राष्ट्रपति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rajendr prasad
sarvapalli radhakrishnan
daau. zakir husain
vi.vi. giri
fakharuddin ali ahamad
nilam snjiv reddi
gyani zail sinh
ramasvami venkataraman
shnkaradayal sharma
ke. ar. narayanan
abdul kalam
pratibha patil
pranab mukharji
ramanath kovind


rashtrapati
ramanath kovind
vivaran 'rashtrapati' bharat ganarajy ke karyapalak adhyaksh hote hain. sngh ke sabhi karyapalak kary unake nam se kiye jate hain. anuchchhed 52 ke anusar sngh ki karyapalak shakti unamen nihit hain. vah bharatiy sashastr senaon ke sarvochch senanayak hote hain.
sambodhan mahamahim
nivas sthan rashtrapati bhavan
kary kal panch varsh (punah nirvachan yogy)
pratham rashtrapati daau. rajendr prasad
dharak 26 janavari, 1950
antim rashtrapati pranab mukharji
vishesh bharat ke rashtrapati sabhi prakar ke apatakal lagane v hatane vale, yuddh/shanti ki ghoshana karane vale, desh ke pratham nagarik hote hain. kisi ke mrityudand ko kshamadan men badalane ki shakti bhi snvidhan ne unhen pradan ki hai.
snbndhit lekh bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish, bharat ke pradhanamntri, bharat sarakar
any janakari anuchchhed 54 ke anusar rashtrapati ka nirvachan aise nirvachak mandal ke dvara kiya jaega, jisamen snsad (lokasabha tatha rajyasabha) tatha rajy vidhan sabhaon ke nirvachit sadasy shamil honge. rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal men snsad ke manonit sadasy, rajy vidhan sabhaon ke manonit sadasy tatha rajy vidhan parishadon ke sadasy shamil nahin kiye jate.
adyatan‎

bharatiy snvidhan par briten ke snvidhan ka vyapak prabhav hai. briten ke snvidhan ka anukaran karate hue bharat men snvidhan dvara snsadiy shasan ki sthapana ki gayi hai. jis tarah briten men shasan ki pramukh vahan ki samragyi hoti hai, usi prakar se bharat men rajy ka pramukh rashtrapati hota hai. briten ki samragyi ki tarah bharat ka rashtrapati rajy ka aupacharik pramukh hota hai aur sngh ki vastavik shakti sngh mantrimandal men nihit hoti hai. in donon deshon ke pramukhon men moolabhoot antar yah hai ki briten ki samragyi ka pad vnshanugat hota hai, jabaki bharat ka rashtrapati ek nirvachit mandal dvara nirvachit kiya jata hai. isi antar ke karan bharat ko prajatantrik ganatantr kaha jata hai. bharat men rashtrapati ka pad snvidhan ke anuchchhed 52 dvara upabndhit hai.

bharat ke rashtrapati

bharat ke rashtrapati rashtr pramukh aur bharat ke pratham nagarik hain, sath hi bharatiy sashastr senaon ke pramukh senapati bhi hain. rashtrapati ke pas paryapt shakti hoti hai par kuchh apavadon ke alava rashtrapati ke pad men nihit adhikansh adhikar vastav men pradhanamntri ki adhyakshata vale mntriparishad ke dvara upayog kie jate hain. bharat ke rashtrapati nee dilli sthit rashtrapati bhavan men rahate hain, jise rayasina hil ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. rashtrapati adhikatam do karyakal tak hi pad par rah sakate hain. ab tak keval pahale rashtrapati daau. rajendr prasad ne hi is pad par do karyakal poora kiye hain. mahamahim pratibha patil bharat ki 12vin tatha is pad ko sushobhit karane vali pahali mahila rashtrapati hain. unhonne 25 julaee, 2007 ko pad v gopaniyata ki shapath li thi.

pad ki yogyata

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 58 ke anusar koee bhi vyakti rashtrapati hone ke yogy tab hoga, jab vah–

  1. bharat ka nagarik ho.
  2. paintis varsh ki ayu poori kar chuka ho.
  3. lokasabha ka sadasy nirvachit kiye jane ke yogy ho, tatha
  4. bharat sarakar ke ya kisi rajy sarakar ke adhin athava in donon sarakaron men se kisi ke niyantran men kisi sthaniy ya any pradhikari ke adhin labh ka pad n dharan karata ho. yadi koee vyakti rashtrapati ya uparashtrapati ke pad par ya sngh athava kisi rajy ke mntriparishad ka sadasy ho, to yah nahin mana jaega ki vah labh ke pad par hai.

nirvachan

rashtrapati ka chunav 'apratyaksh nirvachan' ke dvara kiya jata hai. rashtrapati pad ke nirvachan men abhyarthi hone ke lie avashyak hai ki koee vyakti nirvachan ke lie apana namankan karate samay 15,000 rupaye ki dharohar (zamanat dhanarashi) nirvachan adhikari ke samaksh jama kare aur usake namankan patr ka prastav kam se kam 50 matadataon ke dvara kiya jana chahie tatha kam se kam 50 matadataon dvara usake namankan patr ka samarthan bhi kiya jana chahie. inhen bhi dekhen: uparashtrapati evn rashtrapati namankan prakriya

nirvachak mandal

anuchchhed 54 ke anusar rashtrapati ka nirvachan aise nirvachak mandal ke dvara kiya jaega, jisamen snsad (lokasabha tatha rajyasabha) tatha rajy vidhan sabhaon ke nirvachit sadasy shamil honge. rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal men snsad ke manonit sadasy, rajy vidhan sabhaon ke manonit sadasy tatha rajy vidhan parishadon ke sadasy (nirvachit evn manonit donon) shamil nahin kiye jate. sngh rajy kshetron ki vidhanasabhaon ke sadasyon ko bhi 70ven snvidhan snshodhan ke poorv rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal men shamil nahin kiya jata tha lekin 70ven snvidhan snshodhan dvara yah vyavastha kar di gayi hai ki do sngh rajy kshetron, yatha pandicheri tatha rashtriy rajadhani rajyakshetr dilli ki vidhanasabhaon ke sadasy rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal men shamil kiye jayenge. yahan par yah ullekhaniy hai ki keval in donon sngh rajy kshetron men hi vidhanasabha ka gathan hua hai.

rashtrapati ke chunav par prabhav

snvidhan sabha men rashtrapati ke nirvachan prakriya par vichar karate samay yah dhyan nahin diya gaya tha ki nirvachak mandal men se koee sthan rikt ho to rashtrapati ka chunav kaise hoga? 1957 men jab rashtrapati ka chunav kiya gaya to nirvachak mandal men kuchh sthan khali the. isalie rashtrapati ke chunav ko is adhar par chunauti di gee ki nirvachak mandal men sthan rikt hone ke karan rashtrapati ka chunav avaidh hai. bad men 1961 men gyaharavan snvidhan snshodhan ke tahat yah vyavastha ki gayi ki nirvachak mandal men sthan rikt hote hue bhi rashtrapati ka chunav kaise karaya ja sakata hai.

