktiyon men madhur pravah-lality hai. sath hi shabd yojana bhi sarvatha upayukt aur anoothi hai. anupras bhi bhasha-pravah men sahayak hua hain kintu aisa kahin pratit nahin hota ki rasakhan anupras ke agrah se likh rahe hain. manonukool sthalo aur prasngon ke chitran men rasakhan ne jis bhasha ka prayog kiya hai vah pravahamayi hai—

ali page rnge je rng sanvare maupai n avat lalachi naina.
dhavat hai utahi jit mohan roke rukai nahin ghoonghat aina.
kanani kaun kal nahin parai sakhi prem son bhijai sune bin baina.
rasakhani bhee madhu ki makhiyan ab neh ko bndhan kyau hoon chhutaina॥[70]

  • rasakhan ki bhasha ka mahattvapoorn gun usaka sahaj svabhavik pravah hai. rasakhan ki bhasha men yah pravah kisi uddam parvatiy nadi ke saman dikhaee padata hai jisake marg men kahin bhi atak, avarodh ya badha nahin.

nadatmakata

chhndon ki geyata prabhavotpadan men nissandeh vriddhi karati hai. uttam chhand vahi mana jata hai jisamen upayukt shabd yojana aur sngit tattv ho. rasakhan ki bhasha men nadatmakata ke darshan hote hain. sngit tattv ne bhavanubhooti ke lie ek sajiv aur manoram vatavaran utpann kar diya hai. rasakhan ke kavy men ek madhur akar ki anubhooti hoti hai. rasakhan ke sundar shabdon evn varnon ke chayan se unake kavitton au savaiyon men barabas sngitatmakata a jati hai. unake samapt ho jane ke bad bhi sngitatmakata ki jhnkriti karn-kuharon men pratidhvanit hoti rahati hai.[71]

  • anupras ke vibhinn roopon ke snyukt prayog dvara nirmit is savaiye ka sngit sunane yogy hai—

biharai piy pyari saneh sane chhaharai chunari ke jhava jhaharain.
siharain navajovan rng anng subhng apangani ki gaharain.
baharain rasakhani nadi ras ki ghaharain banita kul hoo bhaharain.
kaharain birahi jan atap saun laharain lali lal lie paharain॥[72]

is pad men nadatmakata ki saphal svabhavik nibandhana huee hai. jhnkar ki-si pratidhvani ho rahi hai. rasakhan ki bhasha pravahamayi aur sngitapoorn hai. kavi ki lekhani se nikala hua ek-ek shabd lay srijan men yog de raha hai. rasakhan ki bhasha ka sabase bada gun yah hai ki pratyek shabd chhand ke utar-chadhav ke anuroop lay ke anusar bolata hai. varn-sngit ke dvara nirmit antarik sngit rasakhan ke kavy-madhury ka pradhan tattv hai. holi ke prasngon men sngit ki dhvani sunaee padati hai—

khelat phag suhag bhari anuragahin lalan kaun dhari kai.
marat kunkam kesari ke, pichakarin men rng kaun bhari kai.
gerat lala gulal lali man mohini mauj mita kari kai.
jat chali rasakhani ali madamatt manau man kaun hari kai॥[73]

  • shiv-stuti prasng men bhi unaki shabdavali isi sngitamayi gati se pravahit hai—

yah dekhi dhatoore ke pat chabat au gat son dhooli lagavat hain.
chahun or jata antakai latakai phaniso kafani phaharavat hain.
rasakhani jeee chitavai chit dai tinake dukhadund bhajavat hain.
gajakhal kapal ki mal bisal sau gal bajavat avat hai.[74]

  • rasakhan ne shabdon ko us prakar snjoya hai ki unamen nad saundary jhalak raha hai— 'pale pari main akeli lali lala laj liyau sukiyo man bhayau.[75]'
  • vastavikata yah hai ki rasakhan dvara snyojit varn-sngit ke udaharan men unaka poora kavy rakha ja sakata hai.

