राजभाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi
hindi varnamala

bharat ki mukhy visheshata yah hai ki yahan vibhinnata men ekata hai. bharat men vibhinnata ka svaroop n keval bhaugolik hai, balki bhashayi tatha sanskritik bhi hai. ek riport ke anusar bharat men 1652 matribhashayen prachalan men hain, jabaki snvidhan dvara 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata pradan ki gayi hai. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 344 ke antargat pahale keval 15 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata di gayi thi, lekin 21ven snvidhan snshodhan ke dvara sindhi ko tatha 71van snvidhan snshodhan dvara nepali, konkani tatha manipuri ko bhi rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya. bad men 92van snvidhan snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003 ke dvara snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men char nee bhashaon bodo, dogari, maithili tatha snthali ko rajabhasha men shamil kar liya gaya. is prakar ab snvidhan men 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya hai. bharat men in 22 bhashaon ko bolane vale logon ki kul snkhya lagabhag 90% hai. in 22 bhashaon ke atirikt angrezi bhi sahayak rajabhasha hai aur yah mizoram, nagalaind tatha meghalay ki rajabhasha bhi hai. kul milakar bharat men 58 bhashaon men skoolon men padhayi ki jati hai. snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men un bhashaon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jinhen rajabhasha ki sngya di gee hai.

sngh ki bhasha

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 343 ke anusar sngh ki bhasha hindi aur lipi devanagari hogi lekin snvidhan ke bad 15 varshon tak arthath 1965 tak sngh ki bhasha ke roop men angrezi ka prayog kiya jana tha aur snsad ko yah adhikar diya gaya ki vah chahe to sngh ki bhasha ke roop men angrezi ke prayog ki avadhi ko badha sakati thi. isalie snsad ne 1963 men rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963 parit karake yah vyavastha kar di ki sngh bhasha ke roop men angrezi ka prayog 1971 tak karata rahega, lekin is niyam men snshodhan karake yah vyavastha kar di gayi ki sngh ki bhasha ke roop men angrezi ka prayog anishchit kal tak rahega.

rajabhasha ayog

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 344 men rashtrapati ko rajabhasha ayog ko gathit karane ka adhikar diya gaya hai. rashtrapati apane is adhikar ka prayog pratyek das varsh ki avadhi ke pashchath karenge. rajabhasha ayog men un bhashaon ke pratinidhiyon ko shamil kiya jaega, jo snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men vinirdisht hain. is prakar rajabhasha men 18 sadasy hote hain.

rajabhasha ayog ka kary

rajabhasha ayog ka kartavy nimnalikhit vishayon par rashtrapati ko sifarish dena hota hai—

  • sngh ke shasakiy prayojanon ke lie hindi bhasha ke adhikarik prayog ke vishay men,
  • sngh ke sabhi ya kinhin shasakiy prayojanon ke lie angrezi bhasha ke prayog ke nirbandhan ke vishay men,
  • uchchatam nyayalay aur uchch nyayalay ki karyavahiyon men aur sngh ki tatha rajy ke adhiniyamon tatha unake adhin banaye gaye niyamon men prayog ki jane vali bhasha ke vishay men,
  • sngh ke kisi ek ya adhik ullikhit prayojanon ke lie prayog kiye jane vale ankon ke vishay men,
  • sngh ki rajabhasha tatha sngh aur kisi rajy ke bich athava ek rajy tatha doosare rajyon ke bich patrachar ki bhasha tatha unake prayog ke vishay men, aur
  • sngh ki rajabhasha ke bare men ya kisi any vishay men, jo rashtrapati ayog ko saunpe.

rashtrapati ne apane is adhikar ka prayog karake 1955 men rajabhasha ayog ka gathan kiya tha. bi. ji. kher ko us samay rajabhasha ayog ka adhyaksh niyukt kiya gaya tha. is ayog ne 1956 men apani riport rashtrapati ko saunpi thi.

rajabhasha par snyukt snsadiy samiti

rajabhasha ayog ki sifarishon par vichar karane ke lie snyukt snsadiy samiti ka gathan kiya jata hai. is samiti men lokasabha ke 20 tatha rajyasabha ke 10 sadasyon ko shamil kiya jata tha. snsadiy samiti rajabhasha ayog dvara ki gayi sifarishon ka punarikshan karati hai.

sthayi rajabhasha ayog

sthayi rajabhasha ayog ke gathan ke sifarish snyukt samiti ne ki thin is sifarish ke anusaran men 1961 men do sthayi rajabhasha ayog ka gathan kiya gaya hai, lekin 1976 men sthayi rajabhasha ayog ko samapt kar diya gaya. jabaki vaigyanik aur takaniki shabdavali ayog ab bhi manav snsadhan vikas mntralay ke adhin kary kar raha hai.

rajy ki bhasha

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 345 ke adhin pratyek rajy ke vidhanamandal ko yah adhikar diya gaya hai ki vah snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men antarvisht bhashaon men se kisi ek ya adhik ko sarakari karyon ke lie rajy bhasha ke roop men angikar kar sakata hai., kintu rajy ke paraspar sambandhon men tatha sngh aur rajyon ke paraspar sambandhon men sngh ki rajabhasha ko hi pradhikrit bhasha mana jaega.