nirvachan ki paddhati

rashtrapati ke nirvachan paddhati ke sambandh men snvidhan ke anuchchhed 55 men pravadhan kiya gaya hai, jisake anusar rashtrapati ke nirvachan men do siddhanton ko apanaya jata hai–

samaroopata tatha samatulyata

is siddhant, jo anuchchhed 55 ke khand (1) tatha (2) varnit hain, ke anusar rajyon ke pratinidhitv ke mapaman men ekaroopata tatha sabhi rajyon aur sngh ke pratinidhitv men samatulyata hogi. is siddhant ka tatpary yah hai ki sabhi rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ka pratinidhitv ka man nikalane ke lie ek hi prakriya apanayi jaegi tatha sabhi rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ke sadasyon ke mat mooly ka yog snsad ke sabhi sadasy ke mat mooly ke yog ke samatuly arthath saman hoga. rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ke sadasyon ke matamooly tatha snsad ke sadasyon ke matamooly ko nirdharit karane ke lie nimnalikhit prakriya apanayi jaegi.

vidhanasabha ke sadasy ke mat mooly ka nirdharan

pratyek rajy ki vidhanasabha ke sadasy ke maton ki snkhya nikalane ke lie us rajy ki kul janasnkhya (jo pichhali janaganana ke anusar nirdharit hai) ko rajy vidhanasabha ki kul nirvachit sadasy snkhya se vibhajit karake bhagaphal ko 1000 se vibhajit kiya jata hai. is prakar bhajanaphal ko ek sadasy ka mat mooly man lete hain. yadi ukt vibhajan ke parinamasvaroop shesh snkhya 500 se adhik aye, to pratyek sadasy ke maton ki snkhya men ek aur jod diya jata hai. rajy vidhan sabha ke sadasyon ka mooly nimn prakar nikala jata hai–

rajy ki vidhanasabha ke ek sadasy ka mat mooly = rajy ki kul janasnkhya / rajy vidhanasabha ke nirvachit X 1 / 1000 sadasyon ki kul snkhya

snsad sadasy ke mat mooly ka nirdharan

snsad sadasy ka mat mooly nirdharit karane ke lie rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ke sadasyon ke mat moolyon ko jodakar snsad ke donon sadanon ke nirvachit sadasyon ke yog ka bhag diya jata hai. snsad sadasy ka mat mooly nimn prakar nikala jata hai–

snsad sadasy ka mat mooly = kul rajy vidhan sabhaon ke nirvachit sadasyon ke mat moolyon ka yog / snsad ke donon sadanon ke nirvachit sadasyon ka yog

is prakar rashtrapati ke chunav men yah dhyan rakha jata hai ki sabhi rajy vidhan sabhaon ke nirvachit sadasyon ke maton ke mooly ka yog snsad ke nirvachit sadasyon ke maton ke mooly ka yog barabar rahe aur sabhi rajyon ki vidhan sabhaon ke nirvachit sadasyon ke mat mooly ka nirdharan karane ke lie ek saman prakriya apanayi jae. ise anupatik pratinidhitv ka siddhant bhi kahate hain.

ekal snkramaniy siddhant

is siddhant ka tatpary hai ki yadi nirvachan men ek se adhik ummidavar hon, to matadataon dvara matadan variyata kram se diya jae. isaka ashay yah hai ki matadata matadan patr men ummidavaron ke nam ya chunav chihn ke samaksh apana variyata kram likhega.

mataganana

rashtrapati ke chunav ke bad usi vyakti ko nirvachit ghoshit kiya jata hai, jo dale gaye kul vaidh maton men se adhe se adhik mat prapt kare. jab rashtrapati ke nirvachan ke bad maton ki ganana prarambh hoti hai, to sarvapratham avaidh matapatron ko nirast karake shesh vaidh mat patron ka mat mooly nikala jata hai aur nikale ge mat mooly men 2 ka bhag dekar bhagaphal men ek jodakar nirvachit ghoshit kiye jane vale ummidavar ka kota nikala jata hai. yadi mataganana ke pratham daur men kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke barabar mat mooly prapt ho jata hai, to use nirvachit ghoshit kar diya jata hai. yadi kisi ummidavar ko niyam kota ke barabar mat mooly nahin prapt hota hai, to mataganana ka doosara daur prarambh hota hai. doosare daur ke mataganana men jis ummidavar ko pratham variyata ka sabase kam mat mila hota hai, usako ganana se bahar karake usake dvitiy variyata ke mat mooly ko any ummidavaron ko sthanantarit kar diya jata hai. yadi dvitiy daur ki ganana men bhi kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke barabar mat mooly nahin prapt hota hai, to tisare daur ki ganana hoti hai. tisare daur ki ganana men us ummidavar ko ganana se bahar kar diya jata hai, jo ki doosare daur ki ganana men sabase kam mooly pata hai aur is ummidavar ke tritiy variyata mat mooly ko shesh ummidavaron ke paksh men sthanantarit kar diya jata hai. yah prakriya tab tak apanayi jati hai, jab tak ki kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke mat mooly ke barabar mat mooly prapt nahin ho jata hai.

bharat men rashtrapati ka chunav

bharat men rashtrapati chunav ka tariqa

bharat men ab tak 14 vyakti rashtrapati ka pad grahan kar chuke hain, jinamen se pratham rashtrapati daau. rajendr prasad ne 2 bar is pad ko sushobhit kiya hai. rashtrapati ki padavadhi 5 varsh ki hoti hai. lekin rajendr prasad 10 varsh se adhik ki avadhi tak rashtrapati ka pad dharan kiye tha. isaka karan yah tha ki 1952 men rashtrapati ke pratham chunav ke poorv hi 24 janavari, 1950 ko snvidhan sabha ke dvara rashtrapati ke roop men daau. rajendr prasad ka chunav kar liya gaya tha. snvidhan ke pravartan ki tithi arthath 26 janavari, 1950 se lekar 12 mee, 1952 tak rajendr prasad rashtrapati ke pad par rahe.

bharat men ab tak 15 bar rashtrapati ke chunav hue hain, jinamen se ek bar, arthath 1977 men, nilam snjiv reddi nirvirodh rashtrapati chune gaye the. shesh 14 bar rashtrapati pad ke chunav men ek se adhik ummidavar the. ab tak keval daau. rajendr prasad, fakharuddin ali ahamad, nilam snjiv reddi tatha gyani zail sinh ko chhodakar any sabhi rashtrapati poorv men uparashtrapati ke pad ko sushobhit kar chuke the. daau. es. radhakrishnan lagatar do bar uparashtrapati tatha ek bar rashtrapati ke pad par asin hue. nirdaliy ummidavar ke roop men vi.vi. giri aise rashtrapati nirvachit hue the, jinhonne kangres ka spasht bahumat hote hue bhi usake ummidavar ko parajit kiya tha. ab tak nilam snjiv reddi ekamatr aise rashtrapati hue hain, jo ek bar chunav men parajit hue tatha bad men nirvirodh nirvachit hue.

matadan sthal

rashtrapati ke chunav men rajy vidhan sabhaon ke sadasy apane-apane rajyon ki rajadhaniyon men matadan karate hain aur snsad sadasy dilli men ya apane rajy ki rajadhani men matadan kar sakate hain. yadi koee snsad sadasy apane rajy ki rajadhani men matadan karana chahata hai to use isaki soochana 10 din poorv hi chunav ayog ka deni chahie.

