बाघ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(राष्ट्रीय पशु se punarnirdeshit)
bagh vishay soochi
bagh
Tiger-3.jpg
jagat jiv - jantu
sngh kaaurdeta (Chordata)
varg stanapayi (Mammalia)
gan karnivora (Carnivora)
kul felidi (Felidae)
jati painthara (Panthera)
prajati taigris (tigris)
dvipad nam painthara taigris (Panthera tigris)
any janakari 'penthera taigris' bharatiy ya bngal taigar nam sabase adhik lokapriy hai. ye adhikatar poorvi bharat aur bangladesh ke sundaravan ke mngrov jngalon men rahate hain.
bahari kadiyan vishv bagh divas

rashh‍triy pashu
bagh painthara taigris-linnayas, pile rngon aur dharidar lomacharm vala ek pashu hai. rajasi bagh, tendua, taigris dharidar janavar hai. apani shalinata, dridhata, phurti aur apar shakti ke lie bagh ko 'rashtriy pashu' kahalane ka gaurav prapt hai. bagh ki ath prajatiyon men se bharat men paee jane vali prajati ko raauyal bngal taigar ke nam se jana jata hai. uttar-pashchim bharat ko chhodakar baki sare deshon men yah prajati payi jati hai. bharat ke atirikt yah nepal, bhootan aur bngaladesh jaise padosi deshon men bhi paya jata hai. bagh kahalae jane vale any janavar hai:-

  1. meghashyam tendua ya meghashyam bagh
  2. pyooma[1] ya hiran bagh
  3. asidnt vidal
  • varsh 2010 men varld vaid fnd faaur nechar ne baghon ki abadi mahaj 3,500 bataee. isake pahale dablyoo.dablyoo.eph. ne duniya bhar men baghon ki snkhya 4000 ke lagabhag bataee thi.

utpatti

  • aisa samajha jata hai ki bagh ki utpatti uttari yooreshiya men huee aur yah dakshin ki or chala aya tha.
  • vartaman men yah roos ke sudoor poorvi ilaqe se chin, bharat aur dakshin poorvi eshiya tak paya jata hai.
  • isaki samany roop se many ath prajatiyan hoti hain.
  • inamen se java bagh, bali bagh aur kairibayaee bagh vilupt ho ge hai.
  • chini bagh vilupt hone ke qarib hain aur sumatraee, saiberiyaee evn bharatiy upaprajatiyan red deta buk men nishchit taur par snkatapann bataee gee hain.

roop aur akriti

  • bagh par moti pili lomacharm ka kot hota hai jis par gahari dharidar pattiyan hoti hain.
  • lavanh‍yata, takat, phurtilapan aur apar shakti ke karan bagh ko bharat ke 'rashh‍triy janavar' ke roop men gauravanvit kiya hai.
  • bagh ki ayal nahin hoti, lekin boodhe nar ke gal ke bal apekshakrit lnbe aur phaile hue hote hain.
  • nar bagh mada se bada hota hai aur isaki kndhe tak ki oonchaee qarib 1 mitar, lnbaee lagabhag 2.2 mitar, poonchh qarib 1 mitar lnbi, aur vazan lagabhag 160 se 230 kilogram ya zyada se zyada lagabhag 290 kilogram hota hai.
  • safed baghon men sabhi poornat safed nahin hote, inamen se lagabhag sabhi bharat men vindhy aur kaimoor parvat shrinkhalaon men pae jate hain.
bagh
vnsh painthera
prajati tigaris
vaigyanik nam painthera tigaris
avas vany prani
sthan dakshin eshiya, dakshin poorv-eshiya

aur roos ke sudoor poorv

abadi 3200
sthiti vilupti ka khatara
  • kale bagh ke pae jane ki bhi khabar hai, ye myanmar, bangladesh aur poorvi bharat ke ghane jngalon men kabhi-kabhi pae jate hain.
  • bagh ghas vale daladali ilaqon aur jngalon men rahata hai; yah mahalon ya mndiron jaisi imaraton ke khndaharon men bhi paya jata hai.
  • shaktishali aur amataur par ekant priy yah vidal ek achchha tairak hai aur lagata hai ki ise nahane men maza ata hai, vipatti men yah ped par chadh sakata hai.
  • sthan aur prajati ke anusar bagh ke akar aur vishisht rng evn dharidar chihn men bhi parivartan hota hai. uttar ke muqabale dakshin ke bagh chhote aur zyada bhadakile rng ke hote hain.
  • bngal taigar (pi. taigris) aur dakshin-poorvi eshiya ke dvipon ke bagh, udaharan ke taur par, kuchh-kuchh lal aur bhoore rng ke, lagabhag gahari kali sundar anuprasth dhariyon vale hote hain. bhitari hisse, pair ke andar ki or, gal aur donon ankhon ke oopar ek bada safed sa dhabba hota hai. lekin uttari chin aur roos ke bahut bade aur durlabh saeeberiyaee baghon (pi. taigris eltaika) ke bal lnbe, mulayam aur halke pile hote hain.
  • kuchh kale aur safed bagh bhi hote hai aur keval ek poornatah safed bagh ki hi janakari mili hai.

