वाचस्पतिमिश्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vachaspatimishr ka nam bharatiy darshanon ke chhatron ke lie suparichit hai, kyonki bharat ke vividh astik darshanon ko vachaspatimishr ka mahattvapoorn yogadan hai. nyay, mimansa, sankhy-yog tatha advait vedant, in sab darshanon men vachaspatimishr ne vyakhya granth likhe hain. isase un darshanon ka vishadikaran bahut achchhi tarah hua hai. is karan darshanashastr ke vidyarthiyon ke lie darshanon ka rahasy jan lene ke lie vachaspati ke granthon ka adhyayan avashyak sa ho gaya hai.

upadhi

vachaspati ka yogadan sirf prachin darshanon ke vishadikaran men nahin hai, balki un darshanon men ne vichar late hue unaka vikas karane ka kary bhi vachaspati ne kiya hai. sabhi darshanon men svatntr prgya se vihar karane ka unaka vilakshan svabhav dekhate hue unhen pnditon ne 'sarvatntr svatntr' yah sarthak upadhi di hai.

parichay

kee vidvanon ke anusar vachaspatimishr nepal ke simavarti kshetr ke najadik rahate the. vahan ek dehat ke najadik 'bhama' nam ki nadi bahati hai, usaka namakaran vachaspati ki kanya 'bhamati' ke nam ke adhar par kiya gaya hai. vachaspati ne apane advait vedant par likhe vyakhya granth ko apani kanya ka hi nam diya tha.[1] lekin dinesh chndr bhattachary ke anusar vachaspatimishr ka nivas sthan aj jahan darabhnga ki poorvasima hai, us pradesh men tha. umesh mishr ke anusar vachaspatimishr darabhnga zile men 'tharahi' namak ganv men rahate the. anek vidvanon ka kahana hai ki vachaspatimishr 'maithil' brahman the. vachaspatimishr ka kal navin sadi ka uttarardh ya dasavin sadi bataya jata hai.

vachaspati ne apane guru ka nirdesh karate samay unhen 'nyay mnjari' ka karta bataya hai. ab zyadatar pnditon ka mat yah hai ki vachaspatimishr ka guru trilochan nam ka tha tatha trilochan ke nyay granth ka nam nyay mnjari tha. yah granth aj upalabdh nahin hai, lekin usamen se kuchh parichchhedon ke uddharan doosare granthon men milate hain. nyayamnjarikar jayntabhatt vachaspatimishr ka guru nahin tha.

rachanaen

vachaspatimishr ke granthon men jo vachaspatimishr ke hi any granthon ke nirdesh ate hain, unaki madad lete hue umesh mishr ne vachaspatimishr ke granthon ka kram is prakar bataya hai-

  1. nyayakanika
  2. brahmatattv samiksha
  3. tattvabindu
  4. nyayasoochi nibndh
  5. nyayavartikatatparyatika
  6. tattvakaumudi
  7. tattvavaisharadi
  8. bhamati

vachaspatimishr ke in granthon ka parichay kramash is prakar hai-

nyayakanika

mndanamishr ke 'vidhivivek' namak granth par vachaspatimishr ki yah tika hai. nam se yah nyay granth lagata hai, lekin vastut: yah poorvamimansa shastr ka granth hai. 'svargakamo yajen' arthat 'jise svarg ki ichchha hai, vah ygy kare', is prakar ke jo vidhivaky hain, unaka svaroop, arth tatha prayojan spasht karana vidhivivek ka mukhy uddeshy hai. yahi nyayakanika ka bhi uddeshy hai. vidhivakyon ka mukhy prayojan kaun sa hai? kuchh mimansakon ke anusar vidhivakyon ke adhar ved ka praman siddh kar sakate hain, kyonki jo doosare pratyaksh, anuman adi pramanon se siddh nahin hota, vah yagadikartavyavishayak vakyon ke arth ka gyan sirf shabd praman se hi ho sakata hai. lekin vachaspatimishr ko yah mat pasnd nahin hai. agar kritiprerak vakyon ke arth ka gyan doosare pramanon se nahin ho sakata, yah mukti ved ka pramany siddh karane ke lie kafi hai, to isi adhar par 'chaity ka vndan karana chahie', is prakar ke bauddhon ke vachan bhi praman sabit honge.[2]