gavain guni ganika gndharabbab au sarad sesh sabai gun gavat.
nam anant ganant ganes jyaun brahma trilochan par n pavat.
jogi jati tapasi aru siddh nirantar jahin samadhi lagavat.
tahi ahir ko chhohariya chhachhiya bhari chhachh pai nach nachavat॥[76]

antim pnkti ki dhvanyarth vynjana vishesh dhyan dene yogy hai. varn aur shabd yojana dvara antarik sngit ki nibndhana rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata hai.
  • pray: pady men shabd dhvanit hote dikhaee padate hain— 'ya murali muralidhar ki adharan dhari adhara n dharaugi.[77]'
  • tyaun rasakhani vahi rasakhani ju hai rasakhani sau hai rasakhani.[78]
  • rasakhan ne saman varn vale shabdon ki avritti dvara bhasha men pravah aur lay ka nirman kiya hai-

ten n lakhyau jab kunjan ten bani ke nikasyau bhatakyau matakyau ri.
sauhat kaiso hara tatakyau aru kaiso kirit lasai latakyau ri.
kau rasakhani phirai bhatakyau hatakyau braj log phirai bhatakyau ri.
roop sabai hari va nat ko hiyaren atakyo atakyo atakyau ri॥[79]

rasakhan ki bhasha men nadatmakata bhavavynjana ke anukool hai. inhonne keshav adi ritikalin kaviyon ki bhanti shabdon se khilavad nahin ki. inaki bhasha men shabdagrah nahin. bhasha ki nadatmakata shrutipeshal tatha pratipady ke anukool hai. usamen svabhavik saundary evn sngit ki kamaniyata avalokaniy hai.

gunochit shabd-yojana (gun, vritti)

gun

kavy ki atma ke roop men pratishthit ras anubhootisvaroop hai, vah asvad hi hai. chitt ki jis avastha men bhavak ko svanubhooti hoti hai use 'gun' kahate hain. gun vastut: ras ke dharm hain. ras ke sath unaka avinabhav sambandh hai. arthath ras ke astitv ke sath gun ka astitv anivary hai aur gun ke sath ras ka astitv. jis prakar shaury adi sharir ke dharm n hokar atma ke dharm hain, usi prakar madhury adi guni shabdarth ke dharm n hokar ras ke hi dharm hain. jis prakar atma ke dharm-shaury adi adi ko lok-vyavahar men sharir ka dharm kah diya jata hai, usi prakar isake dharm-madhury adi ko bhi kavy ke shabdarth roop sharir ka dharm samajh liya jata hai. snskrit ke kavyashastr men vibhinn acharyon dvara gunon ki vibhinn snkhyaen batalaee gee hain. age chalakar achary mammat ne tin gunon ki pratishtha ki. paravarti kavy shastr men inhin ko apt man liya gaya. ve tin gun hain- madhury, oj aur prasad.

vritti

varnavinyas ke kram ko 'vritti' kahate hain.

  • achary vaman ne 'vishishta pad rachana' ko 'riti' kaha hai. unaka riti-siddhant bahut hi vyapak hai. usake antargat alnkaron ki yojana, doshon ka parihar, gun adi bahut kuchh hai.
  • mammat ne pad rachana ya varnavinyas ke lie 'vritti' shabd ka samichin vyavahar kiya. dhvanivadiyon aur rasavadiyon ne kavy ke pratyek ang (ras, alnkar, vritti adi) ka sapeksh mahattv nirdharit kar diya. unaka yah abhimat snskrit kavy shastr ka manadand ban gaya. vaidarbhi adi ritiyon ka jo pratipadan snskrit ke kavy shastr men kiya gaya hai use hindi kavita par lagoo karana nyay-sngat nahin hai. atev rasakhan ke kavy vivechan men vibhinn ritiyon ke badale trividdh vrittiyon ki vichar-charcha hi sngat hai, jo is prakar hain- madhura vritti, komala vritti aur parusha vritti.

