राम मनोहर लोहिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ram manohar lohiya
ram manohar lohiya
poora nam ram manohar lohiya
any nam daau. lohiya
janm 23 march, 1910
janm bhoomi kasba akabarapur, phaijabad
mrityu 12 aktoobar, 1967
mrityu sthan nee dilli
abhibhavak shri hiralal aur shrimati chanda devi
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi rajanitigy, svatantrata senani
parti kangres soshalist parti
shiksha snatak, pi.ech.di. (arthashastr)
vidyalay vishveshvaranath haee skool, maravadi vidyalay, kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay, vidyasagar mahavidyalay, humbolt vishvavidyalay
bhasha hindi, jarmani, angrezi
jel yatra 20 mee, 1944, gova mukti andolan
andolan bharat chhodo andolan
any janakari daau. lohiya ki chintan-dhara kabhi desh-kal ki sima ki bandi nahin rahi. vishv ki rachana aur vikas ke bare men unaki anokhi v advitiy drishti thi. isalie unhonne sada hi vishv-nagarikata ka sapana dekha tha.

ram manohar lohiya (angrezi: Ram Manohar Lohia, janm- 23 march, 1910, qasba akabarapur, phaijabad; mrityu- 12 aktoobar, 1967, nee dilli) bharat ke svatantrata sngram senani, prakhar chintak tatha samajavadi rajaneta the. ram manohar lohiya ko bharat ek ajey yoddha aur mahanh vicharak ke roop men dekhata hai. desh ki rajaniti men svatntrata andolan ke dauran aur svatntrata ke bad aise kee neta hue jinhonne apane dam par shasan ka rukh badal diya jinamen ek the ramamanohar lohiya. apani prakhar deshabhakti aur belaus tejash‍vi samajavadi vicharon ke karan apane samarthakon ke sath hi daau. lohiya ne apane virodhiyon ke madhh‍y bhi apar samh‍man hasil kiya. daau. lohiya sahaj parantu nidar avadhoot rajanitigy the. unamen sant ki santata, phakkadapan, masti, nirliptata aur apoorv tyag ki bhavana thi. daau. lohiya manav ki sthapana ke pakshadhar samajavadi the. ve samajavadi bhi is arth men the ki, samaj hi unaka karyakshetr tha aur ve apane karyakshetr ko janamngal ki anubhootiyon se mahakana chahate the. ve chahate the ki, vyakti-vyakti ke bich koee bhed, koee durav aur koee divar n rahe. sab jan saman hon. sab jan sabaka mngal chahate hon. sabamen ve hon aur unamen sab hon. ve darshanik vyavahar ke paksh men nahin the. unaki drishti men jan ko yatharth aur saty se parichit karaya jana chahie. pratyek jan jane ki kaun unaka mitr hai? kaun shatru hai? janata ko ve janatntr ka nirnayak manate the.

jivan parichay

ram manohar lohiya ka janm krishn chaitr tritiya, 23 march 1910 ki prat: tamasa nadi ke kinare sthit qasba akabarapur, phaijabad men hua tha. unake pitaji shri hiralal peshe se adhyapak v hriday se sachche rashtrabhakt the. unake pitaji gandhi ji ke anuyayi the. jab ve gandhi ji se milane jate to ram manohar ko bhi apane sath le jaya karate the. isake karan gandhi ji ke virat vyaktitv ka un par gahara asar hua. lohiya ji apane pitaji ke sath 1918 men ahamadabad kangres adhiveshan men pahali bar shamil hue.

shiksha

skooli shiksha

lohiya jab panch varsh ke hue to pas hi ki tandan pathashala men unaka nam likha diya gaya. chetana ki dhara ko naya mod mila. natakhat lohiya vanar sena ka netritv sambhalane lage. shaitaniyan badhane lagin. dhamachaukadi-kal shuroo hua. kabaddi khelate, gulli-danda udate aur daudate-koodate the. ve behad chatul aur shararati the. sharir durbal, parantu man se sudridh the aur buddhi se kushagr the.