chunav ka samay

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 62 men keval yah apeksha ki gee hai ki rashtrapati ka chunav nirdharit samay ke andar sampann kara liya jana chahie. nirvachan ki prakriya ko panch varsh ki avadhi samapt ho jane ke bad sthagit nahin rakha ja sakata hai. rashtrapati ka chunav kab karaya jaega, isake sambandh men snvidhan men koee pravadhan nahin kiya gaya hai. snvidhan men anuchchhed 71 (3) men keval yah pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke nirvachan se sambandhit ya snsakt kisi vishay ka viniyaman snsad vidhi dvara kar sakegi. is shakti ka prayog karake snsad ne rashtrapatiy tatha uparashtrapatiy nirvachan adhiniyam, 1952 parit karake yah pravadhan kiya hai ki rashtrapati ka chunav nivartaman rashtrapati ki padavadhi ki samapti ke poorv hi karaya jana chahie.

kisi rajy ki vidhanasabha bhng hone ki sthiti men rashtrapati chunav

kisi rajy ki vidhanasabha bhng hone ki sthiti men bhi rashtrapati ka chunav sampann hota hai. is sandarbh men 11ven snvidhan snshodhan adhiniyam, 1961 men yah spasht kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke chunav ko is adhar par chunauti nahin di ja sakati ki nirvachak mandal men koee sthan rikt tha. sarvochch nyayalay ne bhi yah nirnay diya hai ki bina kisi vidhanasabha ke hi rashtrapati ka chunav karaya ja sakata hai.

rashtrapati chunav men ek vidhayak ke mat ka mooly

mat dalane vale sansadon aur vidhayakon ke mat ka mooly alag-alag hota hai. do rajyon ke vidhayakon ke mat ka mooly bhi alag hota hai. yah mat mooly jis tarah tay kiya jata hai, use anupatik pratinidhitv vyavastha kahate hain.

vidhayak ke mat ka mooly

vidhayak ke mamale men jis rajy ka vidhayak ho, us rajy ki abadi dekhi jati hai. isake sath us rajy ke vidhanasabha sadasyon ki snkhya ko bhi dhyan men rakha jata hai. mat mooly nikalane ke lie rajy ki janasnkhya ko nirvachit vidhayak ki snkhya se bhag diya jata hai. is tarah jo nnbar milata hai, use phir 1000 se bhag diya jata hai. ab jo ankada hath lagata hai, vahi us rajy ke ek vidhayak ke vot ka mooly hota hai. 1000 se bhag dene par agar shesh 500 se jyada ho to mat mooly men 1 jod diya jata hai.

ek vidhayak ke mat ke mooly ka pharmoola = rajy ki kul janasnkhya / rajy vidhanasabha ke nirvachit vidhayakon ki snkhya / 1000

ek sansad ke mat ka mooly

sansadon ke maton ke mooly ka ganit alag hai. sabase pahale sabhi rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ke nirvachit sadasy ke voton ka mooly joda jata hai. ab is samoohik mooly ko rajyasabha aur lokasabha ke nirvachit sadasy ki kul snkhya se bhag kiya jata hai. is tarah jo nnbar milata hai, vah ek sansad ke vot ka mooly hota hai. agar is tarah bhag dene par shesh 0.5 se jyada bachata ho to mooly men ek ka ijapha ho jata hai.

  • rajy ke kul nirvachit vidhayakon ke maton ka mooly = 5,49,474
  • lokasabha ke kul nirvachit sadasyon ki snkhya = 543
  • rajyasabha ke kul nirvachit sadasyon ki snkhya = 233
  • kul sansadon ki snkhya = 543+233 = 776

ek sansad ke mat ke mooly ka pharmoola = rajy ke kul maton ka mooly yani 5,49,474 / kul sansadon ki snkhya yani 778 = 708.085 yani 708

sansadon ke kul maton ka mooly, 708×776 = 5,49,408

varsh 2002 ke rashtrapati chunav men bhag lene vale kul matadataon ki snkhya = kul vidhayak (4120) + kul sansad (776) = 4896

sabhi matadataon ke kul maton ka mooly = 5,49,474+5,49,408 = 10,98,882[1]

sambandhit vivad ka vinishchay

anuchchhed 7 ke anusar rashtrapati ke chunav se sambandhit vivad ka vinishchay uchchatam nyayalay dvara kiya jaega. yadi koee vyakti rashtrapati ke roop men nirvachit hokar pad grahan kar leta hai aur bad men usaka chunav uchchatam nyayalay dvara avaidh ghoshit kiya jata hai, to rashtrapati ke pad par rahate hue bhi usake dvara kiya gaya kary ya ki gayi ghoshana avidhimany nahin hogi.

punanirvachan ke lie yogyata

anuchchhed 57 ke anusar bharat ke rashtrapati pad par padasth vyakti doosare karyakal ke lie bhi chunav men ummidavar ban sakata hai. vaise snvidhan men yah vyavastha nahin ki gayi hai ki rashtrapati pad par padasth vyakti doosare karyakal ke lie nirvachan men bhag le sakata hai ya nahin, lekin samanyat: yah parampara ban gayi hai ki rashtrapati pad ke lie koee vyakti ek hi bar nirvachit kiya jata hai. isaka apavad rajendr prasad rahe hain, jo do bar rashtrapati pad ke ummidavar the. isake atirikt do rashtrapati zakir husain tatha fakharuddin ali ahamad, jinaki karyakal ke dauran hi mrityu ho gee thi, ke sivay sabhi rashtrapati apane ek karyakal ke bad doosari bar rashtrapati ke chunav men ummidavar nahin bane.

rashtrapati pad ka chunav tatha vijayi evn dvitiy sthan prapt ummidavaron ki soochi
kr.sn. (varsh) nirvachit pratyashi dvitiy sthan prapt pratyashi mat pratishat chitr
pahala (1952) daau. rajendr prasad ke. ti. shah 83.80 Dr.Rajendra-Prasad.jpg
doosara (1957) daau. rajendr prasad en. en. das 99.30 Dr.Rajendra-Prasad.jpg
tisara (1962) daau. radhakrishnan si. ech. ram 98.30 Sarvepalli-Radhakrishnan.jpg
chautha (1967) daau. zakir husain ke. subbarav 56.20 Dr.Zakir-Hussain.jpg
panchavan (1969) varahagiri venkat giri nilam snjiv reddi 50.20 V.V.Giri.jpg
chhatha (1974) fakharuddin ali ahamad ti. chaudhari 80.20 Fakhruddin-Ali-Ahmed.jpg
satavan (1977) nilam snjiv reddi nirvirodh Neelam Sanjiva Reddy.jpg
athavan (1982) gyani zail sinh ech. ar. khanna 72.70 Giani-Zail-Singh.jpg
navan (1987) ar. venkitaraman ayyar vi. ar. krishn 72.30 R. Venkataraman.jpg
dasavan (1992) daau. shnkaradayal sharma ji. ji. svel 64.78 Shankar-Dayal-Sharma.jpg
gyarahavan (1997) ke. ar. narayanan ti. en. sheshan 94.70 K.R.Narayanan.jpg
barahavan (2002) daauktar e. pi. je. abdul kalam kaiptan lakshmi sahagal 89.98 Abdul-Kalam.jpg
terahavan (2007) pratibha devi sinh patil bhairosinh shekhabat 65.82 Pratibha-Patil.jpg
chaudahavan (2012) pranav mukharji pi. e. sngama 69.31 Pranab mukherjee.jpg
pndrahavan (2017) ramanath kovind mira kumar 65.66 Ramnath-Kovind.jpg

rashtrapati ke dvara shapath

rashtrapati ya koee vyakti, jo kisi karan se rashtrapati ke krityon ke nirvahan ke lie niyukt hota hai, apana pad grahan karane ke poorv anuchchhed 60 ke tahat bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish ya usaki anupasthiti men uchchatam nyayalay men upalabdh varishthatam nyayadhish ke samaksh apane pad ke karyapalan ki shapath leta hai. rashtrapati ke shapath patr ka praroop nimnalikhit roop men hota hai–

main, amuk eeshvar ki shapath leta hoon saty nishtha se pratigyan karata hoon ki main shraddhapoorvak bharat ke rashtrapati ke pad ka karyapalan (athava rashtrapati ke krityon ka nirvahan) karoonga tatha apani poori yogyata se snvidhan aur vidhi ka parirakshan, snrakshan aur pratirakshan karoonga aur main bharat ki janata ki seva aur kalyan men nirat rahoonga.

