वर्ण व्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varn vh‍yavash‍tha hindoo dharm men samajik vibhajan ka ek adhar hai. hindoo dharm-grnthon ke anusar samaj ko char varnon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai- kshatriy, brahman, vaishy aur shoodr; jabaki aur bauddh dharm ke granthon ke anusar samaj ko chhah varnon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: varnashram evn brahman

paninikalin samaj

paninikalin samaj ki mool bhitti varn aur ashram ki vyavastha thi. brahman, kshatriy, vaishy aur shoodr- in charon varnon ka ullekh 'ashtadhyayi' men hua hai. vaidik bhasha ka 'varn' shabd ab bhi vyavahar men ata tha, yadyapi 'jati' yah naya shabd bhi prachalit ho chuka tha.[1] panini-vyakaran ke anusar gotron aur charanon ki bhi prithak jatiyan hone lagi thin. bhashyakar ne jati ki paribhasha ke antargat gotron aur charanon ko bhi gina hai.[2] katarakatamau jatipariprashne[3] sootr men jati ke vishay men poochhatachh ke lie niyam bataya gaya hai. yahan jati shabd se gotr aur charan donon abhipret hai. katarakath: (in donon men kaun kath hai?), katamakath: (inamen kaun kath hai?) ye donon prashn charan-sambndhi poochhatachh vishayak hone par bhi jati-pariprashn ke udaharan hai.


pray: pratyek jati ya upajati men apane mool-nikas ki ek anushruti paee jati hai. in mool sthan-namon ka yadi sngrah kiya jae to yah bhi snbhav hai ki ham 'ashtadhyayi' men diye hue un-un nam vale gotr ke mool sthanon ki bhi pahachan kar sakenge. panini ke 4.2.80 sootr men is prakar ke sthan-namon ki satrah soochiyan sngrahit hain. udaharan ke lie, pakshadigan men 'hnsak' sthan ka nam hai jahan se nadadigan ke hnsak gotr ka vikas hua hoga. panini ke samay men yoni-snbndh aur vidya-sambndh, in do prakar ke sambndhon ke adhar par samaj ka adhikansh sngathan tha. yoni sambndh gotron ke roop men aur vidya-sambndh charanon ke roop men apana-apana jatiy sngathan bana rahe the. isi karan jati ki paribhasha men gotr aur charan in donon ko sammilit kiya gaya.[4] rakt-sambndh aur vidya-sambndhon ke karan chhote-mote girohon ki alag-alag jatiyan ban rahi thin. kuchh aisa lagata hai ki jahan bete poton se phoolate-phalate prithakh-prithakh sau ghar kisi ek khyat, gutt, ya all ke antargat badh jate the, vahin un kutubon ke sadasy samaj men apane prithak astitv ka bhan aur smriti ek chhoti upajati ya gotravayav ke roop men kar lete the. panini ne savitri-putron ka ullekh kiya hai.[5] mahabharat men kaha hai ki savitri-putron ke sau gharane the.[6] isi prakar madron men se sau gharane alag phoot kar malavaputr nam ki all se prithak vikhyat hue.[7] malavaputr hi vartaman 'malotre' ho sakate hain.[8]

varnashram vyavastha

vaidik dharm sudridh varnashram vyavastha par adharit tha. hindoo dharm samast manav samaj ko char shreniyon men vibhakt karata hai-

brahman

brahman ko buddhijivi mana jata hai, jo apani vidya, gyan aur vichar shakti dvara janata evn samaj ka netritv kar unhen sanmarg par chalane ka adesh deta hai. 'brahman' bharat men aryon ki samaj vh‍yavash‍tha arthat varn vyavastha ka sabase oopar ka varn hai. bharat ke samajik badalav ke itihas men jab bharatiy samaj ko hindoo ke roop men snbodhit kiya jane laga, tab brahman varn, jati men bhi pari‍vartit ho gaya. brahman varn ab hindoo samaj ki ek jati bhi hai. brahman ko 'vipr', 'dvij', 'dvijottam' ya 'bhoosur' bhi kaha jata hai.

kshatriy

kshatriy vah hai jo bahubal dvara samaj men vyavastha rakhakar unhen uchchhrinkhal hone se rokata hai. raja ka kartavy praja ki raksha karana hai. bharatiy aryon men atynt arambhik kal se varn vyavastha milati hai, jisake anusar samaj men unako doosara sthan prapt tha. unaka kary yuddh karana tatha praja ki raksha karana tha. brahman grnthon ke anusar kshatriyon ki ganana brahamanon ke bad ki jati thi, parntu bauddh grnthon ke anusar char varnon men kshatriyon ko brahmanon se ooncha arthat samaj men sarvopari sthan prapt tha. gautam buddh aur mahavir donon kshatriy the aur isase is sthapana ko bal milata hai ki bauddh dharm aur jain dharm jahan ek or samaj men brahmanon ki shreshthata ke dave ke prati kshatriyon ke virodh bhav ko prakat karate hain, vahin doosari or prithakh jivan darshan ke lie unaki akanksha ko bhi abhivyakti dete hain. kshatriyon ka sthan nishchit roop se charon varnon men brahmanon ke bad doosara mana jata tha.