tamasa par sthit vishveshvaranath haee skool men lohiya ko panchavin kaksha men pravesh dilaya gaya. tandan pathashala ki apeksha yahan ki duniya adhik chamatkar poorn v akarshak thi. yahan unhonne alagoja bajana sikha tha.

lohiya ko tisara skool mila- maravadi vidyalay. daau. lohiya shahari parivesh se achanak jud ge, kyonki bambee ka maravadi skool vishveshvaranath haeeskool se kee arthon men ati adhunik tha aur usaki ganana achchhe skoolon men ki jati thi. lohiya shuroo se hi shararati the. isake sath hi ve pratibha sampann tatha medhavi bhi the. usaka phal yah hua ki ve sadaiv hi adhyapakon ke chahete rahe. maravadi vidyalay men unhonne vaktritv kala ka achchha parichay diya. vad-vivad men ve utkrisht vakta siddh hue. angrezi bhasha par unaka khasa adhikar ho chala tha. ve apane ko medhavi siddh kar rahe the tatha apani pratibha se sabako akrisht kar rahe the.

uchch shiksha

bambee se lohiya varanasi laut ae. kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay men intar ka adhyayan shuroo kar diya. kashi us samay rashtriy shiksha ka gadh samajha jata tha. sanh 1927 ee. men vahan se unhonne intar ki pariksha uttirn ki. intar pas karane ke bad sanh 1927 men lohiya kalakatta a ge. unhonne sent jeviyars tatha skatish charch jaise khyatinama mahavidyalay ko chhodakar vidyasagar mahavidyalay men pravesh liya tha, jo us samay "bhendon ki saray" ke nam se jana jata tha. lekin is kaaulej ke prachary rashtriy vicharadhara se sambaddh the aur lohiya rashtriy vicharadhara ke poornat: samarthak the. lohiya ka angrezi bhasha par khasa adhikar tha. mitron par kharch karane ke ve bade shauqin the. isase unhen antarik prasannata ki anubhooti prapt hoti thi aur unaka chitt sntosh prapt karata tha. doosari taraf unake itihas prem ki parinati sinema dekhana, pustaken kharidana aur upanyas padhane men ho gee thi.

daau. lohiya ke man men svatntr desh ka svabhiman jag utha tha. ve shiksha prapt karane ki apeksha samman ke prati zyada sajag ho uthe the. unamen isake sath apane desh ko azad karane ki bat gahare paithati gee thi. ve desh ki azadi ke pratibaddh ho chuke the. inhin karanon se lohiya barlin ke lie ravana ho ge. vahan unhonne barlin ke humbolt vishvavidyalay men pravesh le liya. vishvavikhyat arthashastri profesar barnar jombart usi vishvavidyalay men the. lohiya ne unako hi apana nirdeshak tatha parikshak chuna.

matribhasha ke prati prem

lohiya barlin to a ge, parantu abhi barnar jombart ke samane sakshatkar hetu prastut hona shesh tha. lohiya bina jhijhak unake samane pahunche aur profesar jombart ke prashnon ke uttar angrezi men dene lage. kuchh der profesar muskarae aur jarman bhasha men bole ki, ‘unhen angrezi nahin ati hai.’ vah re, matribhasha prem! vah! lohiya profesar ka apani matribhasha ke prati aisa anany prem dekhakar shraddhanat ho ge aur unhen tin mah bad pun: ane ka ashvasan dekar laut pade. kahana hi hoga ki, yahin se unamen matribhasha prem zor pakad gaya tha aur ve ajivan matribhasha ke himayati rahe.

lohiya ke samane yah khuli chunauti thi aur unhonne tin mah, rat-din jutakar jarman bhasha men khasi saphalata prapt kar li. isake sath hi yah sudridh nishchay bhi ho gaya ki gyan tatha abhivyakti ke lie kisi khas bhasha ka gyan hona zaroori nahin hota. matribhasha ko chhodakar gyan v abhivyakti ka doosara sashakt madhyam koee nahin ho sakata. matribhasha aur hindi ke prati unamen atoot shraddha v vishvas hone ka yahi karan tha. ve kalakatta men, adhyayan karate hue bhi hindi men batachit karana adhik pasand karate the. adhakachari bhasha ke faishanaparast logon ko ve khoob ade hathon lete the. tin mah bad jab ve profesar jombart se mile, tab ve lohiya ke jarman bhasha-gyan ka parichay pakar mugdh ho ge aur lohiya dharati ka namak shirshak se shodh prabandh likhane men jut ge.