rashtrapati dvara liya jane vala shapath ya pratigyn uparashtrapati evn pradhanamntri ke shapath se is mamale men bhinn hai ki rashtrapati snvidhan aur vidhi ke parirakshan, snrakshan aur pratirakshan ka shapath leta hai.

rashtrapati ki padavadhi

anuchchhed 56 ke anusar rashtrapati apane padagrahan ki tithi se panch varsh ki avadhi tak apane pad par bana rahata hai, lekin is panch varsh ki avadhi ke poorv bhi vah uparashtrapati ko apana tyagapatr de sakata hai ya use panch varsh ki avadhi ke poorv snvidhan ke ullnghan ke lie snsad dvara lagaye gaye mahabhiyog dvara hataya ja sakata hai. rashtrapati dvara uparashtrapati ko sambodhit tyagapatr ki soochana usake dvara (uparashtrapati ke dvara) lokasabha ke adhyaksh ko avilamb di jati hai. rashtrapati apane panch varsh ke karyakal ke poora karane ke bad bhi tab tak rashtrapati ke pad par bana rahata hai, jab tak usaka uttaradhikari pad grahan nahin kar leta hai.

bharatiy snvidhan men pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke pad men akasmik rikti ke dauran ya usaki anupasthiti men uparashtrapati, rashtrapati ke pad ke karyon ka nirvahan karega aur rashtrapati tatha uparashtrapati donon ke pad men akasmik rikti ke dauran ya donon ki anupasthiti men bharat ka mukhy nyayadhish rashtrapati ke pad ke krityon ka nirvahan karega. isi karan jab 3 mee, 1969 ko tatkalin rashtrapati zakir husain ki mrityu huee, tab tatkalin uparashtrapati vi॰ vi॰ giri karyakari rashtrapati niyukt kiye gaye lekin unhonne rashtrapati pad ke chunav men ummidavar hone ke lie apane pad se tyagapatr de diya tha. tab bharat ke tatkalin mukhy nyayadhish nyayamoorti mohammad hidayatulla ne rashtrapati ke pad ka nirvahan tab tak kiya, jab tak nirvachit hokar vi॰ vi॰ giri ne rashtrapati pad ka karyabhar grahan nahin kar liya. ab tak tin uparashtrapati vi॰ vi॰ giri (rashtrapati jakir husain ki mrityu ke karan), bi.di. jatti (rashtrapati fakharuddin ali ahamad ki mrityu ke karan), tatha mohammad hidayatulla (rashtrapati gyani zel sinh ki anupasthiti ke karan) aur ek mukhy nyayadhish nyayamoorti mohammad hidayatulla rashtrapati ke pad ke krityon ka nirvahan kar chuke hain.

bharat ke rashtrapati evn unaka karyakal

bharat ke rashtrapati pad ke krityon ka nirvahan karane vale vyakti
nam karyakal
daau. rajendr prasad 26 janavari, 1950 se 13 mee, 1962
daau. radhakrishnan 13 mee, 1962 se 13 mee, 1967
daau. zakir husain 15 mee, 1967 se 3 mee, 1969

(karyakal men hi mrityu)

varahagiri venkat giri

(uparashtrapati)

3 mee, 1969 se 20 julaee, 1969

(karyavahak)

nyayamoorti em॰ hidayatulla

(bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish)

20 julaee, 1969 se 24 agast, 1969

(karyavahak)

varahagiri venkat giri 24 agast, 1969 se 24 agast, 1974
fakharuddin ali ahamad 24 agast, 1974 se 11 faravari, 1977

(karyakal men hi mrityu)

bi.di. jatti (uparashtrapati) 11 faravari, 1977 se 25 julaee, 1977

(karyavahak)

nilam snjiv reddi 25 julaee, 1977 se 25 julaee, 1982
gyani zail sinh 25 julaee, 1982 se 25 julaee, 1987
em॰ hidayatulla (uparashtrapati) 6 aktoobar, 1982 se 31 aktoobar, 1982

(jab rashtrapati anupasthit the)

ramasvami venkataraman 25 julaee, 1987 se 25 julaee, 1992
daau. shnkar dayal sharma 25 julaee, 1992 se 25 julaee, 1997
ke. ar. narayanan 25 julaee, 1997 se 25 julaee, 2002
daau. e॰ pi॰ je॰ abdul kalam 25 julaee, 2002 se 25 julaee, 2007
pratibha patil 25 julaee, 2006 se 25 julaee, 2012
pranav mukharji 25 julaee, 2012 se 25 julaee, 2017
ramanath kovind 25 julaee, 2017 se ab tak
vibhinn chunavon men rashtrapati pad ke ummidavaron ko mile mat
ummidavar prapt mat
pratham chunav- 2 mee, 1952
daau. rajendr prasad 5,07,400
ke. ti. shah 92,827
lakshman ganesh thate 2,672
chaudhari hari ram 1,954
krishn kumar chatarji 533
dvitiy chunav- 6 mee, 1957
daau. rajendr prasad 4,59,698
nagendr narayan das 2000
chaudhari hari ram 1498
tritiy chunav- 7 mee, 1962
daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan 5,53,067
chaudhari hari ram 6,341
yamuna prasad trishuliya 3,537
chautha chunav- 6 mee, 1967
daau. jakir husain 4,71,244
koka subbaray 3,63,971
khubi ram 1369
yamuna prasad trishuliya 750
bhamburakar shrinivas gopal 232
brahm dev 232
krishn kumar chatarji 125
kumar kamala sinh 125
panchavan chunav- 16 agast, 1969
vi. vi. giri 4,01,515
nilam snjiv reddi 3,13,548
si. di. deshamukh 1,12,769
chandradatt senani 5,814
gurucharan kaur 940
rajabhoj pandurng nathooji 831
pn baboolal bhag 576
manobihari aniruddh sharma 125
chaudhari hari ram 125
khoobi ram 94
chhatha chunav- 17 agast, 1974
fakharuddin ali ahamad 7,65,587
tridiv chaudhari 1,89,196
satavan chunav- 6 agast, 1977
nilam snjiv reddi nirvirodh nirvachan
athavan chunav, 12 julaee, 1982
gyani jail sinh 7,54,113
hns raj khanna 2,82,685
navan chunav- 13 julaee, 1987
ramasvami venkataraman 7,40,148
krishn ayyar rama ayyar 2,81,550
mithalesh kumar 2,223
dasavan chunav- 13 julaee, 1992
daau. shnkar dayal sharma 6,75,864
pro. ji. ji. svel 3,46,485
ram jethamalani 2,704
jogendr sinh urph dharati pakad 1,135
gyaharavan chunav- 14 julaee, 1997
ke. ar. narayanan 9,56,290
ti. en. sheshan 50,631
barahavan chunav- 15 julaee, 2002'
daau. abdul kalam 9,22,884
kaiptan lakshmi sahagal 1,07,366
terahavan chunav- 19 julaee, 2007
pratibha patil 6,38,116
bhairosinh shekhavat 3,31,306
chaudahavan chunav- 22 julaee, 2012
pranav mukharji 7,13,937
pi. e. sngama 315,987
padrahavan chunav- 20 julaee, 2017
ramanath kovind 7,02,044
mira kumar 3,67,314