bhojan

shikar karane aur bhar pet khane ke bad bagh bachi huee lash ko giddh aur any apamarjakon se chhupane ka jan-boojhakar prayas karata hai, jisase bhavishy men bhi khana mil sake. vah any baghon ya tenduon dvara mare ge shikar ko le jane men bhi nahin jhijhakata aur kabhi-kabhi vah sada mans bhi kha leta hai. bagh rat ko shikar karata hai. chital, hiran, jngali sooar evn mor sahit vibhinn prakar ke janavaron ko apana shikar banata hai. sadharanat: yah hrisht-pusht bade stanadhariyon par hamala nahin karata, yadyapi aisi ghatanaen hain, jab bagh ne hathi ya javan bhainse par hamala kiya. bagh kabhi-kabhi manav bastiyon se bhi palatoo janavaron ko uthakar le jata hai. boodha ya vikalang bagh ya shavakon vali baghin adami ka asani se shikar kar sakate hain tatha narabhakshi ban jate hain.

bagh snrakshan

bagh ke vibhinn drish

vishv ki baghon ki kul abadi ka 60 fisadi hissa bharat men hi rahata hai. gati aur shakti ka pratik bagh hamara rashtriy pashu bhi hai. aise men isako dekhane ka shauq to hona svabhavik hi hai. desh men sarakar ne 38 taigar rijarv ghoshit kie hue hain. madhy pradesh men sthit bandhavagadh apane rashtriy udyan ke lie prasiddh hai aur yahan ki khasiyat bagh hain. yahan paryatak raauyal bngal taigar, tendue, chital, sanbhar aur bhi kee prajatiyon ko dekh sakate hain.

ankadon par ek nazar

yadyapi vigat 1,000 sal se bagh ka shikar kiya jata raha hai, phir bhi 20vin sadi ke shuroo men jngalon men rahane vale baghon ki snkhya 1,00,000 anki gee thi. is sadi ke avasan par aisi ashnka thi ki vishv bhar men keval 5,000 se 7,000 bagh bache hue hain. aj tak baghon ka mahattv vijayachihn aur mahnge koton ke lie khal ke srot ke roop men tha. baghon ko is adhar par bhi mara jata tha ki ve manav ke lie khatara hain. 1970 ke dashak men adhikatar deshon men shauqiya shikar par pratibndh laga diya gaya tatha bagh ki khal ka vyapar gair qanooni bana diya gaya. 1980 ke dashak men baghon ki ganana se pata chala ki unaki snkhya badh rahi hai aur aisa laga ki snrakshan prayas saphal ho rahe hain aur unake vilupt hone ka koee khatara nahin hai. kintu sthiti aisi nahin thi, jaisi dikhaee deti thi. bagh ke angon, khopadi, haddiyon, galamuchchh, snayutntr aur khoon ko lnbe samay se eshiyaee log, vishesh roop se chini, aushadhi aur shaktivarddhak pey banane men istemal karate rahe hain, jisaka gathiya, mooshak dnsh aur vibhinn bimariyon ko thik karane, taqat bahal karane aur kamottejak ke roop men upayog kiya jata hai. jab tak bagh ke shikar par pratibndh nahin laga tha. usake sharir ke in bhagon ki kabhi kami nahin rahi. lekin 1980 ke dashak ke ant men in angon ke bhndar khatm ho rahe the aur aise saboot the ki inako pane ke lie tab bhi baghon ko mara ja raha tha. savadhanipoorvak ki gee ganana se pata chala ki karmachariyon ne, jinaki gairaqanooni shikariyon se santh-ganth thi ya jo uchchadhikariyon ko khush karane ke lie utsuk the, pahale ki ganana ko badha-chadha kar pesh kiya tha. isi samay gairaqanooni shikar ki khabaren tezi se badh rahi thin tatha bagh ke angon ka avaidh vyapar phal-phool raha tha aur apoorti men kami ke karan inaki qimaten aur zyada ho gee thin. kabhi-kabhi aparadhi ko pakada jata tha aur baramad mal ko nasht kiya jata tha, jisaka atyadhik prachar bhi kiya jata tha. vastav men taskaron ko rokane ke lie bahut kam prayas kie ge aur kee deshon men chini aushadhi vikretaon ke pas shaktivardhak pey ab bhi upalabdh hain.