nyayalayon tatha vidhanamandalon ki bhasha

snvidhan men pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki jab tak snsad dvara qanoon banakar anyatha pravadhan n kiya jae, tab tak uchchatam nyayalay aur uchch nyayalayon ki bhasha angrezi hogi aur snsad tatha rajy vidhanamandalon dvara parit qanoon angrezi men honge. kisi rajy ka rajyapal rashtrapati ki anumati se uchch nyayalay ki karravaee ko rajabhasha men hone ki anumati de sakata hai.

sngh ki bhasha

adhyay 2- sngh ki bhasha ke anusar

  • anuchchhed 343- sngh ki rajabhasha-
  1. sngh ki rajabhasha hindi aur lipi devanagari hogi. ankon ka roop bharatiy ankon ka antarrashtriy roop hoga.
  2. is snvidhan ke prarambh se 15 varsh ki avadhi tak (arthath 1965 tak) un sabhi shasakiy prayojanon ke lie angrezi bhasha ka prayog kiya jata rahega, jinake lie pahale prayog kiya jata raha tha.

parantu rashtrapati ukt avadhi ke dauran sngh ke shasakiy prayojanon men se kisi ke lie angrezi bhasha ke atirikt hindi bhasha ka aur bharatiy ankon ke antarrashtriy roop ke atirikt devanagari roop ka prayog pradhikrit kar sakega.

  1. snsad ukt 15 varsh ki avadhi ke pashchath, vidhi ke dvara

aise prayojanon ke lie prayog upabndhit kar sakegi, jo aisi vidhi men vinirdisht kie jaen. anuchchhed 344— rajabhasha ke sambandh men ayog (5 varsh ke uparant rashtrapati ke dvara) aur snsad ki samiti (10 varsh ke uparant)

pradeshik bhashaen

adhyay 2- pradeshik bhashaen ke anusar

  • anuchchhed 345— rajy ki rajabhasha ya rajabhashaen (pradeshik bhasha/bhashaen ya hindi; aisi vyavastha hone tak angrezi ka prayog jari)
  • anuchchhed 346— ek rajy aur doosare rajy ke bich ya kisi rajy aur sngh ke bich patradi ki rajabhasha (sngh dvara tatsamay pradhikrit bhasha; apasi qarar hone par do rajyon ke bich hindi)
  • anuchchhed 347— kisi rajy ki janasnkhya ke kisi anubhag dvara boli janevali bhasha ke sambandh men vishesh upabndh

sarvochch nyayalay, uchch nyayalay adi ki bhasha

adhyay 3- sarvochch nyayalay, uchch nyayalay adi ki bhasha ke anusar

  • anuchchhed 348— sarvochch nyayalay aur uchch nyayalay men aur snsad v rajy vidhan mndal men vidheyakon, adhiniyamon adi ke lie prayog ki janevali bhasha (upabndh hone tak angrezi jari)
  • anuchchhed 349— bhasha se sambandhit kuchh vidhiyan adhiniyamit karane ke lie vishesh prakriya (rajabhasha sambandhi koee bhi vidheyak rashtrapati ki poorv mnzoori ke bina pesh nahin ki ja sakati aur rashtrapati bhi ayog ki sifarishon par vichar karane ke bad hi mnzoori de sakega)

vishesh nidesh

adhyay 2- vishesh nidesh ke anusar

  • anuchchhed 350— vyatha ke nivaran ke lie abhyavedan men prayog ki janevali bhasha (kisi bhi bhasha men)

(k)bhashaee alpasnkhyak vargon ke lie prathamik star par matribhasha men shiksha ki suvidhaen. (kh)bhashaee alpasnkhyak vargon ke lie vishesh adhikari ki niyukti (rashtrapati ke dvara) anuchchhed 351— hindi ke vikas ke lie nidesh sngh ka yah kartavy hoga ki vah hindi bhasha ka prasar badhae, usaka vikas kare jisase vah bharat ki samajik snskriti ke sabhi tatvon ki abhivyakti ka madhyam ban sake, aur usaki prakriti men hastakshep kie bina hindustani men aur 8vin anusoochi men vinirdisht bharat ki any bhashaon men prayukt roop, shaili aur padavali ko atmasath karate hue jahan avashyak ya vanchhaniy ho vahan usake shabd–bhandar ke lie mukhyatah snskrit se aur gaunatah any bhashaon se shabd grahan karate hue usaki samriddhi sunishchit karen.  