vetan aur bhatte

rashtrapati ko ni:shulk shasakiy nivas upalabdh hota hai. vah aisi parilabdhiyon, bhatton aur visheshadhikaron ka haqadar hota hai, jo snsad vidhi ke dvara avadharit karen aur jab tak snsad aisi vidhi parit nahin karati hai unaki parilabdhiyan ya bhatte vahi hogen jo snvidhan ki doosari anusoochi men vinirdisht hain. 1990 men rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyan badhakar 20,000 rupaye, 4 agast, 1998 ko ise badhakar 50,000 rupaye aur 10 janavari, 2008 ko rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyon men ek bar phir pun: snshodhan karate hue ise badhakar 1.50 lakh rupaye prati mah kar diya gaya. yah vriddhi janavari, 2006 se prabhavi ki gee hai. rashtrapati ko pad tyag dene ke pashchath ya padavadhi samapti par unake vetan ka 50 pratishat penshan ka pravadhan hai. is prakar pad vimukti ke pashchath poorv rashtrapati ko 9,00,000 rupaye varshik penshan dey hai.

poorv rashtrapati ko ek atirikt niji sachiv ke alava ek karmachari ki bhi suvidha ka pravadhan hai. unhen mobail fon, intaranet aur bradabaind ka kanekshan bhi upalabdh karaya jaega. unake karyalay ke rakh-rakhav par poorv men 12 hazar rupaye varshik kharch ka pravadhan tha, jise badhakar ab 60,000 rupaye kar diya gaya hai. padavadhi ke dauran rashtrapati ki mrityu ho jane par use parivarik penshan, susajjit avas, karmachari, kar, telifon, yatra aur svasthy suvidhaen upalabdh hain. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 59 ke anusar rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyan aur usake bhatte usake karyakal men ghataye nahin ja sakate. rashtrapati ke vetan evn bhatte ko ayakar se chhoot prapt hain.

mahabhiyog ki prakriya

rashtrapati ko usake pad se anuchchhed 61 ke tahat mahabhiyog ki prakriya ke dvara hataya ja sakata hai. rashtrapati ke viruddh mahabhiyog ki prakriya tab snchalit ki ja sakati hai, jab usane snvidhan ke pravadhanon ka ullnghan kiya ho. rashtrapati ke viruddh mahabhiyog chalane ka snkalp snsad ke kisi bhi sadan men pesh kiya ja sakata hai, lekin jis sadan men mahabhiyog ka snkalp pesh kiya jana ho, usake ek chauthaee sadasyon ke dvara hastaksharit arop patr rashtrapati ko 14 din poorv diya jana avashyak hai. rashtrapati ko arop patr diye jane ke 14 din bad hi sadan men mahabhiyog ka snkalp pesh kiya ja sakata hai. jis sadan men snkalp pesh kiya jae, usake sadasy snkhya ke bahumat tatha upasthit aur matadan karane vale sadasyon ke do tihaee bahumat se snkalp parit kiya jana chahie.

jis sadan men snkalp pesh kiya gaya hai, usake dvara parit kiye jane ke bad snkalp doosare sadan ko bheja jaega aur doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropon ki janch karega. jab doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropon ki janch kar raha ho, tab rashtrapati ya to svayn ya to apane vakil ke madhyam se lagaye gaye aropon ke sambandh men apana paksh prastut karega aur spashtikaran dega. yadi doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropon ko sahi pata hai tatha apani snkhya ke bahumat se tatha upasthit aur matadan karane vale sadasyon ke do tihaee bahumat pahale sadan dvara parit snkalp ka anumodan kar deta hai, to mahabhiyog ki karravaee poorn ho jati hai. is prakar rashtrapati apana pad tyag karane ke lie badhy ho jata hai.

rashtrapati bhavan

rashtrapati bhavan, dilli
Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi

rashtrapati bhavan vastukala ka utkrisht namoona hai. is bhavan ke nirman ki soch sarvapratham 1911 men us samay utpann huee jab dilli darabar ne nirnay kiya ki bharat ki rajadhani kolakata se dilli sthanantarit ki jaegi. isi ke sath men yah bhi nirnay liya gaya ki nee dilli men british vayasaray ke rahane ke lie ek alishan bhavan ka nirman kiya jaega.

rashtrapati ke angarakshak

rashtrapati ki suraksha ke lie angarakshakon ki vyavastha hai. is angarakshak daste ka gathan sarvapratham 1773 men gavarnar janaral hestigs ne banaras men kiya tha. prarambh men is daste men 50 javan aur 50 ghode shamil kiye gaye the. bad men banaras ke raja chet sinh dvara is daste men 50 javan aur 50 ghode shamil kar liye jane ke bad inaki snkhya 100 ho gee. pratham vishvayuddh se poorv yah snkhya 1845 thi, jo kalantar men badhakar 1929 ho gee. vartaman men rashtrapati ke angarakshak daste men 4 adhikari, 14 jooniyar kamishnd adhikari aur 161 javanon ki tukadi shamil hai.

rashtrapati ke suraksha balon ko 1784 tak gavarnar janaral ka badigard kaha jata tha. 1858 men ise vayasaray ka badigard kaha jane laga. 1944 tak ate-ate isaka nam '44vin divijan nigarani skavaaudran' pad gaya. 1947 men ek bar phir is daste ko 'gavarnar janaral badigard' kaha jane laga. lekin 21 janavari, 1950 ko bharat ko ganatntr ghoshit kiye jane ke sath hi is daste ko 'rashtrapati ka angarakshak' ke roop men namankit kar diya gaya.

rashtrapati ke angarakshak ke daste ke rejiment ka rng nila aur gadha lal (mairoon) hai. is daste ka amar vaky 'bharat mata ki jay' hai. vartaman men rashtrapati ke angarakshak dasten men sikkh, jat aur rajapoot sahit lagabhag sabhi rejiment ke javan aur adhikari karyarat hain.