pratibndhit desh

sarakaron par un deshon ke khilaf pratibndh lagane ke lie dabav dala gaya, jo bagh ke angon ke vyapar ko samapt karane ke lie samuchit upay karane men viphal rahe. snrakshanakartaon ne yah vishvas karate hue ki snyukt rajy amarika dvara dndatmak upay ki dhamaki hi parivartan lane men madad karegi, rashtrapati bil klintan ke prashasan se karravaee karane ka agrah kiya aur aprail 1994 men unhonne aisa kiya bhi. taivan se qarib 2 karod 50 lakh daaular salana mooly ke vany jiv utpadon ke ayat par pratibndh laga diya gaya. kuchh sarakaron ne sahayog ka prayas kiya. march 1994 men bharat ne baghon ko bachane ke ek sngathit prayas ke tahat 10 rashtron ke 'vishv bagh mnch' ki pahali baithak bulaee.
bagh
Tiger
gair qanooni shikar bnd ho jane ke bavajood bagh ke lie khatara samapt nahin hoga. bharat men, jahan sabase adhik snkhya men bagh rahate hain. tezi se badhati janasnkhya ki adhik bhoomi ki avashyakata ke karan baghon ke avas aur bhojan apoorti men kami a rahi hai. isake bavajood prakriti ke prati vastavik samman qayam hai aur baghon ko bachane ke lie bharat pahale hi badi rashi kharch kar chuka hai. asha hai ki shayad manav aur bagh sahastitv jari rakhane ke lie koee rasta dhoondh nikalenge.

bharat men bagh

khatm hote jngal aur shikariyon par ankush n hone se rashtriy pashu aur jngal ke raja bagh ki snkhya lagatar kam hoti ja rahi hai. desh ke sabhi abhayarany men lagatar inaki snkhya kam hoti ja rahi hai. adhikarik ankadon ke anusar bisavin sadi ke shuroo men desh men 40 hazar se zyada bagh the. sadi ke shuruati sat dashakon men andhadhundh shikar aur jngalon ke simatane ke karan 1972 men baghon ki snkhya ghatakar 1872 rah gee. baghon ki is tarah girati snkhya par kendr sarakar ne 1973 men nau taigar rijarv ilakon men "bagh bachao yojana" shuroo ki. isamen uttar pradesh tatha ab uttarakhnd ka jim karbet bagh snrakshit van kshetr bhi shamil tha. uttar pradesh men rajy men 26 hazar hektayar se zyada van ilake par atikraman ho gaya hai. rajy men baghon ke rahane ka ekamatr sthan "dudhava taigar rijarv" men bhi 827 hektayar zamin par gairaqanooni qabza ho chuka hai.

uttar pradesh men jab 1990 men ginati huee to baghon ki snkhya 240 thi. varsh 2001 men huee ganana men 284 bagh the jinamen 123 nar, 132 mada aur 29 shavak the. do sal bad 2003 men huee ginati men inaki snkhya sthir rahi aur do sal men sirf ek bagh kam mila. us samay pae ge 283 bagh men 92 nar, 162 mada aur 29 shavak the. varsh 2005 ki ginati men das bagh kam hue aur inaki snkhya 273 ho gee. varsh 2007 men karaee gee ginati ke parinam 2008 men ae aur inaki snkhya 109 ho gee.
bagh
Tiger
baghon ki ginati pahale unake pnjon ke nishan ke aghar par hoti thi lekin 2007 ki ganana men nayi paddhati ka istemal kiya gaya. ginati ke is tarike ko zyada vishvasaniy mana gaya. kuchh logon ne kaimara traip paddhati par yah kah kar saval uthaya ki isamen kaimare zamin se dedh phut oopar lage hote hain aur shavak usaki renj men nahin a pate. shaharikaran, audyogiki vikas ki raphtar ne duniya bhar men jal, jngal, zamin ko nuqasan pahunchaya hai. isase sarvadhik hani paryavaran evn usako banae rakhane men pramukh bhoomika nibhane vale any praniyon ki huee. jngal men jabaran ghuse vikas ne janavaron ke astitv par hi prashnachihn lagane ki prakriya shuroo kar di. parinam svaroop vany prani lagatar khatm hote ja rahe hain. kuchh jiv jntu samapt ho gaye aur kuchh janavaron ki kee prajatiyan luptapray hone ki kagar par hai. aise men chhote-chhote vany praniyon se lekar jngal ke raja sher (bagh) tak sabake lie apani jan bachae rakhana mushkil ho gaya hai. bagh snrakshan ke sarakari intazam "safed hathi" sabit ho rahe hain.
  • penthera taigris, niyofelis taigris ya liyo taigris, eshiya ki vishalakay billi, vidal kul (filidi) ka sabase bada sadasy hai. sher, tendua aur any ki tarah bagh bade aur dahadane vale vidalon men se ek hain. taqat aur ugrata men isaka ekamatr pratidvndvi keval sinh hai.
  • manushy ke anusar vishv men sabase bade vidal vnshi, bagh (penthera taigris) se adhik hinsak koee janavar nahin hai aur koee bhi isase zyada dar paida nahin karata. aimoor bagh (pi.ti. atalantika) ki prajati ka vazan 300 kilogram tak aur nak se poonchh tak lnbaee char mitar paee gee hai.
  • gyat ath kish‍mon ki prajati men se shahi bngal taigar (bagh) uth‍tar poorvi kshetron ko chhodakar desh bhar men paya jata hai aur padosi deshon men bhi paya jata hai jaise nepal, bhootan aur bngaladesh. bharat men baghon ki ghatati janasnkhh‍ya ki janch karane ke lie aprail 1973 men projekh‍t taigar (bahy pariyojana) shuroo ki gee. ab tak is pariyojana ke adhin bagh ke 27 arakshit kshetron ki sh‍thapana ki gee hai jinamen 37,761 varg kilomitar kshetr shamil hai.
hathiyon par baithakar bagh ka shikar karate angrez-1876