vidhivaky

doosare kuchh logon ne vidhivakyon ka prayojan 'shabd aur arth men hone vale sambandh ka gyan' bataya hai. lekin vachaspati ne is vikalp ka bhi khndan kiya hai. shabdarth sambandh maloom karane ke lie vidhivakyon ki hi zaroorat ho, aisi bat nahin hai. varnanatmak vakyon se bhi yah siddh ho sakata hai. tisare kuchh mimansakon ka kahana hai ki vidhivakyon ka uddeshy 'kisase phayada hoga, kisase nahin hoga' isaka gyan karata hai. lekin vachaspati ne is vikalp ko bhi amany kar diya hai aur kaha hai ki 'garmi men jal ka sinchan sharir ka tap kam karata hai' aur 'agni jvala se lipat jane se adami jal jata hai' is tarah ke vaky, jo vidhi vaky nahin hain, khali tathy soochak vaky hain. ve bhi manushy ko achchha kya hai tatha bura kya hai, isaka gyan karate hain. vachaspatimishr manate hain ki vidhivakyon ka prayojan hai 'purusharthasadhanatvavabodh' arthath purash ka jo isht ya sadhy arth ho, jaise ki svarg, usaka sadhan kaun sa hai, yah batana. vyavahar men jo hamara chhota-mota isht phal hota hai, usake sadhanon ka gyan zyadatar doosare pramanon se hi ho jata hai. lekin svarg jaise purusharth ke sadhan ke bare men gyan ved hi karata hai. svarg ke lie vah upay hai. yah gyan doosare kisi sadhan se nahin prapt ho sakata. sirf ved vakyon se hi yog men hone vala 'svargasadhanatv' gyan ho sakata hai. isilie yahi vidhivakyon ka prayojan hai tatha unaka arth bhi isi drishti se lagana chahie.

vidhi ka svaroop

is prakar vidhivakyon se bodhit hone vala gyan adami ko purusharthasadhan ke lie pravritt karata hai. lekin is vidhi ka svaroop kya hai? usi ki charcha vidhivivek tatha nyayanirnay ka pramukh vishay hai. kuchh mimansakon ke anusar 'svargakamo yajen' is tarah ka vaky hi vidhi hai. lekin vidhi to vah honi chahie ki jisake gyan se sakshath pravritti ho jae. lekin vaky ke gyan se sakshath pravritti nahin hoti hai. vaky ke gyan se vakyarth ki prama (yatharth gyan) hoti hai, isilie to vaky praman kahalata hai. agar vaky se sakshath pravritti hone lagi to vaky praman nahin hoga. isilie vachaspatimishr vidhi ka svaroop vaky (ya shabd) nahin manate.

doosare kuchh mimansak kahenge ki vidhi shabd vyapar hai. lekin shabd men hone vali abhidhashakti ya bhavanaroop vyapar, jisase arth gyan hota hai, apane ap hamen kriti ke prati pravritt nahin kar sakata. vaise to sabhi shabdon men abhidha hai. agar vyapar hi vidhi hota to ham 'ghat' jaisa koee shabd sunate hi kary ke prati pravritt hote, isalie tisara vikalp yah rah jata hai ki vidhi ka arth hai pravartak vaky ka arth. is vikalp ki vachaspati ne bade vistar se charcha ki hai, tatha ling ke arth ke bare men prabhakar ke mat ki joradar alochana ki hai.[3] prabhakar ke anusar ling ka arth hai 'niyog' (niyukt karana), yah arth vartaman, bhoot ya bhavishy kisi kal ka nirdesh nahin karata. lingayukt vaky sunate hi yah niyog roop arth jana jata hai tatha sunane vale ko pravritt karata hai. prabhakar ke anusar yah niyog roop arth janane ka ek matr marg shabd praman hai. vachaspatimishr isaka khndan karate hue kahate hain ki agar shabdarth sambandh roop snket ka gyan n ho to ved vakyon ko, unamen hone vale ling ka arth kaise samajh men ayega. snket roop sambandh ka gyan hone ke lie pahale arth ka svatntr roop se gyan hona zaroori hai. isilie ling ke niyog roop arth ka gyan shabd se hi hota hai, aisa manana uchit nahin hai.