videsh se vapasi

char sal ke bad lohiya jarmani se daauktar banakar laute. ve apani matribhoomi par laute the- harit shyamala bhoomi par aur vah bhi ek lambe arse ke bad. kitani smritiyon ne unhen jakad liya tha aur kitana kuchh samane karane ko tha. ve man-hi-man apani pyari dharati man ko namaskar karake jahaz se utar ae. lohiya ji arthashastr se pi.ech.di. karake laute the. lohiya kalam ke dhani the. pratibha ki dhar aur viddhatta hi unaki poonji thi. ve sidhe madras se prakashit hone vali angrezi patr hindoo ke karyalay pahunche. unhen sampadak to nahin mile, lekin sah-sampadak mile. lohiya ji ne apana parichay diya aur lekh likhakar dene ka karan bataya. unhonne vahan baithakar lekh likh dala aur usake lie parishramik svaroop pachchis rupaye prapt kie.

lohiya kalakatta a ge. vahan apane pita se mile, apane chacha ramakumar ke ghar ge. lohiya ko apane chacha se maloom pada ki, unake pita karobar band kar sara samay kangres ko dene lage hain. lambi jelayatra bhi kar ae hain. ajakal bada bazar ko unhonne apana karyakshetr bana rakha hai. charakha samiti bana dali hai. ve hindi pracharak pustakalay men bhi baithate hain. hindoo-musalaman ke bhedabhav ko door karane ke lie "kaumi balti" rakh chhodi hai. unaki drishti men vah balti hindoo-musalaman ekata ka pratik hai, kyonki donon hi usase pani lekar pite the. lohiya ne paya ki kalakatta pahale se bhi adhik garib ho gaya hai. bekari badhi hai. sab kuchh an-badala sa patharakar thahar gaya hai.

unaki ankhon ke samane ekadam javan hoti bhikharin ke knpit hoth-sa.
nikhil ka vaibhavamay abhav unake samane thithurata hua khula pada tha, sannata tane.

udhar samooche desh men rajanitik asthirata thi. satyagrah men thakavat utar aee thi. jngal ki sany-sany hava tair rahi thi. gandhi ji golamej sammelan ke asaphal hone par laute hi the ki, giraftar kar liye ge. neharoo ji andar the. saradar patel andar the. khan abdul gaffar khan barma jel men the aur tatkalin vaisaray vilingadan ne snkalp le rakha tha ki, ve kangres ka andolan chhah saptah men khatm karava denge.

chintan dhara

lohiya ki chintan-dhara kabhi desh-kal ki sima ki bandi nahin rahi. vishv ki rachana aur vikas ke bare men unaki anokhi v advitiy drishti thi. isalie unhonne sada hi vishv-nagarikata ka sapana dekha tha. ve manav-matr ko kisi desh ka nahin balki vishv ka nagarik manate the. unaki chah thi ki ek se doosare desh men ane jane ke lie kisi tarah ki bhi qanooni rukavat n ho aur sampoorn prithvi ke kisi bhi ansh ko apana manakar koee bhi kahin a-ja sakane ke lie poori tarah azad ho.[1]

nirmata

lohiya ek nayi sabhyata aur snskriti ke drashta aur nirmata the. lekin adhunik yug jahan unake darshan ki upeksha nahin kar saka, vahin unhen poori tarah atmasat bhi nahin kar saka. apani prakharata, ojasvita, maulikata, vistar aur vyapak gunon ke karan ve adhikansh men logon ki pakad se bahar rahe. isaka ek karan hai-jo log lohiya ke vicharon ko oopari satahi dhng se grahan karana chahate hain, unake lie lohiya bahut bhari padate hain. gahari drishti se hi lohiya ke vicharon, kathanon aur karmon ke bhitar ke us sootr ko pakada ja sakata hai, jo sootr lohiya-vichar ki visheshata hai, vahi sootr hi to unaki vichar-paddhati hai.[1]