bagh ki prajatiyan

bagh prajati kul 8 thi, jinamen se 5 hi bachi hain.

  1. tigrij (penthera taigris)- bharatiy ya bngal taigar sabase paaupular hai. adhikatar poorvi bharat aur bangladesh ke sundaravan ke mngrov phaaurest men rahate hain. kuchh bhootan, myanmar aur nepal men rahate hain. nar baghon s ka vazan qarib 227 kilo aur mada baghon ka qarib 137 kilo hota hai. safed bagh nar ki shreni ka hota hai. yah luptapray ki shreni men ata hai.
  2. pi.ti. korbetaee ya bharatiy chini bagh- ye mukhyatah thaeelaind men pae jate hain lekin myanmar, dakshin chin, knbodiya, laos, viyatanam aur maleshiya men bhi hain. ye bngal taigars se akar men chhote aur gahare hote hain. ye nar bagh ka vazan qarib 182 kilo aur mada ka qarib 137 kilo hota hai. nar 9 phut lnbe aur mada 8 phut lnbi hoti hain. yah bhi luptapray hain.
  3. pi.ti. sumatraee ya sumatraee bagh- ye sabase chhote aur dark (gahare) hote hain, lal rng ke aur inake sharir par pas-pas dhariyan hoti hain. inaka vazan 114 kilo hota hai. ye sumatra men pae jate hain. ye bhi luptapray hain.
  4. saiberiyan (elateshiya)- ye sabase oonche hote hain. inaka vazan 307 kilo aur oonchaee 11 phut hoti hai. rikaaurd men ab tak sabase bhari saiberiyan bagh 466 kilo ka raha hai. ye mukhyatah uttari-poorv roos ke ilake men pae jate hain. ye 33 phut oonchi chhalang laga sakane ki kshamata vale hote hain. ye bhi khatare men hain.
  5. javan (sonadayaka)- java men kabhi ye pae jate the. 1972 men antim bar dikhane vale in baghon ko lupt man liya gaya hai.
  6. dakshini chin (emoyenasis) - chin ke chidiyagharon men ye bache hain aur kuchh vahan ke jngalon men. chin ke madhy aur poorvi hisse men pae jate hain. ye bhi khatare men hain.
  7. kaispiyan (varagata)- turki se eshiya ke kendriy hisse tak vicharane vale ye taigars eeran, mngoliya aur kendriy roos tak dikhate the. 1950 ven dashak ke bad ye dikhe hi nahin.
  8. bali (balika)- bali dvip par rahane vale antim bali taigar ko 1937 men mar diya. zinda bali taigar ki to koee tasvir hi nahin hai.

jngali vidal

bagh

eshiyaee jngali vidalon men tendue ke bad bagh bhaugolik roop se sabase zyada phaila hua hai aur vyapak avasiy vividhata ke anuroop usane apane ap ko dhal liya hai. bagh ki sabase zyada abadi ghane vanon ke atirikt us bhoobhag men paee jati hai, jahan badi snkhya men shikar paya jata hai, jaise oonchi ghas ke maidan, mishrit ghas ke maidani jngal aur patajhad evn arddh patajhad van. poorvi eshiya ke shitoshn aur ushnoshn vanon men vikasit vidalavnshiyon men sabase vishalakay yah bagh garmi ko ab bhi apekshakrit kam hi sahan kar pata hai. yah ek kushal tairak hai, phir bhi n to meghashyam tendue (niyofelis nebulosa) ki tarah taivan aur borniyo dvip men aur n hi tendue (penthera pardas) ki tarah shrilnka (bhootapoorv silon) dvip men bas saka. isase snket milata hai ki bagh is dvipon ke mukhyabhoomi se alag hone ke bad yahan pahunche, halanki bagh indoneshiyaee dvipasamooh ke sumatra, java aur bali men paya jata hai. lekin any kee jntu prajatiyon ki tarah yah bali ke poorv men gahare jal marg vailes rekha ko par nahin kar paya. any jntuon ki tarah in dvipon men bagh ausatan chhote sharir ka tha. vilupt bali bagh sabhi 8 upaprajatiyon men sabase chhota tha, sharir aur poonchh ko milakar usaki ausat lnbaee 2.5 mitar th. upayukt avas ki talash men yah pashchim ki or turki aur kala sagar tak chala aya tha.

