राणा साँगा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rana sanga (shasanakal 1509 se 1528 ee.) ko 'sngram sinh' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. vah rana rayamal (shasanakal 1473 se 1509 ee.) ka putr aur uttaradhikari tha. itihas men sngram sinh mevad ka raja sanga ke nam se prasiddh tha. usane apane shasan kal men dilli, malava aur gujarat ke viruddh abhiyan kiya.. rana sanga mahan yoddha tha aur tatkalin bharat ke samast rajyon men se aisa koee bhi ullekhaniy shasak nahin tha, jo usase loha le sake.[1]

yuddh ki avashyakata

babar ke bharat par akraman ke samay rana sanga ko asha thi ki vah bhi taimoor ki bhanti dilli men loot-pat karane ke uparant svadesh laut jayega. kintu 1526 ee. men rana sanga ne dekha ki ibrahim lodi ko 'panipat ke yuddh' men parast karane ke bad babar dilli men shasan karane laga hai, tab usane babar se yuddh karane ka nirnay kar liya. malava ke mahamood khilaji ko yuddh men harane ke bad rana sanga ka prabhav agara ke nikat ek chhoti-si nadi piliya khar tak dhire-dhire badh gaya tha. lekin sindhu-gnga ghati men babar dvara mugal samrajy ki sthapana se rana sanga ko khatara badh gaya. rana sanga ne babar ko bharat se khadedane aur kam-se-kam use pnjab tak simit rakhane ke lie taiyariyan shuroo kar din.

babar ka kathan

babar ne rana sanga par sndhi todane ka dosh lagaya. usaka kahana tha ki- "rana sanga ne mujhe hindustan ane ka nyota diya aur ibrahim lodi ke khilaf yuddh men mera sath dene ka vayada kiya tha, lekin jab main dilli aur agara fatah kar raha tha, to usane panv bhi nahin hilaye."

rana sanga ke sahayak

is bat ki koee janakari nahin hai ki rana sanga ne babar ke sath kya samajhauta kiya tha. ho sakata hai ki usane ek lambi ladaee ki kalpana ki ho aur socha ho ki jab tak vah svayn un pradeshon par adhikar kar sakega, jin par usaki nigah thi. ya shayad usane yah socha ho ki dilli ko raund kar lodiyon ki shakti ko kshin karake babar bhi taimoor ki bhanti laut jayega. babar ke bharat men hi rukane ke nirnay ne paristhiti ko poori tarah se badal diya. ibrahim lodi ke chhote bhaee mahamood lodi sahit anek afaganon ne yah soch kar rana sanga ka sath diya ki agar vah jit gaya, to shayad unhen dilli ki gaddi vapas mil jayegi. mevat ke shasak hasan khan mevati ne bhi rana sanga ka paksh liya. lagabhag sabhi badi rajapoot riyasaton ne rana ki seva men apani-apani senaen bhejin.

jihad ka nara

rana sanga ki prasiddhi aur bayana jaisi bahari mugal chhavaniyon par usaki prarambhik saphalataon se babar ke sipahiyon ka manobal gir gaya. unamen phir se sahas bharane ke lie babar ne rana sanga ke khilaf 'jihad' ka nara diya. ladaee se pahale ki sham usane apane ap ko sachcha muslim siddh karane ke lie sharab ke ghade ulat die aur surahiyan phod di. usane apane rajy men sharab ki kharid-farokht par rok laga di aur musalamanon par se sima kar hata diya. babar ne bahut dhyan se ranasthali ka chunav kiya aur vah agara se chalis kilomitar door khanava namak sthan par pahunch gaya. panipat ki tarah hi usane bahari pnkti men gadiyan lagava kar aur usake sath khaee khod kar duhari suraksha ki paddhati apanaee. in tin pahiyon vali gadiyon ki pnkti men bich-bich men bandooqachiyon ke age badhane aur goliyan chalane ke lie sthan chhod diya gaya.

khanava ka yuddh

'khanava ki ladaee' (1527) men zabardast sngharsh hua. babar ke anusar sanga ki sena men 200,000 se bhi adhik sainik the. inamen 10,000 afagan ghudasavar aur itani snkhya men hasan khan mevati ke sipahi the. yah snkhya bhi, aur sthanon ki bhanti badha-badha kar kahi gee ho sakati hai, lekin babar ki sena niahsandeh chhoti thi. sanga ne babar ki dahini sena par zabardast akraman kiya aur use lagabhag bhed diya. lekin babar ke topakhane ne kafi sainik mar giraye aur sanga ko khaded diya gaya. isi avasar par babar ne kendr-sthit sainikon se, jo gadiyon ke pichhe chhipe hue the, akraman karane ke lie kaha. zajiron se gadiyon se bndhe topakhane ko bhi age badhaya gaya.

sanga ki parajay

babar ki kushal sainy kshamata aur usake topakhanon se sanga ki sena bich men ghir gee aur bahut se sainik mare gaye. rana sanga ki parajay huee. rana sanga bach kar bhag nikala taki babar ke sath phir sngharsh kar sake, parantu usake samanton ne hi use zahar de diya jo is marg ko khataranak aur atmahatya ke saman samajhate the. is prakar rajasthan ka sabase bada yoddha ant ko prapt hua. sanga ki mrityu ke sath hi agara tak vistrit snyukt rajasthan ke svapn ko bahut dhakka pahuncha.

'khanava ki ladaee' se dilli-agara men babar ki sthiti sudridh ho gee. agara ke poorv men gvaliyar aur dhaulapur jaise qilon ki shrinkhala jit kar babar ne apani sthiti aur bhi mazaboot kar li. usane hasan khan mevati se alavar ka bahut bada bhag bhi chhin liya. phir usane malava sthit chanderi ke medini ray ke viruddh abhiyan chheda. rajapoot sainikon dvara rakt ki antim boond tak ladakar jauhar karane ke bad chanderi par babar ka rajy ho gaya. babar ko is kshetr men apane abhiyan ko simit karana pada, kyonki use poorvi uttar pradesh men afaganon ki halachal ki khabar mili.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy itihas kosh |lekhak: sachchidanand bhattachary |prakashak: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan |prishth snkhya: 458 |

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