siddhant paksh

niyog hi vidhiling ka arth hai, prabhakar ke is mat ke khndan ke bad vaspatimishr ne siddhant paksh ka vivaran kiya hai. mndanamishr vidhivivek men kahate hain, 'vah kriti ishtaphal ka sadhan hai' yahi arth ling ka ho sakata hai aur isi arth ka gyan adami ko pravritt kar sakata hai. mndan ke is mat ki vyakhya karate samay vachaspatimishr ne nyay vaisheshikon ki riti apanayi hai, jisake anusar kisi bhi subuddh vyakti men jo pravritti hoti hai, usake prati prayatn karan hota hai. prayatn ke prati ichchha tatha ichchha ke prati ishtasadhanata ka gyan karan hota hai. yah ishtasadhanatv hi vachaspati ke anusar vidhiling ka arth hai.

vidhivivek men mndan ne tatha nyay nirnay men vachaspati ne jo vivechan kiya hai, vah sirf 'vedavakyon ka arth' ya 'vaidik karmakand' ke sndarbh men hi mahattv nahin rakhata, balki usaka sambandh adhinaitik prashnon se bhi hai. adhinitishastr men 'chahie' tatha 'hai' ke bare men ek prashn is prakar upasthit kiya ja sakata hai- kya chahie ka arth ham, poornataya 'hai' ke dvara bata sakate hain? ya chahie ka koee svatntr arth hai, jo 'hai' se bilkul bhinn hai? prabhakar ka paksh hai ki chahie ka niyogaroop arth hai, jo ham doosare kisi praman se nahin jan sakate. shabd praman ko chhodakar baki sab praman kya 'hai? yah bata sakate hain, kya karana 'chahie', yah nahin, jabaki ling se hi yah 'chahie' vala arth gyat kar sakate hain. lekin mndan tatha vachaspati ke paksh ke anusar ishtasadhan ya sukhasadhan ki avadharana ke adhar par ham 'hai' aur 'chahie' men pratit hone vala tarkik antar ya nirodh door kar sakate hain.

vidhi ke svaroop ke sath vachaspati ne nyayanirnay men doosare bhi kee prashnon par charcha ki hai, jaise-

  1. sphotavad[4]
  2. vedon ka apaurushey
  3. vedon ka karta sarvgy eeshvar hai- is siddhant ki alochana
  4. bauddhon ke kshanikavad ki alochana

brahmatattv samiksha

vachaspatimishr ka yah granth mndanamishr ki 'brahmasiddhi' par tika hai. bhamati tatha any granthon men vachaspati ne is granth ka nam uddhrit kiya hai. laikin isake alava granth ki zyada janakari nahin milati.

tattvabindu

vachaspatimishr ke is granth ka vishay hai 'shabdabodh' yani pramanabhoot vaky se hone vale arth ka yatharthgyan. vah kaise hota hai? is samasya ka samadhan vividh astik darshanikon ne apani apani pranali ke anusar karane ka yatn kiya tha. vaiyakaranon ke anusar vakyarthgyan karane vala koee vakyasphot nam ka padarth hai, jo dhvanisamooharoop vaky se prakat hota hai aur khud ajanma aur avinashi hai. kee prachin mimansakon ka mat tha ki jab vaky sunate hain, tab har ek shabd ka shravan hote hi usaka snskar atma men qayam ho jata hai tatha shabd nasht bhi ho jata hai. vaky ka akhiri shabd sunate hi pahale shabdon ka snskar udbodhit hota hai tatha un snskaron sahit antim varn ka gyan hote hi vaky ke arth ka bhi gyan hota hai.[5]

any mimansak kathan

doosare kee mimansakon ke anusar vaky men hone vali varnamala jab har ek varn, pad aur padarth mala hi shabdabodh karati hai. prabhakar tatha usake matanuyayi mimansakon ke anusar jab shabd (pad) vishisht riti se paraspar snbaddh hue hon, tab vaky men hone vale any padon ke arthon se sambandh apana-apana arth, arthath vakyarth prakat karate hain. kumaril bhatt tatha unake matanuyayiyon ka kahana hai ki vaky men hone vale pad shabdabodh ka karan nahin hain, balki padon ke arth vah karan hain. jab pad tatha unake arth vishisht riti se paraspar snbaddh ho jate hain, tab vakyarth ka gyan karate hain. in vividh maton men se vachaspatimishr ne any maton ka khndan karate hue kumaril bhatt ka mat apanaya hai.