shaktiyan tatha adhikar

bharatiy snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit shaktiyan tatha adhikar pradan kiye gaye hain–

karyapalika shaktiyan

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 73 ke anusar sngh ki karyapalika shakti rashtrapati men nihit hai aur vah apani is shakti ka prayog apane adhinasth pradhikariyon ke madhyam se karata hai. yahan adhinasth pradhikari ka tatpary kendriy mntrimandal se hai. rashtrapati ki karyapalika shaktiyon ko nimnalikhit tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai–

mntriparishad ka gathan

anuchchhed 74 ke anusar rashtrapati sngh ki karyapalika shakti ke snchalan men salah dene ke lie mntriparishad ka gathan karata hai, jisaka adhyaksh pradhanamntri hota hai. samanyat: rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamntri ke pad par niyukt karata hai jo ki lokasabha men bahumat dal ka neta ho. is prakar niyukt kiye gaye pradhanamntri ki salah par vah mntriparishad ke any sadasyon ki niyukti karata hai. sath hi vah pradhanamntri ki salah par mntriparishad ke kisi sadasy ko barkhast kar sakata hai. samanyat: yah pratha rahi hai ki pradhanamntri lokasabha ka sadasy hota hai, kyonki mntriparishad lokasabha ke prati uttaradayi hota hai, lekin rashtrapati ko yah adhikar hai ki yadi lokasabha men bahumat prapt dal kisi aise vyakti ko apana neta chunata hai, jo lokasabha ka sadasy nahin hai ya rajyasabha ka sadasy hai, to rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamntri niyukt karata hai, lekin is prakar niyukt kiye gaye vyakti ko 6 mah ke antargat snsad ka sadasy hona padata hai. isi tarah pradhanamntri ki salah par rashtrapati aise vyakti ko mntriparishad men shamil kar sakata hai, jo ki snsad ka sadasy nahin hai. yadi aisa vyakti mntriparishad men shamil kiya jata hai to use chh: mah ke antargat snsad ke kisi sadan ka sadasy banana padata hai. jab kabhi aisi sthiti utpann ho ki lokasabha men kisi bhi dal ko spasht bahumat n mile ya lokasabha men pesh kiye gaye avishvas prastav ke parit hone ke karan mntriparishad ko tyagapatr dena pade, to rashtrapati kis vyakti ko pradhanamntri niyukt karega, is sambandh men snvidhan men koee pravadhan nahin hai. yahan par rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamntri niyukt kar sakata hai, jisake sambandh men use vishvas ho ki vah lokasabha men apana bahumat siddh karata hai. is sambandh men kuchh had tak rashtrapati ko visheshadhikar prapt hain. isi visheshadhikar ke prayog men rashtrapati ne 1979 men charan sinh ko pradhanamntri niyukt kiya tha. charan sinh ki pradhanamntri pad par niyukti ko is adhar par nyayalay men chunauti di gayi thi ki vishvas mat prapt karane par hi unhen pradhanamntri ke roop men niyukt kiya jana chahie tha, kintu nyayalay ne apane nirnay men kaha ki pradhanamntri ki niyukti ke sambandh men yah poorvavarti shart nahin hai ki lokasabha men vishvas mat prapt kiya jaye. isi tarah 1989 men vi. pi. sinh, 1991 men pi. vi. narasinharav, 1996 men atal bihari vajapeyi aur 1996 men hi ech di devagauda tatha 1997 men indrakumar gujaral ko pradhanamntri par par niyukt kiya gaya tha. bad men 1998 men 12vin lokasabha ke gathan ke bad rashtrapati ne atal bihari vajapeyi ko pradhanamntri pad par niyukt kiya tha.

niyukti sambandhi shakti

snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko yah shakti di gee hai ki vah sngh se sambandhit mahattvapoorn padon par niyuktiyan karen. rashtrapati is shakti ke prayog men kee padadhikariyon, jaise- mahanyayavadi, niyntrak-mahalekha parikshak, vitt ayogon ke sadasyon, sngh lok seva ayog ke adhyaksh tatha any sadasyon, snyukt rajy lok seva ayog ke adhyaksh tatha any sadasyon, mukhy nirvachan ayukt, any nirvachan ayukton, uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalayon ke nyayadhashon, rashtriy alpasnkhyak ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyon, rashtriy mahila ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyon, rashtriy manavadhikar ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyon, anusoochit jati evn anusoochit janajati ayog ke adhyakshon tatha sadasyon, rashtriy alpasnkhyak ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyon, rajyon ke rajyapalon, sngh rajyakshetron ke uparajyapalon ya prashasakon ki niyukti kar sakata hai. rashtrapati ye niyuktiyan mntriparishad ki salah se karata hai. vah apane dvara niyukt pradhikariyon tatha adhikariyon ko padamukt kar sakata hai.

ayogon ka gathan

rashtrapati ko ayogon ko gathit karane ki shaktiyan bhi pradan ki gee hain. yah bharat ke rajy kshetr men samajik aur shaikshanik drishti se pichhade varg ki dashaon ka anveshan karane ke lie ayog, rajabhasha par prativedan dene ke lie ayog, anusoochit kshetron ke prashasan par riport dene ke lie tatha rajyon men anusoochit janajatiyon ke kalyan sambandhi kriyakalapon par riport dene ke lie ayog ka gathan kar sakata hai.

sainik shakti

sngh ke rakshabalon ka samadesh rashtrapati men nihit hota hai. vah raksha balon ka pramukh hota hai. rashtrapati apane men nihit raksha balon ka samadesh us vidhi ke anusar prayukt karata hai, jise snsad banaye. vah raksha balon ke pramukhon ko bhi niyukt karata hai.

rajanayik shaktiyan

any deshon ke sath men bharat ka snvyavahar rashtrapati ke nam se kiya jata hai. antarrashtriy mamalon men rashtrapati bharat ka pratinidhitv karata hai. any deshon men bheje jane vale rajadoot tatha uchchayukt rashtrapati ke dvara niyukt jate hain. sath hi any deshon se bharat men niyukti par ane vale rajadooton v uchchayukton ka svagat bhi rashtrapati ke dvara kiya jata hai. jab any desh ke rajadoot ya uchchayukt bharat men niyukt hokar ate hain, to ve apana 'pratyay patr' rashtrapati ke samaksh pesh karate hain. samast antarrashtriy qarar aur sandhiyan rashtrapati ke nam se ki jati hain, lekin rashtrapati apani rajanayik shakti ka prayog mntriparishad ki salah par karata hai.

vidhayi shaktiyan evn kary

snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko vyapak vidhayi shaktiyan pradan ki gayi hain, jinhen nimnalikhit bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

snsad se sambandhit shakti

rashtrapati snsad ka abhinn ang hai, kyonki snsad ka gathan rashtrapati aur lokasabha tatha rajyasabha se milakar hota hai. snsad se sambandhit rashtrapati ki shaktiyan nimnalikhit hain-

