राजस्थानी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rajasthani bhasha bharatiy-ary bhashaon tatha boliyon ka samooh hai, jo bharat ke rajasthan rajy men boli jati hain. yah bhasha hindi ki ek pramukh upabhasha hai. rajasthani bhasha apani shabdavali ka lagabhag 80% hindi se grahan karati hai, jabaki 20% shabd sthaniy hote hain. isake char pramukh varg hain: poorvottar mevati, dakshini malavi, pashchim maravadi, aur poorvi-madhy jayapuri, inamen se maravadi bhaugolik drishti se sabase vyapak hai. rajasthan poorv ke hindi kshetron tatha dakshin-pashchim men gujarati kshetron ke bich sthit snkraman kshetr hai. rajasthani bhashaon ko bharat ke snvidhan men sarakari bhasha ke roop men manyata prapt nahin hai. isake sthan par hindi ka upayog sarakari bhasha ke roop men hota hai.

rajasthan ki pramukh boliyan

bharat ke any rajyon ki tarah rajasthan men kee boliyan boli jati hain. vaise to samagr rajasthan men hindi boli ka prachalan hai lekin lok-bhashaen jan samany par zyada prabhav dalati hain. jarj abraham griyarsan ne rajasthani boliyon ke parasparik snyog evn sambandhon ke vishay men vargikaran kiya hai. griyarsan ka vargikaran is prakar hai :-

  • pashchimi rajasthan men boli jane vali boliyan - maravadi, mevadi, dharaki, bikaneri, bangadi, shekhavati, kheradi, modavadi, devadavati adi.
  • uttar-poorvi rajasthani boliyan - ahiravati aur mevati.
  • madhy-poorvi rajasthani boliyan - dhoondhadi, toravati, jaipuri, kateda, rajavati, ajameri, kishanagadh, nagar chol, hadauti.
  • dakshin-poorvi rajasthan - rangadi aur sondhavadi
  • dakshin rajasthani boliyan - nimadi adi.

boliyan jahan boli jati hain

maravadi

rajasthan ke pashchimi bhag men mukhy roop se maravadi boli sarvadhik prayog ki jati hai. yah jodhapur, jaisalamer, bikaner aur shekhavati men boli jati hai. yah shuddh roop se jodhapur kshetr ki boli hai. badamer, pali, nagaur aur jalaur zilon men is boli ka vyapak prabhav hai. maravadi boli ki kee up-boliyan bhi hain jinamen thataki, thali, bikaneri, bangadi, shekhavati, mevadi, khairadi, sirohi, gaudavadi, nagauri, devadavati adi pramukh hain. sahityik maravadi ko dingal kahate hain. dingal sahityik drishti se sampann boli hai.

mevadi

yah boli dakshini rajasthan ke udayapur, bhilavada aur chittaudagadh zilon men mukhy roop se boli jati hai. is boli men maravadi ke anek shabdon ka prayog hota hai. keval e aur au ki dhvani ke shabd adhik prayukt hote hain.

bangadi

yah boli doongarapur v bansavada tatha dakshini-pashchimi udayapur ke pahadi kshetron men boli jati hain. gujarat ki sima ke samip ke kshetron men gujarati-bangadi boli ka adhik prachalan hai.

dhadauti

is boli ka prayog jhalavad, kota, boondi zilon tatha udayapur ke poorvi bhag men adhik hota hai.

mevati

yah boli rajasthan ke poorvi zilon mukhyatah alavar, bharatapur, dhaulapur aur savaee madhopur ki karauli tahasil ke poorvi bhagon men boli jati hai.

brij

uttar pradesh ki sima se lage bharatapur, dhaulapur, dilli aur alavar zilon men yah boli adhik prachalit hai.

malavi

jhalavad, kota aur pratapagadh zilon men malavi boli ka prachalan hai. yah bhag madhy pradesh ke malava kshetr ke samip hai.