snvaidhanik sthiti v samiksha

gujarati varnamala
  • svatntrata ke poorv jo chhote–bade rashtraneta rashtrabhasha ya rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ko apanane ke mudde par sahamat the, unamen se adhikansh gair–hindi bhashi neta svatntrata milane ke vaqt hindi ke nam par bidakane lage.
  • yahi vajah thi ki snvidhan sabha men keval hindi par vichar nahin hua; rajabhasha ke nam par jo bahas vahan 11 sitnbar, 1949 ee. se 14 sitnbar, 1949 ee. tak huee, usamen hindi, angrezi, snskrit evn hindustani ke dave par vichar kiya gaya.
  • kintu sngharsh ki sthiti sirf hindi evn angrezi ke samarthakon ke bich hi dekhane ko mili. hindi samarthak varg men do gut the. ek gut devanagari lipi vali hindi ka samarthak tha, doosara gut (mahatma gandhi, je. el. neharoo, abul qalam azad adi) do lipiyon vali hindustani ke paksh men tha.
  • azad bharat men ek videshi bhasha, jise desh ka bahut thoda sa ansh (adhik–se–adhik 1 ya 2% hi) padh–likh aur samajh sakata tha, desh ki rajabhasha nahin ban sakati thi. lekin yakayak angrezi ko chhodane men bhi dikkaten thin. prayah 150 varshon se angrezi prashasan aur uchch shiksha ki bhasha rahi thi. hindi desh ki 46% janata ki bhasha thi. rajabhasha banane ke lie hindi ka dava nyayamukt tha. sath hi, pradeshik bhashaon ki bhi sarvatha upeksha nahin ki ja sakati thi.
  • in sab baton ko dhyan men rakhate hue snvidhan nirmataon ne rajabhasha ki samasya ko hal karane ki koshish ki. snvidhan sabha ke bhitar aur bahar hindi ke vipul samarthan ko dekhakar snvidhan sabha ne hindi ke paksh men apana faisala diya. yah faisala hindi virodhi evn hindi samarthakon ke bich 'munshi–ayngar phaaumoole' ke dvara samajhaute ke parinamasvaroop samane aya, jisaki pramukh visheshataen is prakar thin—
  1. hindi bharat ki rashtrabhasha nahin balki rajabhasha hai.
  2. snvidhan ke lagoo hone ke din se 15 varshon ki avadhi tak angrezi bani rahegi.
  3. ek aspasht nirdesh [1] ke adhar par hindi evn hindustani ke vivad ko door kar liya gaya.
  • snvidhan ke bhasha–vishayak upabndh [2] evn 8vin anusoochi men die ge hain. snvidhan ke ye bhasha–vishayak upabndh hindi, angrezi evn pradeshik bhashaon ke paraspar virodhi davon ke bich samnjasy sthapit karane ka prayas karate hain.

snsad men prayog ki jane vali bhasha

anuchchhed 120 men prayog ki jane vali bhasha ke anusar snsad ka kary hindi men ya angrezi men kiya jaega, parantu yathasthiti lokasabhadhyaksh ya rajy sabha ka sabhapati kisi sadasy ko usaki matribhasha men sadan ko sambodhit karane ki anumati de sakata hai. snsad vidhi ke dvara anyatha upabndh n kare to 15 varsh ki avadhi ke pashchath 'ya angrezi men' shabdon ka lop kiya ja sakega.

rajy vidhanamndal men prayog ki jane vali bhasha

anuchchhed 210 men prayog ki jane vali bhasha ke anusar rajyon ke vidhanamndalon ka kary apane–apane rajy ki rajabhasha ya rajabhashaon men ya hindi men ya angrezi men kiya jaega, parantu yathasthiti vidhanasabhadhyaksh ya vidhan parishad ka sabhapati kisi sadasy ko usaki matribhasha men sadan ko sambodhit karane ki anumati de sakata hai. snsad vidhi dvara anyatha upabndh n kare to 15 varsh ki avadhi ke pashchath 'ya angrezi men' shabdon ka lop kiya ja sakega.

bharat ke rajyon ki bhasha

keral

keral ki mukhy bhasha malayalam hai. yahan malayalam bhasha boli jati hai. apani snskriti aur bhasha-vaishishty ke karan bharat ke dakshin men sthit char rajyon men keral ka pramukh sthan hai. isake padosi rajy tamilanadu aur karnatak hain. keral rajy men angrezi bhasha ko pramukh sthan prapt hai. malayalam bhasha ki bhanti angrezi bhasha bhi shiksha ka pramukh madhyam hai.

gujarat

gujarati aur hindi rajy ki adhikrit bhashaen hain. donon men gujarati ka zyada vyapak istemal hota hai, jo snskrit ke alava prachin bharatiy mool bhasha prakrit aur 10 vin shatabdi ke bich uttari aur pashchimi bharat men boli jane vali apabhrnsh bhasha se vyutpann ek bharatiy-ary bhasha hai.

gova

gova ki mukhy bhashaen konkani aur marathi hain. konkani gova ki rajabhasha hai. gova men sabase zyada konkani bhasha boli jati hai. konkani ek deshi bhasha ke roop men rajy men logon ke dvara 61.21% boli jati hai. isake alava marathi 27.12%, kannad 3.41%, urdoo 2.81% aur hindi 2.09% boli jati hai.

mizoram

mizoram men 'mizo’ shabh‍d ki utpatti ke bare men thik se gyat nahin hai. 19 vin shatabh‍di men yahan british mishanariyon ka prabhav phail gaya aur is samay adhikansh mizo nagarik eesaee dharm ko hi manate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anuchchhed 351
  2. anuchchhed 120, anuchchhed 210 evn anuchchhed 343 se 351 tak

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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