vakyarth ka gyan

vakyarth ka gyan kaise hota hai? is prashn ke bare men do mat bharatiy darshanashastr men prasiddh hain. ek hai 'anvitabhidhanavad', jo prabhakar ka mat hai, tatha doosara hai 'abhihitanvayavad', jo kumaril bhatt ka mat hai. anvitabhidhan tatha abhihitanvayavad ki badi vistrit charcha tattvabindu men milati hai.

anvitabhidhanavad ke anusar vaky men hone vale shabd jab ham sunate hain, tab ve shabd apana-apana arth paraspar snbaddh (anvit) roop men hi batate hain (abhidhan). pahale shabdon ka arth dhyan men ata hai, bad men un arthon ka snbaddh yani vaky ka samuchit arth dhyan men ata hai. is tarah ka kram manane ki koee zaroorat nahin hai, lekin abhihitanvayavad ke anusar vaky men hone vale shabd pahale apana-apana arth batate hain (abhihit) aur bad men un abhihit arthon ka paraspar sambandh (anvay) hamari samajh men ata hai. is prakar anvitabhidhanavad ke anusar padon ka tatha vaky ka arth padon ki abhidha shakti se hi samajh men ata hai, lekin abhihitanvayavad ke anusar padon ka arth abhidha shakti se jana jata hai aur vaky ka arth lakshana shakti se jana jata hai. anvitabhidhan ki alochana karate hue vachaspatimishr ne abhihitanvayavad ka samarthan tattvabindu men kiya hai.

nyayasoochi nibndh

yah granth gautam ke nyayasootr ka vishayavibhag matr hai.

nyayavartik/tatpary/tika

gautam ke nyayasootr par vatsyayan ne bhashy likha, us bhashy par udyotakar ne vartik likha. udyotakar ke vartik par vachaspatimishr ne jo tika likhi, usi ka nam 'nyayavartik/tatpary/tika' hai. bharatiy darshanik vichar sootr, bhashy (ya vartik), bhashy par tika ke roop men prastut kiya gaya hua zyadatar dikhaee deta hai. lekin isaka arth yah nahin ki is darshanik vichar men kuchh pragati huee hi nahin. ne vichar prastut kiye ge par unhen bhi is sootr bhashy tika paddhati ke karan parampara men jod diya gaya. nyayavartik/tatpary/tika men vachaspatimishr ke dvara nyay darshan men kiya gaya yogadan milata hai. udyotakar ke kal men naiyayikon ke samane ek bada prashn tha, bauddh tarkikon ki alochanaon ka javab dena. udyotakar ne apane nyayavartik men bauddhon ki prakhar alochana ki, lekin usamen zyadatar vitanda ki jhalak milati hai, kyonki bauddh tark shastr ko javab dene ke lie naiyayikon ka tark shastr us samay utana samarthy tatha sughatit nahin tha. bad men bauddhon ke hi kuchh vichar apanate hue tatha unamen kuchh sudhar karate hue naiyayikon ne apana pramanashastr prabal banaya. isalie vachaspatimishr ke bauddh khndan men is prabal pramanashastr ki parshvabhoomi spashtataya dikhaee deti hai. tatpary tika men gautam pranit nyay darshan ke spashtikaran tatha samarthan ke alava dikhaee dene vala vachaspatimishr ka pramukh yogadan is prakar hai-