marksavad aur gandhivad

lohiya ne marksavad aur gandhivad ko mool roop men samajha aur donon ko adhoora paya, kyonki itihas ki gati ne donon ko chhod diya hai. donon ka mahattv matr-yugin hai. lohiya ki drishti men marks pashchim ke tatha gandhi poorv ke pratik hain aur lohiya pashchim-poorv ki khaee patana chahate the. manavata ke drishtikon se ve poorv-pashchim, kale-gore, amir-garib, chhote-bade rashtr nar-nari ke bich ki doori mitana chahate the.[1]

vichar paddhati

lohiya ki vichar-paddhati rachanatmak hai. ve poornata v samagrata ke lie prayas karate the. lohiya ne likha hai- jaise hi manushy apane prati sachet hota hai, chahe jis star par yah chetana ae aur poorn se apane alagav ke prati sntap v du:kh ki bhavana jage, sath hi apane astitv ke prati sntosh ka anubhav ho, tab yah vichar-prakriya hoti hai ki vah poorn ke sath apane ko kaise milae, usi samay uddeshy ki khoj shuroo hoti hai.[1]

krantiyan

lohiya anek siddhanton, karyakramon aur krantiyon ke janak hain. ve sabhi anyayon ke viruddh ek sath jehad bolane ke pakshapati the. unhonne ek sath sat krantiyon ka ahvan kiya. ve sat krantiyan thi.

  1. nar-nari ki samanata ke lie.
  2. chamadi ke rng par rachi rajakiy, arthik aur dimagi asamanata ke khilaf.
  3. snskaragat, janmajat jatipratha ke khilaf aur pichhadon ko vishesh avasar ke lie.
  4. paradesi gulami ke khilaf aur svatantrata tatha vishv lok-raj ke lie.
  5. niji poonji ki vishamataon ke khilaf aur arthik samanata ke lie tatha yojana dvara paidavar badhane ke lie.
  6. niji jivan men anyayi hastakshep ke khilaf aur lokatntri paddhati ke lie.
  7. astr-shastr ke khilaf aur satyagrah ke liye.

in sat krantiyon ke sambandh men lohiya ne kaha-mote taur se ye hain sat kranntiyan. saton krantiyan snsar men ek sath chal rahi hain. apane desh men bhi unako ek sath chalane ki koshish karana chahie. jitane logon ko bhi kranti pakad men ayi ho usake pichhe pad jana chahie aur badhana chahie. badhate-badhate shayad aisa snyog ho jaye ki aj ka insan sab nainsaphiyon ke khilaf ladata-joojhata aise samaj aur aisi duniya ko bana paye ki jisamen antarik shanti aur bahari ya bhautik bhara-poora samaj ban paye.[1]

daau. lohiya aur subhash chandr bos

1942 men mahatma gandhi ne jab bharat chhodo andolan ki shuruat ki tab kangres ke sabhi diggaj netaon ne unhen kaha ki is samay doosare mahayuddh ke dauran hamane angrezon ki shakti badhane ki koshish ki to itihas hamen fansivad ka pakshadhar manega. lekin gandhi ji nahin mane. daau. lohiya ko gandhi ji ka yah phaisala pasnd aya aur ve bharat chhodo andolan men kood pade. 'agast kranti' ka chakrapravartan ho chala. daau. lohiya angrezon ko chakama dekar giraftari se bach nikale. apani samajavadi mitr mandali ke sath ve bhoomigat ho gaye. bhoomigat rahate hue bhi unhonne buletinon, pustikaon, vividh prachar samagriyon ke alava samantar rediyo 'kangres rediyo' ka snchalan karate hue deshavasiyon ko angrezon se loha lene ke lie prerit kiya. lekin jab agast kranti ka jan ubal thanda padane laga tab daau. lohiya ka dhyan netaji subhash chandr bos ki aguaee men azad hind fauj dvara chhede gaye sashastr mukti sngram ki or gaya. us samay bharat ke poorvottar bhag men netaji ka vijay abhiyan jari tha. daau. lohiya netaji se milane ki yojana bana hi rahe the ki achanak 20 mee, 1944 ko unhen mumbee men giraftar kar liya gaya. desh ke durbhagy se agast kranti ke vir senani daau. lohiya aur azad hind fauj ke senanayak netaji subhashachandr bos ka milan n ho saka.