madhury gun madhura vritti

madhury gun chitt ki vah drut dasha hai jisamen ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. lakshana ke dvara ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy men madhury gun ki charcha karate hain. kanhaiyalal poddar ke shabdon men - 'jis kavy rachana se ant:karan anand se dravibhoot ho jata hai, us rachana men madhury gun hota hai.[80]' madhury gun shrringar ras ke sath-sath shant ras men bhi milata hai. saras, marmik aur manohar prasngon ke lie madhura vritti ke anuroop hi shabdon ka vishesh dhyan rakha jata hai. rasakhan premomng ke kavi the. shrringar unaka priy ras tha. isalie unaki bhasha men svabhavat: hi madhury gun paya jata hai. shrikrishn ki kishoravastha ki prem lilaon ke varnan men komalavritti se pagi huee bhasha ke darshan hote hain. krishn ke roop-saundary niroopan men madhury bhara hua hai. yatha—

main-manohar bain bajai su saje tan sohat pit pata hai.
yaun damakai chamakai jhamakai duti damini ki mano syam ghata hai.
e sajani braj rajakumar ata chadhi pherat lala pata hai.
rasakhani maha madhuri mukh ki musakani karai kul kani kata hai.[81]

  • t,th,d,dh ko chhodakar 'k' se 'm' tak ke varn n,n,n,m se yukt hrasv r aur n samas ka abhav ya alp samas ke pad aur komal, madhur rachana jo madhury gun ke mool hain, rasakhan ke kavy men pae jate hain. komalakant-padavaliyukt madhury gun ka any svaroop dekhie—

kaiso manohar banak mohan sohan sundar kam te ali.
jahi bilokat laj taji kul chhootau hai nainani ki chal chali.
adhara musakan tarng lasai rasakhani suhaee maha chhabi chhali.
kunjagali madhi mohan sohan dekhyau sakhi vah roop rasali.[82]

karkashata se door madhura vritti-snyukt madhury gun yukt lalit pad-yojana darshaniy hai.

oj gun, parusha vritti

oj gun chitt ki vah dipt dasha hai jisamen ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. lakshana ke dvara ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy men oj gun ki charcha karate hain. kanhaiyalal poddar ke shabdon men- 'jis kavy rachana ke shravan se man men tez utpann hota hai, us rachana men oj gun hota hai.[83]' ojagun vir ras, vibhats aur raudr ras men pradhanat: sthit rahata hai. rasakhan ke krishn mahabharat ke yoddha nahin, gokul ke kishor the. rasakhan ne unake saundary aur prem lilaon ki hi charcha ki hai. kuvalayavadh men unhonne krishn ki virata ko dikhaya hai kintu vahan vir ras ka poorn paripak n hone se oj gun ke darshan nahin hote.

kns ke krodh ki phaili rahi sigare braj mndal manjh pukar si.
ai ge kachhini kachhi ke tabahin nat-nagar nandakumar si.
dvarad ko rad khainchi liyo rasakhani hiye mahi lai bichar si.
lini kuthaur lagi lakhi tori kalnk tamal te kirati dar si॥[84]

vahan aisa pratit hota hai ki koee balak yoon hi khel-khel men apane shaury ka pradarshan kar raha hai. jahan dvitv varnon, snyukt varnon r ke snyog aur t,th,d,dh ki adhikata ho samasadhiky ho aur kathor varnon ki rachana ho vahan parushavritti tatha oj gun hota hai. rasakhan ke kavy men kahin parushavritti poorn shabdavali jhalakane se oj gun dhvanit hota hai-

veee brahm brahma jahi sevat hain rain din,
sada siv sada hi dharat dhyan gadhe hain.
veee vishnu jake kaj mani moodh raja rnk,
jogi jati hvai kai sit sahyau ang dadhe hai.
veee brajanand rasakhani pran pranan ke,
jake abhilash lakh-laksh bhanti badhe hain.
jasudha ke age basudha ke man-mochan ye,
tamaras-lochan kharochan kaun thadhe hain.[85]