  • pratyaksh, anuman adi jin pramanon se hamen gyan milata hai, unaka pramanatv kaise siddh ho sakata hai? yani us praman se yatharth gyan hi mil raha hai, ayatharth nahi, yah kaise siddh ho sakata hai? kya in pramanon men hi aisa samarthy hai, ki jisase praman se gyan milate hi ham yah bhi jan jate hain ki gyan yatharth hai. ya doosare kisi sadhan se us praman ka pramanatv (pramany) siddh karane ki zaroorat a padati hai. jo praman men hi pramanyasiddhi ka samarthy manate hain, ve svat: pramanyavadi kahalate hain tatha jo praman ka pramany siddh karane ke lie doosare kisi sadhan ki zaroorat mahasoos karate hain, ve parat: pramanyavadi mane jate hain. naiyayik parat: pramanyavadi hain. naiyayikon ka mat hai ki koee gyan yatharth hai ya ayatharth, isaka nishchay hamen usi gyan se nahin, balki us gyan se hone vali pravritti ki saphalata se hota hai. arthath is pramanyasiddhi ke lie ham anuman karate hain ki 'yah gyan yatharth hai, kyonki yah saphal pravritti ka karan hai ...'. yahan prashn uthata hai ki is prakar ka anuman praman hai ya nahin, usase hone vala gyan yatharth hai ya nahin, isaka nishchay kaise kiya jae. doosare anuman se to isamen anavastha ka dosh a jayega. is prashn ki charcha karate hue vachaspatimishr ne apana mat vyakt kiya hai ki yadyapi baki sab gyanon ka yatharthatv siddh karana anumanon par nirbhar hai, par is prakar ka pramany (ya apramany) siddh karane vala anuman apane pramany ki siddhi ke lie doosare kisi praman par nirbhar nahin. is prakar ka anuman svat: praman hi hai. pramany sadhak ya apramanyasadhak anuman ke bare men agar koee snshay nahin ho to vah anuman svat: siddh hi hai, aisa vachaspatimishr ka kahana hai.
  • 'jahan-jahan dhoom hai, vahan vahan agni hai', is prakar ke vaky se vyakt hone vala jo dhoom aur agni men niyat sambandh hota hai, us sambandh ke yani vyapti ke svaroop ke bare men vachaspati ke kal men badi charcha chal rahi thi. bauddhon ne vyapti ke do prakar bataye the- tadatmy sambandh tatha tadutpatti sambandh. lekin naiyayikon ke anusar tadatmy tatha tadutpatti ke alava bhi doosare sambandh vyapti men a sakate hain. vachaspatimishr ne vyapti ka svaroop 'svabhavik sambandh' tatha nirupadhik sambandh, in do padon men spasht karane ka yatn kiya. aisa mahasoos hota hai ki vyapti ka yah svaroop vachaspati ke guru trilochan ne apani 'nyayamnjari' men prakat kiya tha. usi ka samarthan tatha vivaran vachaspatimishr ne kiya hai. is mat ke anusar 'jahan dhoom hai, vahan agni hai' is vaky se vyakt hone vala sambandh svabhavik hai. arthath dhoom ka aisa svabhav hi hai ki jisase vah agni ke sath niyat roop se baddh hota hai. lekin agar ham kahen ki 'jahan agni hai, vahan dhoom hai' to vah galat hoga, kyonki agni ka dhoom ke sath svabhavik sambandh nahin hai. agni ka vah svabhav nahin hai ki usake sath hamesha dhoom ho.[6] agni ka dhoom ke sath sambandh sopadhik hai, arthath agar agni 'ardr eedhan se utpann' hua ho, tabhi usase dhoom nikalata hai. is prakar 'ardr eedhan se utpann hona' yah upadhi hai, ek tarah ki shart hai jo agni ko dhoom se snbaddh hone ke lie poori karani zaroori hai. vyapti sambandh nirupadhik yane bina shart hona chahie.
  • shabd praman ki charcha karate samay vachaspati ne svabhavik sambandh ki kalpana ki madad li hai. vachaspati kahate hain ki shabd praman ka antarbhav anuman men nahin kiya ja sakata, kyonki anuman men hetu aur sadhy men jo 'svabhavik sambandh' hota hai, us prakar ka svabhavik sambandh shabd aur arth men nahin hota. shabd ka yah svabhav nahin hai ki vah vishisht arth ka bodh karae. shabd aur arth ka sambandh snket par eeshvarechchha par avalambit hai, sopadhik hai.
  • naiyayikon ne pramanon ki charcha karate hue samay abhav padarth ko svikar kiya tha, lekin kisi vastu ka abhav jan lene ke lie anupalabdhi namak svatntr praman ki koee zaroorat nahin mani jati thi. vatsyayan ne abhav padarth ki svikriti karate hue abhav ka vargikaran bhi kiya tha. udyotakar ke bad abhav padarth ke suspasht varnan ke prayas naiyayikon ne kie. vachaspati ne abhav ka moolat: in do vargon men vargikaran kiya- tadatmyabhav (isi ko anyonyabhav bhi kahate hain) tatha snsargabhav. anyonyabhav ka arth hai bhed. 'patthar ped nahin hai', is prakar ke vaky men anyonyabhav ka pratipadan hai. snsargabhav ke tin prakar vachaspati ne batae. pragabhav, pradhvnsabhav tatha atyntabhav. utpatti se pahale kisi vastu ka jo abhav hota hai, use pragabhav kahate hain. vastu ke nasht hote hi usaka jo abhav paida hota hai, vah pradhvnsabhav kahalata hai tatha 'pavan ka rng nahin hota', is prakar ke vaky men jis abhav ka pratipadan hota hai, use atyntabhav kahate hain. abhav ka yah vargikaran bad men nyay vaisheshik darshan men sarvamany ho gaya.