  1. anuchchhed 331 ke tahat vah lokasabha men angl-bharatiy samuday ke do sadasyon ko namajad kar sakata hai, yadi usake vichar men lokasabha men us samooday ko uchit pratinidhitv nahin mila hai.
  2. vah rajyasabha men 12 sadasyon ko manonit kar sakata hai.[2]
  3. yadi snsad ke kisi sadasy ki ayogyata ke sambandh men, dal-badal ke adhar par ke sivay, saval utpann hota hai, to usaka nirnay rashtrapati karega, lekin rashtrapati aisa nirnay karane ke lie nirvachan ayog ki ray lega.
  4. rashtrapati snsad ke satr ko ahat karata hai, lekin snsad ke ek satr ki antit baithak aur agami satr ki pratham baithak ke lie niyat tarikh ke bich chh: mas ka antar nahin hona chahie.
  5. vah sadanon ya kisi sadan ka satravasan kar sakata hai tatha lokasabha ka vighatan kar sakata hai.
  6. vah snsad ke kisi ek sadan men ya snsad ke snyukt adhiveshan men abhibhashan kar sakata hai.
  7. snsad men lambit kisi vidheyak ke sambandh men snsad ke donon sadanon ya kisi sadan ko sndesh bhej sakata hai aur usake sndesh par yathashighr vicharan kiya jata hai.
  8. vah lokasabha ke pratyek sadharan nirvachan ke pashchath pratham satr ke arambh men aur pratyek varsh ke pratham satr ke arambh men snsad ke snyukt adhiveshan men abhibhashan kar sakata hai.
  9. snsad dvara koee vidheyak parit kiye jane par use rashtrapati ke samaksh anumati ke lie bheja jata hai. rashtrapati ya to us par apani anumati deta hai ya vidheyak par pun: vichar karane ke lie snsad ko vapas bhejata hai. yadi snsad dvara pun: vidheyak parit kar diya jata hai to rashtrapati us par apani anumati dene ke lie badhy hota hai.
vidheyak ko pesh karane ki sifarish karane ki shakti

nimnalikhit vidheyak rashtrapati ki sifarish ke bina snsad men pesh nahin kiye ja sakate-

  1. dhan vidheyak, lekin kisi kar ko ghatane ya samapt karane ka pravadhan karane vale vidheyak rashtrapati ki sifarish ke bina snsad men pesh kiye ja sakate hain.
  2. rajy ka nirman karane ya vidyaman rajy ke kshetr, sima ya nam men parivartan karane vale vidheyak.
  3. jis karadhan men rajy ka hit ho, us karadhan par prabhav dalane vale vidheyak.
  4. jis vidheyak ko adhiniyamit aur pravartit karane se bharat ki snchit nidhi se vyay karana padega, sambandhi vidheyak.
  5. bhoomi adhigrahan se sambandhit vidheyak.
  6. vyapar ki svatntrata par rok lagane vale rajy ka koee vidheyak.
rajy vidhan mandal ke dvara banayi jane vali vidhi ke sambandh men rashtrapati ki shakti

rajy vidhan mandal dvara banayi jane vali vidhi ke sambandh men rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit shaktiyan prapt hain-

  1. yadi rajy vidhan mandal koee aisa vidheyak parit karata hai, jisase uchch nyayalay ki adhikarita prabhavit hoti hai, to rajyapal us vidheyak par anumati nahin dega aur use rashtrapati ki anumati ke lie arakshit kar dega.
  2. rajy vidhan mandal ke dvara sampatti prapt karane ke lie parit vidheyak ko rashtrapati ki anumati ke lie arakshit rakha jaega.
  3. kisi rajy ke andar ya doosare rajyon ke sath vyapar adi par pratibandh lagane vale vidheyakon ko vidhanasabha men pesh karane ke pahale rashtrapati ki anumati leni hogi.
  4. vittiy apat sthiti ke pravartan ki sthiti men rashtrapati nirdesh de sakata hai ki sabhi dhan vidheyakon ko rajy vidhan sabha men pesh karane ke pahale us par rashtrapati ki anumati li jae.
adhyadesh jari karane ki shakti

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 123 ke tahat rashtrapati ko adhyadesh jari karane ki shakti pradan ki gayi hai. rashtrapati dvara jari adhyadesh ka vahi prabhav hota hai, jo snsad dvara parit tatha rashtrapati ke dvara anumodit adhiniyam ko hota hai, lekin antar yah hota hai ki adhiniyam ka prabhav tab tak sthayi hota hai, jab tak ki snsad ke dvara ya rashtrapati ke adhyadesh dvara nirast n kar diya jae, isake viparit adhyadesh keval 6 mas tak hi pravartan men rahata hai.

rashtrapati ke dvara adhyadesh snsad ke vishrantikal men us samay jari kiya jata hai, jab rashtrapati ko yah vishvas ho jae ki aisi paristhiti utpann ho gayi hai, jisake anusar avilamb karravaee karana avashyak hai. rashtrapati ke dvara jari adhyadesh ka prabhav keval 6 mas tak hi rahata hai yadi 6 mas ke andar snsad dvara anumodit n kar diya jae. snsad dvara anumodit kiye jane par vah rashtrapati ki anumati prapt karane ke bad adhiniyam ho jata hai. yadi snsad ke adhiveshan ke prarambh ke bad pahale jari kiye gaye adhyadesh ko snsad dvara anumodit kiye jane ke lie 6 mas ke andar snsad men pesh nahin kiya jata hai, to adhyadesh prabhavahin ho jata hai. yadi snsad ke ek sadan ka satr chal raha hai aur doosare sadan ka satr sthagit ho, tab bhi adhyadesh jari kiya ja sakata hai, kyonki snsad ka ek sadan koee vidheyak parit kar use qanoon banane ke lie saksham nahin hai.

niyam banane ki shakti

rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit ke sambandh men qanoon banane ki shakti hai-

  1. rashtrapati ke nam se kiye jane vale aur nishpadit adeshon tatha any likhaton ko adhipramanit karane ke dhng ke sambandh men.
  2. rajyasabha ke sabhapati tatha lokasabha ke adhyaksh se paramarsh karake donon sadanon ki snyukt baithakon se sambandhit aur unamen paraspar snchar se sambandhit prakriya ke niyam.
  3. sngh ya rajy ki seva karane vale vyaktiyon ki bharti aur seva ki sharton ko viniyamit karane vale niyam.
  4. snyukt lok seva ayog tatha sngh lok seva ayog ke sadasyon karmachariyon ki seva sharton ko viniyamit karane vale niyam.

rashtrapati ki vito shakti

snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko spashtat: vito ki shakti pradan nahin ki gayi hai lekin snvidhan ke anusar kiye gaye karyon tatha sthapit paramparaon ke anusar yah mana jata hai ki rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit tin prakar ki vito shaktiyan prapt hain-

poorn vito-

jab rashtrapati kisi vidheyak ko anumati nahin deta hai to yah kaha jata hai ki rashtrapati ne poorn vito ki shakti ka prayog kiya hai. rashtrapati is vito ki shakti ka prayog gair sarakari vidheyak par anumati n pradan karake kar sakata hai ya aise vidheyak par anumati n pradan karake kar sakata hai jo aisi sarakar ke dvara parit kiya gaya ho, jo vidheyak par anumati dene ke poorv hi tyagapatr de de aur nayi sarakar vidheyak par anumati n dene ki sifarish kare.

nilambanakari vito

jab rashtrapati kisi vidheyak ke prabhav ko nilambit rakhane ke lie anumati dene hetu apane pas preshit vidheyak ko snsad ke pas punarvichar ke lie bhejata hai, to yah kaha jata hai ki unhonne nilambanakari vito ka prayog kiya hai.

jebi vito-

is paauket vito bhi kaha jata hai. jab rashtapati snsad dvara parit karake anumati ke lie bheje ge vidheyak par n to anumati deta hai aur n hi use punarvichar ke lie vapas bhejata hai to yah kaha jata hai ki rashtrapati ne jebi ya paauket vito ka prayog kiya hai. is vito ka prayog rashtrapati (gyani zail sinh) ne 1986 men snsad dvara parit bharatiy dak (snshodhan) adhiniyam ke sandarbh men kiya hai. rashtrapati ne n to is par apani anumati di hai aur n hi ise snsad ke pas punarvichar ke lie bheja hai.