  • rasakhan ke kavy men oj gun pradhan t-varg bhi madhury gun ka sahayak banakar aya hai—

tai n lakhyau jab kunjan ten bani kai nikasyau bhatakyau matakyau ri.
sohat kaiso hara tatakyau aru kaiso kirit lase latakyau ri.
ko rasakhani phirai jhatakyau hatakyau braj log phirai bhatakyau ri.
roop sabai hari va nat ko hiyarain, atakyau atakyau atakyau ri.[86]

prasad gun, komal vritti

  • prasad gun chitt ki vah prasann dasha hai jisamen ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy men prasad-gun ki charcha karate hain. madhury chitt ki drut dasha hai aur oj dipti dasha. atev donon ek sath asnbhav hain. prasad gun madhury ke sath bhi ho sakata hai aur oj ke sath bhi. usaka vaishishty keval is bat se hai ki yadi kavy ki bhavana se tatkal hi usake marm ka sakshatkar ho jay aur bhavak ko rasanubhooti hone lage to ham vahan prasad gun manenge. jis rachana men vyakt vichar vagjal se rahit hone ke karan poornat: spasht hote hain vahan komalavritti hoti hai. rasakhan ke kavy men is vritti se yukt bhasha ki pradhanata hai. unake bhakti sambandhi pad aur krishn lilaen prasad gun yukt hain-

manush hon to vahi rasakhani basaun braj gokul ganv ke gvaran.
jau pasu hon to kaha bas mero charon nit nand ki dhenu mnjharan.
pahan hon to vahi giri ko jo dharayau kar chhatr purandar dharan.
jau khag haun to basero karaun mili kalindi-kool kadnb ki daran॥[87]

  • nimnalikhit pad men saras aur komal shabdon ke prayog ke karan abhivyakti men saundary aur komalata ke darshan hote hain—

dhoori bhare ati sobhit syamajoo taisi bani sir sundar choti.
khelat khat phirain angana pag painjani bajati piri kachhoti.
va chhabi ko rasakhani bilokat varat kam kala nij koti.
kag ke bhag bade-sajani hari hath son lai gayau makhan roti॥[88]

  • komalavritti ke prayog ke karan rasakhan ki bhasha pravahamayi hai. arth ke lie mastishk ko vyayam ki avashyakata nahin padati. saransh yah hai ki rasakhan ka kavy madhury aur prasad gun pradhan hai. usamen svabhavik madhurata aur komalakant padavali ke sath-sath darshan hote hain. rasakhan ki bhasha par sahityik drishti se vichar karane par ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki rasakhan ki bhasha shuddh braj hai. unhonne shabdon ko vikrit karane ya adhik vyakarananumodit karane ka prayas n karake usake sahaj roop ko svikar kiya. marmik udgaron ko svabhavikata evn spashtata ke sath abhivyakti karane men rasakhan ki bhasha jitani samarth hai, utani hi pranavan aur shreshth bhi hai.

bhashaon ke shabd

rasakhan ki bhasha men anek deshi boliyon ke shabd bhi milate hain. apabhrnsh shabdavali ko bhi kahin-kahin rasakhan ne apanaya hai. gngaji men nhai muktahalahoo lutay[89] men 'muktahal' shabd apabhrnsh ka hai. aj mahoon dadhi bechat jata hi[90] shabd apabhrnsh ka hai jisaka arth hai thi. benu bajavat godhan gavat gvalan ke sng gomadhi ayo.[91] apabhrnsh men saptami ka chihn 'i' hai aur vah i yahan dh men lag gee jisaka arth hua gayon ke madhy men.

  • rajasthani ke bhi ek-do shabd rasakhan ki bhasha men mil jate hain too garabai kaha jhagarai rasakhani tere bas bavari 'hausai'.[92] yahan hosai shabd rajasthani shabd 'hosi' ka roop hai jisaka arth hai hoga.
  • rasakhan ki bhasha men kuchh avadhi bhasha ke shabd paye jate hain. ta chhin te pari bairi bisasini jhankan deti nahin hai duaro[93], hot chavav bachavon su kyon ali bhetiyai pran piyaro[94] yahan 'dubaro' tatha 'piyaro' avadhi 'piyar' tatha 'duvar' par adharit hain. brajabhasha men ye 'dvarau' aur 'pyaro' honge.[95]