hathiyon par baithakar bagh ka shikar- 1860

nivas ka vishesh ilaka

bagh visheshakar nar apan ilaqa sthapit v qayam karane ki koshish karate hain, jisaka akar v svaroop shikar ki snkhya aur phailav, ilaqe men any baghon ki upasthiti, bhoobhag ki prakriti, pani ki upalabdhata, jalavayu tatha vyaktigat visheshataon par nirbhar karata hai. bagh ek-dusare se doori aur apane ilaqe ka qabza, dahadane, bhoomi khurachane, pedon par pnjon ke nishan, vishtha nikshepan, chehare ki grathiyon ko ragadakar gndh nikshepan tatha guda grnthiyon se nikali gndh evn mootr ke mishran ke chhidakav se hasil karata hai. is jati ki ekantapriyata bhi kshetr sngharsh ko talane men madad karati hai. phir bhi sngharsh hota hai, jo kabhi chot ya mrityu ka bhi karan ban jata hai. bagh vishesh shikar ko prathamikata deta hai. amataur par apane sharir ke vazan ke barabar vazan vali prajatiyan, jaise sanbar, daladali hiran aur jngali sooar adi ko. qanton se ghayal hone ke khatare ke bavajood sahi ke prati vishesh ruchi ek apavad hai kee ilaqon men keval apani adhik snkhya ke karan chital, bagh ke ahar ka mukhy bhag hai.

prakriti sntulan men bagh ki bhoomika

bagh

sarvochch parabhakshi hone ke karan bagh prakriti ki niyntran aur sntulan yojana men pramukh bhoomika nibhata hai. shikar kie jane vale janavaron ke alava yah apane ilaqe ke any parabhakshi tendue ki snkhya par bhi niyntran rakhata hai. isake viparit shikar hone vali prajatiyon ki sthiti ka bhi bagh ki snkhya aur vitaran par asar padata hai, lekin utana nahin jitana prakritik shikar par poori tarah nirbhar parabhakshi prajatiyon, jaise jngali kutte aur meghashyam tendue par padata hai, kyonki bagh palatoo janavaron ko bhi khata hai.

parnparagat hindoo vishvas ke anusar

bagh devi durga ka vahan hai. jivavad ka anusaran karane vale kuchh janajatiy samuday ab bhi bagh ko poojate hai aur usake avasiy kshetr men rahane vale use bhay aur shraddha se dekhate hain. sindhu ghati sabhyata ki muharon men bagh ko darshaya gaya hai. prachin kal men gupt samraton men se sabase mahanh samudragupt ke vishesh sone ke sikke men unhen bagh ka vadh karate hue dikhaya gaya hai. apane prabal shatru angrezon ko hara n sakane ke karan tipoo sultan ne apani kuntha ko door karane ke lie angrez sainik ka shikar karata hua jivit bagh jitana bada aur avaz nikalane vala bagh ka khilauna mngavaya tha. eshiyaee kala aur dnt kathaon men hathi aur sinh ke bad bagh jitana chitran kisi any vany pashu ka nahin hua hai. vaigyanik pramanon ke viparit bagh ke angon ko taviz, khurak ya aushadhi ke roop men istemal karane ki vartaman pratha bagh ke prabhamndal tatha sahasrabdiyon se usake prati bhay se upaje vishvas ko darshata hai. chini pnchag ka pratyek 12van sal vyaghr varsh ke roop men manaya jata hai aur isamen janme bachche vishesh roop se bhagyashali aur shaktishali mane jate hain. bagh dntakathaon aur andhavishvason ka vishay raha hai. khel aur khal ke lie isaka shikar kiya jat hai. jahan yah paya jata hai, vahan apane vibhinn angon ke kathit roganashak, snrakshi ya kamottejak gunon ke karan ise mahattvapoorn mana jata hai.

baghon ka shikar karate angrez- 1876

bagh ke angon ka prayog

  • pradarshan aur pooja ke lie khal sahit bagh ke angon ko kafi mahattvapoorn mana jata hai.
  • taviz ke lie pnje, dant aur hnsuli.
  • apane dushman ko ant ke alsar se pidit karane ke lie galamuchchh.
  • aushadhi ke lie rakt aur mootr.
  • shaktivarddhan aur parakram ke lie mans.
  • snbhog shakti ke lie shishn.
  • sabase mahattvapoorn yah hai ki aushadhi evn chini sharab ke lie haddiyan istemal ki jati hai. ek achchhi khal ki qimat 15,000 daaular tak ho sakati hai. ek kigra haddiyan 250 daaular men bechi ja sakati hain.