rangadi

rajapooton men prachalit maravadi aur malavi ke sammishran se bani yah boli rajasthan ke dakshin-poorvi bhag men boli jati hai.

dhoondhati

rajasthan ke madhy-poorv bhag men mukhy roop se jayapur, kishanagadh, ajamer, taunk ke samipavarti kshetron men dhoondhadi bhasha boli jati hai. isaka pramukh up-boliyon men hadauti, kishanagadhi, toravati, rajavati, ajameri, chaurasi, nagar, chaul adi pramukh hain. is boli men vartaman kal men 'chhi', 'dvau', 'hai' adi shabdon ka prayog adhik hota hai.

vachan ka prayog

•ek vachan ke sngyavachi shabd jo hindi men akarant hote hain, rajasthani bhasha men ye shabd okarant ho jate hain. jaise, kutta (hindi) - kutto (rajasthani), pomacha (hindi) - pomacho (rajasthani), •rajasthani bhasha men ek vachan ke jo shabd okarant hote hain ve bahuvachan men akarant ho jate hain. jaise-

ghado—ghada, udaharan— the sagळa ghada bharalyo.
piळo—piळa, pomacho—pomacha, udaharan— the kata piळa pomacha kharid'r lyaya ho.
boळo—boळa, udaharan— mhe boळa sara kakadiya lyaya han.

  • rajasthani bhasha men ek vachan ke jo shabd eekarant hote hain unamen bahuvachan ke lie 'iyan' laga dete hain.

ladaki—ladakyan, udaharan— tharai kati ladakyan hain.
kadi—kadyan, udaharan— itihas ki sagळi kadyan jodo.
ghodi—ghodyan, udaharan— sagळi ghodyan nai pani pavo.

  • rajasthani bhasha men ek vachan ke kuchh shabd eekarant hote hain unamen bahuvachan ke lie 'yan' laga dete hain.

lugaee—lugayan, udaharan— sagळi lugayan nai pani pavo.
bhojaee—bhojayan, udaharan— bhojayan na bolo ka git gavan.

akshar 'ळ (ḷ)' ka prayog

yah akshar 'ळ' hariyanavi, rajasthani aur marathi bhashaon men khoob prayog hota hai. hindi bhasha, jo am taur par lakhanoo aur banaras ke pas boli jati hai, usamen isaka prayog itana nahin hai. baki pradeshon jaise rajasthan, maharashtr, pashchimi uttar pradesh, pnjab, hariyana, dilli adi men is akshar ka bolane men khoob prayog hota hai. usaka uchcharan 'l' aur 'd' ke bich ka hai. kuchh namoone niche dekhiye - hindi roop koshth men likhe ge hain.

  • phळ (phal)
  • hळ (hal)
  • thaळi (thali)
  • kaळa (kala)
  • saळa (sala)
  • hadataळ (hadatal)
  • bhoळa (bhola)
  • gळa (gala)

akshar "n (ṇ)" ka prayog

rajasthani, harayanavi bhasha men akshar 'n (ṇ)' ka khoob prayog hota hai, halanki hindi men isaka prayog kam hai. hindi men 'n (ṇ)' ke sthan par 'n (n)' prayog hota hai. kuchh udaharan dekhiye:-

  • thana (thana)
  • kana (kana)
  • pani (pani)
  • syana (sayana)
  • dana (dana)
  • ghana (ghana)
  • bhan (bahan)
  • sunao (sunao)
  • pichhan (pahachan)
  • bajana (bajana)

akshar 'rh' ka prayog

rajasthani, harayanavi bhasha men akshar 'rh' ka prayog kriyaon ke sath bahutayat se hota hai. hindi men is tarah ka prayog nahin hota hai. hindi men 'rh' ka prayog hone par ya to isako oopar chadha dete hain jaise 'karm' athava niche jodate hain jaise 'kriya'. kuchh udaharan dekhiye:-