jo nash se raksha kare vah kshatriy hai. - kalidas

vaishy

kheti, gau palan aur vyapar ke dvara jo samaj ko sukhi aur desh ko samriddh banata hai, use vaishy kahate hain. 'vaishy' ka hinduon ki varn vyavastha men tisara sthan hai. is varn ke log mukhyat: vanijyik vyavasay aur krishi karate the. hinduon ki jati vyavastha ke antargat vaishy varnashram ka tisara mahattvapoorn stnbh hai. is varg men mukhy roop se bharatiy samaj ke kisan, pashupalak, aur vyapari samuday shamil hain. 'vaishy' shabd vaidik 'vishh' se nikala hai. arth ki drishti se 'vaishy' shabd ki utpatti snskrit se huee hai, jisaka mool arth "basana" hota hai. manu ke 'manusmriti' ke anusar vaishyon ki utpatti brahma ke udar yani pet se huee hai. jabaki kuchh any vicharon ke anusar brahma ji se paida hone vale brahman, vishnu se paida hone vale vaishy, shnkar se paida hone vale kshatriy kahalae; isaliye aj bhi brahman apani mata sarasvati, vaishy lakshmi, kshatriy man durge ki pooja karate hai.

shoodr

shoodr bharatiy samaj vyavastha men chaturth varn ya jati hai. vayu puran[9], vedantasootr[10] aur chhandogy evn vedantasootr ke shankarabhashy men shuch aur dru dhatuon se shoodr shabd vyutpann kiya gaya. vayu puran ka kathan hai ki shok karake dravit hone vale paricharyarat vyakti shoodr hain. bhavishyapuran men shruti ki druti (avashishtansh) prapt karane vale shoodr kahalae.[11] dirghanikay men khuddachar (kshudrachar) men sudd shabd snbaddh kiya gaya.[12] homar ke dvara ullikhit 'koodron' se shoodr shabd jodane ka bhi prayatn hua.[13] uparokt tinon varnon ki seva karana shoodr ka kary tha. is varn ka bhi utana hi mahattv tha jitana any tinon varnon ka tha. yah varn na ho to shesh tinon varnon ki jivan vyavastha chhinn bhinn ho jae. yah vyavastha samaj ke sntulan ke lie thi. pashchaty darshanik pleto ne bhi samaj ko char varnon men vibhajit karana anivary bataya hai. any dharmon men bhi is prakar ki varn vyavastha ki gayi thi. pratyek vyavastha gunon aur karmon ke adhar par thi. da.radhakrishnan kahate hain - 'janm aur gun in donon ke ghalamel se hi varn vyavastha ki choolen hil gayi hain.' shoodr shabd moolat: videshi hai aur snbhavat: ek parajit anary jati ka mool nam tha. shastron ke anusar pratyek vyakti shoodr paida hota hai aur prayatn aur vikas se any varn avasthaon men pahunchata hai. vastav men pratyek men charon varn sthapit hain.

mishravarn

panini ke samay men anulom pratilom shabd prachalit ho chuke the.[14]mishrit varnon men ambashth (vikalp anbashth)[15] nam aya hai. smritiyon ke anusar brahman pita aur vaishy mata ki sntan ambashth kahalati thi. ambashth vahik men ek gan ka nam bhi tha.[16]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2.1.63
  2. gotrashch charanai: sah 4.1.63)
  3. 2.1.63
  4. gotrnch charanani ch, bhashy 4.1.63, kisi any vartikakar ke anusar
  5. damanyadi 5.3.16
  6. svayi putrashatn chaiv satyavanh‌ anayishyati.
    te chapi sarve rajan: kshatriya: putrapautrin:॥
    khyatastvannamadheyashch bhavishyntih shashchata:.... vanaparv, 297.58; karnaparv 5.41
  7. mahabharat vanaparv, 297.60
  8. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 86 |
  9. vayupuran 1, 8, 158
  10. vedantasootr 1, 3, 34
  11. vedantasootr- 1, 44, 33
  12. vedantasootr- 3, 95
  13. vakaranagel, drashtavy ramasharan sharma, pri. 35
  14. 5.4.75
  15. 8.3.97
  16. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 94 |

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