gairaqanooni shikar

bagh

gairaqanooni shikar baghon ki snkhya men kami ka ek pramukh karan raha hai, lekin pichhali do sadiyon men unaki snkhya men bhari kami ke karan hain-

  • avasiy ilaqe men tezi se katauti, gunatmak aur parimanatmak dono roop se.
  • shauqiya shikar.
  • bagh jatiyon ki snkhya men kami ke karan palatoo janavaron par zyada nirbharata aur is karan adami dvara badale ki karravaee.
  • manav aur palatoo janavaron ki snkhya men vriddhi se bagh ke avasiy ilaqe men ashanti v katauti.
  • krishi ke lie vanon tatha vishesh roop se bagh ki pasndida oonchi ghas ke maidanon ki kataee.
  • yuddh aur vidroh.
  • avasiy ilaqe ke vikhndan aur alagav tatha parivartit vatavaran ke anusar apane ko dhalane evn manushy ki nikatata v apavyay se talamel bithane men bagh ki viphalata.
bagh

bagh ki keval panch jatiyan shesh

1999 ke akalan ke anusar, bagh ki shesh panch jatiyon ki snkhya is prakar hai-

bharatiy bagh - 3,000 se 4,550
sumatraee bagh - 400 se 500
bharat-chini bagh - 1,200 se 1,700
dakshini chin ka bagh - 20 se 30
emoor bagh - 360 se 400
is prakar 20vin sadi ke ant men vishv bhar men baghon ki kul snkhya 5,000 se 7,500 ke bich hone ka anuman tha.

ghatati snkhya par chintan

bagh ka shikar

tin dashak pahale baghon ki ghatati snkhya par gnbhir chinta vyakt ki gee thi aur dhire-dhire sabhi deshon ne is janavar ki suraksha ke upay kie, jinamen alag-alag had tak saphalata mili. bagh ko apane avasiy ilaqe men qanooni suraksha prapt hai, lekin sab jagah qanoon karagar dhng se lagoo nahin ho raha hai. bharat ne, jahan baghon ki adhi snkhya paee jati hai, ise rashtriy pashu ghoshit kiya hai aur 1973 men mahattvakankshi bagh pariyojana shuroo ki, jisake tahat chune hue bagh arakshit kshetron ko vishisht darza diya gaya aur vahan vishesh snrakshan prayas kie ge. nepal, maleshiya aur indoneshiya ne kee rashtriy udyan aur abhayarany sthapit kie hain, jahan is janavar ki karagar dhng se raksha ki jati hai. thailaind, knbodiya aur viyatanam bhi aisi hi karravaee kar rahi hain. chin ekamatr aisa desh hai, jahan bagh ki tinon upaprajatiyan hain, jinamen sabase adhik snkatapann dakshin chin ka bagh hai; vah bhi bagh ke snrakshan par vishesh dhyan de raha hai, roos evn sudoor poorv men, jahan gairaqanooni shikar ne emoor bagh ke lie gnbhir khatara paida kar diya hai, saghan prayas aur karagar gasht se isaki snkhya men badhotari huee hai.

bagh ki sthiti ne vyapak sahanubhooti jagaee hai aur isake snrakshan ke lie kafi paisa mila hai. varld vaid fnd faaur nechar (dabloo. dabloo.eph.) pathapradarshak aur sabase bada anshadata raha hai, lekin eksaaun evn kee any sngathanon ne bhi bada yogadan kiya hai. d kanavenshan aaun intaraneshanal tred in endenjard spishiz (saites) ko bagh ke utpadon ke gairaqanooni vyapar par niyntran ka kam saunpa gaya hai bagh ko bachane ke lie snyukt prayason men samanvay ke lie vishv bagh mnch ki sthapana ki gee hai.

kam hote bagh

eshiya men pae jane vale is rajasi prani ke bhavishy par manushy ki kali nazar bahut pahale se pad chuki hai. prakriti ke is bhavy, takatavar, adbhut aur shahi prani ko bachane ke lie ab tak jitani bhi yojanaen banin, unhen thik se palan nahin karane se aur lagatar badhati manav janasnkhya se jngalon par itana dabav pad raha hai ki kamobesh har kshetr men jngal pichhale ek dashak men apani vastavik simaon se 47 pratishat tak sikud chuke hain. bharat aur chin jaise zyada abadi vale deshon men to sthiti bhayavah ho chuki hai.

