राष्ट्रीय शाके  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rashtriy shake athava shak snvat bharat ka rashtriy kalaindar hai. yah 78 varsh eesa poorv prarambh hua tha. chaitr 1, 1879 shak snvat[1] ko ise adhikarik roop se vidhivat apanaya gaya.

  • 500 ee. ke uparant snskrit men likhit sabhi jyotiahshastriy granth shak snvat ka prayog karane lage. is snvat ka yah nam kyon pada, is vishay men vibhinn ek mat hain. ise kushan raja kanishk ne chalaya ya kisi any ne, is vishay men antim roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja saka hai. yah ek kathin samasya hai jo bharatiy itihas aur kal nirnay ki atyant kathin samasyaon men mani jati hai.
  • varahamihir ne ise shak-kal[2] tatha shak-bhoopakal[3] kaha hai.
  • utpal (lagabhag 966 ee.) ne brihatsnhita[4] ki vyakhya men kaha hai - jab vikramadity dvara shak raja mara gaya to yah snvat chala. isake varsh chandr-saur-ganana ke lie chaitr se evn saur ganana ke lie mesh se arambh hote the. isake varsh samanyatah bite hue hain aur sanh 78 ee. ke 'vasantik vishuv' se yah arambh kiya gaya hai. sabase prachin shilalekh, jisamen spasht roop se shak snvat ka ullekh hai, 'chaluky vallabheshvar' ka hai, jisaki tithi 465 shak snvat arthat 543 ee. hai. kshatrap rajaon ke shilalekhon men varshon ki snkhya vyakt hai, kintu snvat ka nam nahin hai, kintu ve snkhyaen shak kal ki dyotak hain, aisa samanyatah logon ka mat hai. kuchh logon ne kushan raja kanishk ko shak snvat ka pratishthapak mana hai.
  • pashchatkalin, madhyavarti evn vartaman kalon men, jyotirvidabharan men bhi yahi bat hai, shak snvat ka nam 'shalivahan' hai. kintu snvat ke roop men shalivahan roop 13vin ya 14vin shati ke shilalekhon men aya hai. yah sambhav hai ki satavahan nam[5] 'shalavahan' bana aur 'shalivahan' ke roop men a gaya.[6]
  • kashmir men prayukt saptarshi snvat ek any snvat hai, jo laukik snvat ke nam se bhi prasiddh hai. rajatarngini[7] ke anusar laukik varsh 24 gat shak snvat 1070 ke barabar hai. is snvat ke upayog men samanyatah shatabdiyan nahin di huee hain. yah chandr-saur snvat hai aur chaitr shukl ki pratipada ko ee. poo. aprail 3076 men arambh hua.
  • brihatsnhita[8] ne ek parampara ka ullekh kiya hai ki saptarshi ek nakshatr men sau varshon tak rahate hain aur jab yudhishthar rajy kar rahe the to ve mesh rashi men the. sambhavatah yahi sau varshon vale vritton ka udgam hai.
  • bahut-se any snvath bhi the, jaise - vardhaman, buddh-nirvan, gupt, chedi, harsh, lakshmanasen bngal men, kollam ya parashuram malavar men, jo kisi samay kam se kam laukik jivan men bahut prachalit the.
kram mah divas mas prarambh tithi (gregori)
1 chaitr 30/31 22 march[9]
2 vaishakh 31 21 apral
3 jyeshth 31 22 mee
4 ashadh 31 22 joon
5 shravan 31 23 julaee
6 bhadrapad 31 23 agast
7 ashvin 30 23 sitnbar
8 kartik 30 23 aktoobar
9 margashirsh 30 22 navambar
10 paush 30 22 disambar
11 magh 30 23 janavari
12 phalgun 30 20 faravari


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 22 march 1957
  2. pnchasiddhantika evn brihatsnhita 13|3
  3. brihatsnhita 8|20-21
  4. brihatsnhita 8|20
  5. harshacharit men gatha saptashati ke praneta ke roop men varnit
  6. kailendar riphaaurm kamiti riport (pri. 244-256).
  7. rajatarngini 1|52
  8. brihatsnhita 13|3-4
  9. lip varsh men chaitr mah men se yah 21 march se prarambh hota hai.

snbndhit lekh

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