daau. lohiya aur mahatma gandhi

agast kranti ke dauran daau. lohiya ke kaushal aur sahas se mahatma gandhi atynt prabhavit hue the. usake pahale bapoo daau. lohiya ke kee vicharottejak lekh, bebak tippaniyan adi apane patr 'harijan' men prakashit bhi kar chuke the. bharat men angrezi samrajy ka sooraj doob raha tha. rashtriy netaon ka yah manana tha ki angrezon ke jate hi purtagali bhi gova se svayn kooch kar jayenge isalie vahan shakti jhonkane ki zaroorat nahin. lekin daau. lohiya ne vahan jakar azadi ki ladaee ka bigul baja hi diya. unaka sath mahatma gandhi ko chhodakar aur kisi bade neta ne nahin diya. isase bhi pata chalata hai ki gandhi lohiya ka kitana samman karate the.

svatntrata ke bad neharoo sarakar ki nitiyan gandhi ke vicharon se pratikool thin. daau. lohiya ka samajavad gandhi ki vicharadhara ke atyant nikat tha. neharoo sarakar ki dasha-disha ke karan mahatma gandhi ka neharoo se mohabhng ho raha tha aur lohiya ki taraph rujhan badh raha tha. azadi ke bad desh sampradayikata ke snkat men phns gaya to shanti aur sadbhav qayam karane men daau. lohiya ne gandhi ka sahayog kiya. is prakar ve bapoo ke behad qarib a gaye the. itane qarib ki gandhi ne jab lohiya se kaha ki jo chiz am adami ke lie upalabdh nahin usaka upabhog tumhen bhi nahin karana chahie aur sigaret tyag dena chahie to lohiya ne turant unaki bat man li.

28 janavari, 1948 ko gandhi ne lohiya se kaha, mujhe tumase kuchh vishayon par vistar men bat karani hai. isaliye aj tum mere shayanakaksh men so jao. subah tadake ham log batachit karenge. lohiya gandhi ke bagal men so gaye. unhonne socha ki jab bapoo jagenge, tab ve jaga lenge aur batachit ho jaegi. lekin jab lohiya ki ankh khuli to gandhi ji bistar par nahin the. bad men jab daau. lohiya gandhi se mile tab gandhi ne kaha, "tum gahari nind men the. mainne tumhen jagana thik nahin samajha. khair koee bat nahin. kal sham tum mujhase milo. kal nishchit roop se main kangres aur tumhari parti ke bare men bat karoonga. kal akhiri phaisala hoga."

lohiya 30 janavari, 1948 ko gandhi se batachit karane ke lie taiksi se bidala bhavan ki taraph badhe hi the ki tabhi unhen gandhi ki shahadat ki khabar mili. ek thos yojana ki bhroon hatya ho gayi. bapoo apani shahadat se pahale apane akhiri vasiyataname men kangres ko bhng karane ki anivaryata siddh kar chuke the. us samay unhonnen aisa spasht snket diya tha ki azadi ki ladaee ke dauran anekanek uddeshyon ke nimitt gathit vividh rachanatmak kary snsthaon ko ekasootr men pirokar shighr hi ek naya rashtravyapi lok sngathan khada kiya jayega. daau. lohiya ki usamen vishesh bhoomika hogi. is prakar banane vale shaktipunj se bapoo azadi ki adhoori jng ke nirnayak bindu tak pahunchana chahate the.