bagh

vilupt hoti prajati

eshiya men baghon ki kul nau prajatiyan hain, jinhen kshetr ke adhar par banta gaya hai. isamen saiberiyan bagh, jo roos ke sudoor aur durgam saiberiya ke barphile jngalon men ab shayad sirf 450 ke qrarib bache hain. raauyal bngal taigar, jo bharat, nepal, bangladesh aur myanmar ke jngalon men paya jata hai. inaki snkhya kul 1800 ke as pas hai. bngal taigar ki sabase nikatatam prajati hai indochainiz taigar, jo kabhi laos, viyatanam, kambodiya aur malayeshiya men paya jata tha. inaki snkhya ab sirf 300 bachi hai. isake alava malay taigar jo thailaind aur malayeshiya men paya jata hai. yah ab sirf 500 bache hain jinamen se adhikatar manav nirmit pashu shiviron men pae jate hain.

isake alava sumatra taigar, jo sumatra dvip samooh men paya jata hai. isaki snkhya ab 400 bataee ja rahi hai. hind mahasagar men base java aur bali dvipon men pae jane vale java taigar aur bali taigar, jo akar men sabase chhote mane jate the, ab vilupt man lie ge hain. kisi zamane men uttar eshiya men mngoliya se lekar kazakistan, afaganistan, turkamenistan, eeran, iraq se lekar turki tak paya jane vala kaispiyan taigar bhi ab vilupt ho chuka hai.

avaidh karobar ke shikar

bagh shikar ki prakriya
Tiger-Hunting-5.jpg

chin men varsh 2010 men taigar varsh manaya ja raha hai aur durbhagyapoorn bat yah hai ki is karan se is varsh bagh ke angon ki mang men zabaradast izafa hua hai. ek riport ke anusar madhy eshiya aur chin men bagh ke ling ki kimat 80,000 daaular prati 10 gram hai, bagh ki khal 10,000 se lekar 1,00,000 daaular tak, bagh ki haddiyan 9,000 daaular prati kilo tak bik jati hai. hriday aur any antarik angon ki kimat bhi hazaron lakhon men hai. isake bavajood kharidaron ki koee kami nahin hai.

chini manyata ke anusar manae jane vale taigar iyar men sabhi ko is sal is vilakshan prani ko bachane ki koshish karani chahie varana ane vale salon men bagh bhi draigan ki tarz par qisse kahaniyon men dekha padha jaega.

desh men sirf 1411 bagh hi bache hai yah ginati sahi hai ya galat is par saval uthaya ja sakata hai par yah sach hai ki hamare desh ke jngalon v abhayaranyon men taskaron dvara kiye ge avaidh shikar ke chalate baghon ki snkhya men teji se giravat aee hai aur yahi hal raha to vo din door nahin jab bagh sirf chidiyagharon tak hi simit ho jayenge. hamare nanhe blogar adi ki ashnka bhi niradhar nahin ki agali bar bagh chidiyaghar men bhi dekhane ko na mile. baghon ko shikariyon ke shikar se bachane ke lie sarakar bhi itane suraksha karmi jngalon men tainat nahin kar sakati jo in shikariyon par ankush laga sake. isake lie hamen jngal ke as-pas rahane vale graminon ke samane hi bagh ki mahatta ke udaharan pesh unhen samajhana hoga ki bagh unake kheton se door jngal rah kar bhi kaise unaki kheton men kadi fasal ki rakhavali kar sakata hai aur is asntulan se bachane ke lie jngal men bagh ka hona hamare lie kitana zaroori hai.

parivarik ikaee

  • garm ilaqon men bagh varsh bhar bachche paida karate hain.
  • thnde ilaqon men ye vasnt ke mausam men prajanan karate hain.
  • inaki ausat garbhavadhi 113 din ki hoti hai aur ek bar men 2 ya 3 shavak paida hote hain.
  • shavak dharidar hote hain aur man ke sath tab tak rahate hain, jab tak ve vayask hokar apane ap shikar karane men samarth n ho jaen. shavak jab tak atmanirbhar nahin ho jate, baghin dubara prajanan nahin karati.
  • bagh ki ausat ayu qarib 11 sal hoti hai.
  • qaid men rahane par atyadhik nikat snbndh ke karan bagh aur sinh ka snkar paida ho sakata hai. aise prajanan men yadi bagh pita hai, to shavak tigaaun aur yadi sinh pita hai, to shavak laigar kahalata hai.
bagh