  • k rh ya
  • dh rh ya
  • kha rh ya
  • pi rh ya
  • ja rh ya
  • a rh ya

rajasthani bhasha ki visheshataen

rajasthani bhasha ki samany visheshataen nimn hain-

  • rajasthani men 'n', 'd' aur (marathi) 'l' tin vishisht dhvaniyan (Phonemes) paee jati hain.
  • rajasthani tadbhav shabdon men mool snskrit 'a' dhvani kee sthanon par 'i' tatha 'i' 'u' ke roop men parivartit hoti dekhi jati hain-'minak' (manushy), haran (harin), 'kamar' (kunbhakar).
  • mevadi aur malavi men 'ch', 'chh', 'j', 'jh' ka uchcharan bhili aur marathi ki tarah kramash: 'ts', 's', 'dj', 'z' ki tarah paya jata hai.
  • snskrit hindi padadi 's-dhvani' poorvi rajasthani men to surakshit hai, kintu mevadi-malavi-maravadi men aghosh 'hth' ho jati hai. jaise hi. sas, jaipuri-hadauti 'sasoo', mevadi-maravadi 'hthaoo'.
  • padamadhyagat hindi shuddh pranadhvani ya mahapran dhvani ki pranata rajasthani men pray: padadi vynjan men antarbhukt ho jati hai-hin. kndha, ra. khando; hi. padhana, ra. phadh-bo.
  • rajasthani ke sabal puling shabd hindi ki tarah akarant n hokar okarant hai :-hi. ghoda, ra. ghodi, hin. gadha, ra. g"ddo, hin. mota, ra. moto.
  • pashchimi rajasthani men snbndh karak ke parasarg 'ro-ra-ri' hain, kintu poorvi rajasthani men ye hindi ki tarah 'ko-ka-ki' hain.
  • jaipuri-hadauti men 'nai' parasarg ka prayog karmavachy bhootakalik karta ke atirikt chetan karm tatha snpradan ke roop men bhi paya jata hai-'chhora nai chhori mari' (ladake ne ladaki mari); 'mhoon chhora nai marasyoon' (main ladake ko pitoonga;-chetan karm); 'yo ladoo chhora nai de do' (yah laddoo ladake ko de do-snpradan).
  • rajasthani men uttam purush ke shrotri-sapeksh 'apan-apan' or shrotri nirapeksh 'mahe-mhen-me' duhare roop pae jate hain.
  • hindi ki tarah rajasthani ke vartamanakalik kriya roop sahayak kriyayukt shatripratyayant vikasit roop n hokar shuddh tadbhav roop hain. 'moon jaoon chhoon' (main jata hoon).
  • sahayak kriya ke roop pashchimi rajasthani men 'hoon-han-ho-hai' (vartaman) aur 'tho-thi-tha' (bhootakal) hain, kintu poorvi rajasthani men 'chhoon-chhan-chho-chhai' (vartaman) aur 'chho-chhi-chha' (bhootakal) hain.
  • rajasthani men tin prakar ke bhavishyatkalik roop pae jate hain :-javaigo, jasi, javailo. inamen dvitiy roop snskrit ke bhavishyatkalik tinnt roopon ka vikas hain-'jasi' (yasyati), jasyoon (yasyami).
  • rajasthani ki any padarachanatmak visheshata poorvakalik kriya ke lie 'r' pratyay ka prayog hai : -'oo-padh-r roti khasi' (vah padhakar roti khaega).
  • rajasthani ki vakyarachanagat visheshataon men pramukh uktivachak kriya ke karm ke sath snpradan karak ka prayog hai, jabaki hindi men yahan 'karan ya apadan' ka prayog dekha jata hai. 'ya bat oonnai kah do' (yah bat usase kah do). poorvi rajasthani men hindi ke hi prabhav se snpradanagat prayogake atirikt vikalp se karan-apadanagat prayog bhi sunaee padata hai-'ya bat oon soon kah do'.

snbndhit lekh