daau. lohiya aur daau. ambedakar

daau. lohiya ke samman men jari dak tikat

1956 men daau. lohiya aur daau. bhimarav ambedakar ke bich nikatata badhane lagi thi. kangres ko sattachyut karane ke liye ve donon ek mnch par ane ke liye raji ho rahe the. desh ke sarvangin vikas ke liye yah nitant avashyak samajha gaya ki soshalist parti aur aaul indiya baikavard klas esosieshan ka apas men vilay ho jae. is prakar jo navagathit parti bane, daau. ambedakar usaka adhayaksh pad svikar karen. donon partiyon ke bich siddhanton, nitiyon, karyakramon aur lakshyon ki drishti se kafi had tak samanata hone ke karan vilay ke asar nazar ane lage the ki tabhi 6 disambar, 1956 ko daau. ambedakar ka nidhan ho gaya. durbhagy ne yahan bhi apana rng dikha diya.

daau. lohiya aur jayaprakash narayan

daau. ram manohar lohiya logon ko agah karate a rahe the ki desh ki halat ko sudharane men kangres nakam rahi hai. kangres shasan naye samaj ki rachana men sabase bada roda hai. usaka satta men bane rahana desh ke lie hitakar nahin hai. isalie daau. lohiya ne nara diya, kangres hatao, desh bachao. 1967 ke am chunav men ek bada parivartan hua. desh ke 9 rajyon pashchim bngal, bihar, udisa, madhy pradesh, tamilanadu, keral, hariyana, pnjab aur uttar pradesh men gair kangresi sarakaren gathit ho geen. daau. lohiya is parivartan ke praneta aur sootradhar bane. rajanitik badalav ke is daur men daau. lohiya ko svatntrata sngram ke apane purane sahayogi aur priy sakha jayaprakash narayan ki sudhi ho ayi. jepi us samay sarvoday andolan ki agrani hasti the. sitambar, 1967 men daau. lohiya patana pahunche. donon atmiy janon ne atishay antarngata se gahan vichar-vimarsh kiya. daau. lohiya ne jayaprakash ko rajaniti ki mukhyadhara men dubara ane ka snehapoorn amntran diya. lohiya ke manane par jepi raji bhi ho gaye. lekin is bar kalachakr ne daau. lohiya ko hi apana gras bana liya aur 12 aktoobar, 1967 ko unake nidhan ke samachar se desh udas ho gaya.

bharatiy snskriti se prem

lohiya ko bharatiy snskriti se n keval agadh prem tha balki desh ki atma ko un jaisa hridayngam karane ka doosara namoona bhi n milega. samajavad ki yooropiy simaon aur adhyatmikata ki rashtriy simaon ko todakar unhonne ek vishv-drishti vikasit ki. unaka vishvas tha ki pashchimi vigyan aur bharatiy adhyatm ka asali v sachcha mel tabhi ho sakata hai jab donon ko is prakar snshodhit kiya jay ki ve ek-doosare ke poorak banane men samarth ho saken. bharatamata se lohiya ki mang thi-‘‘he bharatamata ! hamen shiv ka mastishk aur unmukt hriday ke sath-sath jivan ki maryada se racho.’’ vastav men yah ek sath ek vishv-vyaktitv ki mang hai. isase hi unake mastishk aur hriday ko tatola ja sakata hai.[1]

nidhan

30 sitambar, 1967 ko lohiya ko nee dilli ke vilingdan aspatal, ab jise lohiya aspatal kaha jata hai, men paurush grnthi ke apareshan ke lie bharti kiya gaya jahan 12 aktoobar 1967 ko unaka dehant 57 varsh ki ayu men ho gaya. kashmir samasya ho, garibi, asamanata athava arthik mndi, in tamam muddon par ram manohar lohiya ka chintan aur soch spasht thi. kee log ram manohar lohiya ko rajanitigy, dharmaguru, darshanik aur rajanitik karyakarta manate hai. daau. lohiya ki virasat aur vicharadhara ath‍ynt prakhar aur prabhavashali hone ke bavajood aj ke rajanitik daur men desh ke janajivan par apana apekshit prabhav qayam rakhane men nakam sabit huee. unake anuyayi unaki tarah vichar aur acharan ke advait ko kadapi qayam nahin rakh sake.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 lohiya ke vichar (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 7 apral, 2011.

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