shavakon ka lalan palan

100 din ki garbhavadhi ke bad shavak paida hote hain. ek bar men do se char shavak paida hote hain. shavak andhe paida hote hain aur jab unaki ankhen khuli bhi rahati hain, tab bhi ve aparadarshita ke karan chhah se ath hafte tak spasht roop se nahin dekh pate. is karan doodh-chhudaee, snrakshan aur prashikshan ka lnba samay hota hai, jisake dauran shavak ki mrityu dar adhik hoti hai, vishesh roop se yadi khane ki bhi kami ho. shikar par jane ke karan lnbe samay tak man ki anupasthiti aur kabhi-kabhi khana upalabdh hone ki sthiti men taqatavar shavakon ki akramakata ke karan kamazor shavakon ko kam bhojan milata hai. nar shavak mada shavakon ki tulana men zyada tezi se badhate hain aur apani man ko jaldi chhod dete hain. shikar karane ka kaushal anshik roop qaid men pale-pose ge baghon ko yadi vanon men chhoda gaya, to ve achchhi tarah se apana bharan-poshan nahin kar pate hain. halanki mukhy roop se nar dvara shavakon ki hatya ki bat ka pata chalata hai, lekin baghin aur shavakon ke sath nar ke hone, yahan tak ki shikar men hissedari asamany bat nahin hai. lekin yah sath lnbe samay tak nahin rahata.

narabhakshi bagh

hathi ke oopar bagh ka shikar

narabhakshan se badhakar bagh ke kisi aur acharan ne adami ko vikarshit nahin kiya hai. is vipathan ke kee karan hain, umr v chot ke karan vikalangata, shikar ki kami, man se yah adat sikhana, shavak ya shikar kie janavar ko bachane ya any karanon se adami ko marana aur isake bad use khana. baghon ki snkhya men kami ke karan narabhakshi bagh bhi durlabh ho ge hain, keval pashchim bngal men sundaravan ke jngal isaka apavad hain.

samachar

shukravar, 12 navnbar, 2010

pichhali sadi men 39 hazar bagh vilupt
ek anuman ke mutabik sau sal pahale bharat men baghon ki snkhya 40,000 thi. rashtriy bagh snrakshan aauthariti ke anusar sanh 2002 ke sarvekshan men jahan baghon ki snkhya 3500 anki gee thi, vahin 2008 men yah ghatakar 1411 ho gee hai. yani ki ab bharat men matr 1411 bagh bache hain. bataya jata hai ki pichhale panch varshon men baghon ki snkhya men bhari giravat darz ki gee hai. vany jivon ke lie kam karane valon ka manana hai ki sal 2025 tak baghon ke vilupt ho jane ka khatara hai. baghon ki kul abadi ke 40 fisadi bagh bharat men pae jate hain. bharat ke 17 pradeshon men baghon ke 23 snrakshit kshetr hain. eshiya mahadvip men baghon ki snkhya...

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen

bagh

somavar, 28 march, 2011

bharat men baghon ki snkhya 1706 huee, 295 bagh badhe
desh men baghon ki snkhya badh gee hai. varsh 2006 men inaki snkhya 1411 thi jo 21 fisadi badhakar 1706 ho gee hai. baghon ki taza ganana men ye ankade samane ae. paryavaran mntri jayaram ramesh ne somavar ko deshabhar ke baghon ki snkhya se jude ankade tin divasiy intaraneshanal bagh kaaunphrens men jari kie. unhonne kahan ki baghon ki snkhya men izafa ek achchhi khabar hai. halanki unhonne svikar kiya ki 2009 aur 2010 men baghon ki mrityu dar samany se adhik rahi. kaimara traip vidhi se dedh sal se adhik umr ke 615 baghon ke fotograph khinche ge hain. madhy bharat men baghon par hamale ki ghatana men kami aee hai. khasakar andhr pradesh v madhy pradesh ke galiyare men.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen

bagh snrakshan ke lie bharat ki prashnsa

nyooyark, amerika ke ek vanyajiv snrakshan snsthan ne lupt pray baghon ke snrakshan ke lie bharat ki 'bemisal pratibaddhata' ki tarif ki hai. nyooyark ki vaild laif knjarveshan sosayati (dablyoosies) ne eshiya ki vibhinn sarakaron ko chetavani di hai ki lupt ho rahi prajatiyon ko bachane ka unaka samay teji se nikal raha hai. koriya ke jeju men ayojit 'varld knjarveshan kangres' men snstha ne 5 sitambar, 2012 ko kaha "bharat ne varsh 1972 men projekt taigar ki ghoshana ke sath baghon ki jimmedari li. aisa karake usane spasht sndesh diya ki jngali baghon ka bhavishy usake hath men hai aur unake bhavishy ke lie vah (bharat) poori tarah jimmedar hoga." snstha ne kaha ki samasyaen aur chunautiyan abhi bhi maujood hain, lekin bharat pratibaddh hai ki baghon ka prabhavi tariqe se unake avason men snrakshan hona chahie. bharat ke rashtriy bagh snrakshan pradhikar ki or se 28 march, 2011 ko jari bagh ganana riport ke mutabik baghon ki snkhya kam se kam 1,571 aur adhik se adhik 1,875 hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. lal-bhoore rng ka bilav
  2. abhar- rashtriy sahara, dinank 7 sitambar 2012, prishth-20

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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