vittiy shaktiyan

rashtrapati ko snvidhan dvara kee vittiy shaktiyan pradan ki gayi hain. dhan vidheyak tatha vitt vidheyak ko tabhi lokasabha men pesh kiya jata hai jab rashtrapati usaki sifarish kare. jis vidheyak ko pravartit kiye jane par bharat ki snchit nidhi men vyay karana pade, us vidheyak ko snsad dvara tabhi parit kiya jaega, jab rashtrapati us vidheyak par vichar-vimarsh karane ki sifarish snsad se karen. jis karadhan men rajy ka hit sambaddh hai, us karadhan se sambandhit vidheyak ko rashtrapati ki anumati se hi lokasabha men pesh kiya ja sakata hai. isake atirikt rashtrapati pratyek varsh vittamntri ke madhyam se varsh ka bajat lokasabha men pesh karavata hai tatha pratyek panch varsh ki samapti par vitt ayog ka gathan karata hai. rashtrapati vitt ayog dvara ki gayi pratyek sifarish ko, us par kiye gaye spashtikaran gyapan sahit snsad ke pratyek sadan ke samaksh rakhavata hai.

nyayik shaktiyan

snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko tin prakar ki nyayik shaktiyan pradan ki gee hain, jinaka vivaran nimn prakar se hai-

nyayadhishon ki niyukti karane ki shakti

anuchchhed 124 ke anusar rashtrapati ko uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ko niyukt karane ki shakti hai. uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti karane ke lie rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalay ke aise nyayadhishon se paramarsh karega, jinase paramarsh karana vah avashyak samajhe. mukhy nyayadhish ke atirikt any nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke poorv vah mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karega. lekin snvidhan men spasht roop se yah pravadhan nahin kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati mukhy nyayadhish ke paramarsh se badhy honge ya nahin. lekin 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko diye gaye ek nirnay men uchchatam nyayalay ne spasht kiya hai ki

  • uchchatam nyayalay ke varishthatam nyayadhish ko hi desh ka mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya jana chahie,
  • uchchatam nyayalay ke any nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke sambandh men rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki ray manane ke lie badhy hai.

rashtrapati uchch nyayalayon ke mukhy nyayadhishon tatha any nyayadhishon ko niyukt karata hai. uchch nyayalayon ke mukhy nyayadhishon ko niyukt karate samay rashtrapati bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish tatha rajy ke rajyapal se paramarsh karata hai, jabaki any nyayadhishon ki niyukti karate samay vah bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish, rajy ke rajyapal tatha sambandhit uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karata hai. 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko diye gaye nirnay ke anusar rashtrapati aisi niyuktiyan karate samay bharat ke mukhy nyayadhishon ki ray ko variyata dene ke lie badhy hai. rashtrapati uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ka ek uchch nyayalay se doosare uchch nyayalay men sthanantaran kar sakata hai.

kshamadan ki shakti

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 72 ke tahat rashtrapati ko kshama tatha kuchh mamalon men dandadesh ke nilamban, parihar ya laghukaran ki shakti pradan ki gayi hai. rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit mamale men kshama, tatha doshasiddhi ke nilamban, parihar ya laghukaran ki shakti prapt hai-

  1. sena nyayalayon ke dvara diye gaye dand ke mamale men.
  2. mrityu dandadesh ke sabhi mamalon men.
  3. un sabhi mamalon men, jinhen dand ya dandadesh aise vishay sambandhi kisi vidhi ke viruddh aparadh ke lie diya gaya hai, jis vishay tak sngh ki karyapalika shakti ka vistar hai.

kshama ka tatpary aparadh ke dand se mukti pradan karana hai. pratilamban ka tatpary vidhi dvara vihit dand ke sthayi sthagan se hai. parihar ke antargat dand ki prakriti men parivartan kie bina dand ki matra ko kam kiya jana hai. laghukaran ka arth dand ki prakriti men parivartan karana hai. rashtrapati apani is shakti ka prayog mntriparishad ki salah par karata hai aur rashtrapati dvara yadi is shakti ka prayog kiya jata hai to usaka nyayik punarvilokan nyayalay dvara kiya ja sakata hai.

uchchatam nyayalay se paramarsh lene ka adhikar

anuchchhed 143 ke anusar jab rashtrapati ko aisa pratit ho ki vidhi ya tathy ka koee aisa prashn utpann hua hai ya utpann hone ki sambhavana hai, jo aisi prakriti ka aur vyapak mahattv ka hai ki us par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray prapt karana samichin hai, tab vah us prashn par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray mang sakata hai.

apatakalin shakti

rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit apatakalin shaktiyan pradan ki gayi hain-

  1. rashtriy apat ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 352).
  2. rajyon men snvaidhanik tantr ki viphalata par vahan apatakal ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 356).
  3. vittiy apat ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 360).

rashtrapati ka visheshadhikar

snvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko yah visheshadhikar pradan kiya gaya hai ki vah apane pad ke kisi kartavy ke nirvahan tatha shaktiyon ke prayog men kiye jane vale kisi kary ke lie nyayalay ke prati uttaradayi nahin hoga.

snvaidhanik sthiti

snvidhan ki bhavana tatha snvidhan sabha men isake sadasyon dvara kiye gaye vicharon ke anusar rashtrapati rashtr ka keval aupacharik pradhan hoga, lekin mool snvidhan ke anuchchhed 74 (1) men yah pravadhan kiya gaya tha ki rashtrapati ko usake krityon ka prayog karane men sahayata aur salah dene ke lie ek mntriparishad hogi, jisaka pradhan pradhanamntri hoga. isaka yah arth lagaya jata tha ki rashtrapati mntriparishad ki salah manane ke lie badhy nahin hai aur vah apane vivek se bhi snvidhan ke pravadhanon ke anusar apane krityon ka nirvahan kar sakata hai. isi pravadhan ke karan pratham pradhanamntri pndit javahar lal neharoo tatha tatkalin rashtrapati daau. rajendr prasad ke bich hindoo kod tatha chin se sambandh adi mamalon men kafi matabhed tha, jisase donon ke bich sngharsh ki sthiti utpann ho gayi thi. isake bavajood 1976 tak snvidhan ke is pravadhan ko qayam rakha gaya, parantu 42ven snvidhan snshodhan ke dvara anuchchhed 74 (1) men snshodhan karake yah vyavastha ki gayi ki rashtrapati mntriparishad ki salah ke anusar hi kary karega aur is prakar rashtrapati ko mntriparishad ki salah ke anusar kary karane ke lie badhy kar diya gaya, kintu 44ven snvidhan snshodhan dvara anuchchhed 74 (1) men yah vyavastha kar di gayi ki yadi rashtrapati ko mntriparishad dvara koee salah di jati hai to vah mntriparishad ki di gayi salah par punarvichar karane ke lie kah sakata hai. is prakar mntriparishad dvara punarvichar ke bad ki gayi salah par rashtrapati kary karane ke lie badhy hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. not - bharatiy snvidhan ke anusar varsh 2002 ke rashtrapati chunav ke lie bhi 1971 ki janaganana ke ankade hi many the, keval jharakhand, uttaranchal aur chhattisagadh jaise naye bane tin rajyon ke vidhayakon ke maton ka mooly alag se tay kiya gaya hai.
  2. (anuchchhed 80, 1)

snbndhit lekh


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