yahan rasakhan ki bhasha par snkshep men prakash dala gaya hai. unaki bhasha ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki vah bahut sahaj, vyakaran-sammat, bhavabhivynjak tatha prabhavashali hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sahityadarpan, pri0 40;
  2. sahityadarpan ,pri0 48
  3. sahity darpan, pri0 75
  4. sujan rasakhan, 4
  5. sujan rasakhan, 5
  6. sujan rasakhan, 7
  7. sujan rasakhan, 10
  8. sujan rasakhan,8
  9. sujan rasakhan,12
  10. sujan rasakhan, 20
  11. sujan rasakhan, 21
  12. sujan rasakhan, 46
  13. sujan rasakhan, 183
  14. mukhyarth badhe tadyukto yayanyoarth: pratiyate. roodhe: prayojanadvaasau lakshana shaktirarpita॥ sahityadarpan, pri0 48
  15. kavy-darpan, pri0 22
  16. sujan rasakhan, 28
  17. sujan rasakhan, 41
  18. sujan rasakhan, 55
  19. sujan rasakhan, 100
  20. sujan rasakhan, 181
  21. kavy-darpan, pri0 23
  22. sujan rasakhan, 21
  23. sujan rasakhan,30
  24. sujan rasakhan, 38
  25. sujan rasakhan, 27
  26. sujan rasakhan, 60
  27. kavy-darpan, pri0 24
  28. sujan rasakhan, 46
  29. kavy darpan, pri0 25
  30. sujan rasakhan, 5
  31. sujan rasakhan, 43
  32. sujan rasakhan, 98
  33. sujan rasakhan, 138
  34. viratasvabhidhadyasu yayaarthon bodhyate par: sa vrittivynjana nam shabdasyarthadikasy ch॥ sahityadarpan, pri0 75
  35. sujan rasakhan,9
  36. sujan rasakhan
  37. sujan rasakhan, 18
  38. sujan rasakhan, 21
  39. sujan rasakhan, 24
  40. sujan rasakhan, 42
  41. sujan rasakhan, 45
  42. sujan rasakhan, 54
  43. sujan rasakhan,101
  44. sujan rasakhan,127
  45. sujan rasakhan, 142
  46. sujan rasakhan, 143
  47. sujan rasakhan, 157
  48. sujan rasakhan, 171
  49. sujan rasakhan, 185
  50. sujan rasakhan, 194
  51. 'rasakhan ka kavy abhidha ka kavy hai'.
  52. sahity darpan, pri0 674
  53. sujan rasakhan, 42
  54. sujan rasakhan, 44
  55. sujan rasakhan, 204
  56. brajabhasha ke krishn bhakti kavy men abhivynjanavad, pri0 185
  57. sujan rasakhan, 144
  58. sujan rasakhan, 82
  59. sujan rasakhan, 106
  60. sujan rasakhan, 98
  61. sujan rasakhan, 3
  62. sujan rasakhan, 66
  63. sujan rasakhan, 165
  64. sujan rasakhan, 183
  65. sujan rasakhan, 49
  66. sujan rasakhan, 35
  67. sujan rasakhan, 141
  68. sujan rasakhan, 15
  69. sujan rasakhan, 127
  70. sujan rasakhan, 126
  71. rasakhan (jivan aur krititv), pri. 185
  72. sujan rasakhan, 189
  73. sujan rasakhan, 191
  74. sujan rasakhan, 211
  75. sujan rasakhan, 43
  76. sujan rasakhan, 12
  77. sujan rasakhan, 86
  78. sujan rasakhan, 4
  79. sujan rasakhan, 167
  80. kavyakalpadrum, bhag 1, pri0 339
  81. sujan rasakhan, 172
  82. sujan rasakhan, 158
  83. kavy kalpadrum, pri0 640
  84. sujan rasakhan, 202
  85. sujan rasakhan, 10
  86. sujan rasakhan, 167
  87. sujan rasakhan, 1
  88. sujan rasakhan, 21
  89. sujan rasakhan, 11
  90. sujan rasakhan, 43
  91. sujan rasakhan, 58
  92. sujan rasakhan, 107
  93. sujan rasakhan, 99
  94. sabha kashi
  95. vishvanath prasad mishr ne rasakhani (grnthavali) men donon ko braj bhasha ka roop dekar prayukt kiya hai. sujan rasakhan, pad 99

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