tattvakaumudi

tattvakaumudi ya sankhyatattvakaumudi vachaspatimishr ki eeshvar krishn ki 'sankhyakarika' par vyakhya hai. sankhyakarika men granthit sankhy darshan ka achchhi tarah se gyan karane ke lie vah bahut hi upayukt siddh huee hai.

tattvavaisharadi

patnjali krit 'yogasootr' par jo 'vyasabhashy' hai, us bhashy ka vivaran vachaspatimishr ke 'tattvavaisharadi namak granth men milata hai. lekin sankhyatattvakaumudi tatha tattvavaisharadi in donon granthon men vachaspatimishr ka kuchh vishesh niji yogadan ham nahin pate hain.

bhamati

vividh astik darshanon par vachaspatimishr ne jo tikaen likhin, unhen dekhane se vidit hota hai ki vachaspatimishr in vividh darshanon ke antarng se bahut achchhi tarah se parichit the. un darshanon ke balasthan tatha marmasthan unhen maloom hue the tatha in darshanon ka samanvay kaise, kitani had tak kiya ja sakata hai, isake bare men bhi vachaspatimishr ko ek drishti prapt huee thi. isilie vidvanon ka kahana hai ki vachaspatimishr bhamati men kabhi kabhi yah samanvay ki drishti apanate hain. ek had tak baki darshan bhi maulik hain, tatha advait darshan ki samagr pratibha men un darshanon ka bhi ek sthan hai. aisa ek samanvay ka drishtikon vachaspati ka bhamati men dikhaee deta hai.[7] 'bhamati' shnkarachary ke brahmasootr bhashy par likhi huee tika mani jati hai.

shankaravedant

shnkarachary ke bad shankaravedant ke anek vyakhyakar hue tatha shankaravedant ke kuchh siddhanton ke nishchit svaroop ke bare men kuchh matabhed bhi utpann hue. shnkarachary ke bad jo pramukh do sampraday shankaravedant men utpann hue, ve hain 'vivaran sampraday' aur 'bhamati sampraday'. shnkarachary ke ek shishy padmapad ne 'pashchapadika vivaran' namak tika likhi. in granthon men se avishkrit hone vala 'vedant sampraday', 'vivaran sampraday' ya 'vivaran prasthan' kaha jata hai. shnkarachary ke doosare ek shishy 'sureshvarachary' ji se jis sampraday ka prarambh hua, vah bhi 'akhir vivaran sampraday' men shamil hua. lekin shnkarachary ke aur ek shishy mndanamishr se jis sampraday ka arambh hua, usamen vivaran sampraday se kuchh alag si vicharadhara prakat huee. mndanamir ke vicharon ka vachaspatimishr par kafi prabhav pada tha tatha mndanamishr ke sampraday ka joradar pratipadan vachaspatimishr ne apane bhamati granth men kiya. isilie is doosare sampraday ko bhamati sampraday ya bhamati prasthan kaha jata hai.

'vivaran sampraday' tatha 'bhamati sampraday' men jo vaicharik vibhinnata hai, vah mukhyataya jiv, brahm aur vidya ke paraspar sambandh ke bare men hai. pnchapadika vivaranakar prakashatma ke anusar agyan (avidya) brahm ke mool svaroop ko dhak deta hai tatha galat svaroop ko samane lata hai. at: jo avidya hai, vah brahm ke bare men hai. lekin yah avidya ya agyan kisako hota hai? is avidya ka adhar ya adhishthan kaun sa hai? is prashn par prakashatma ka javab hai ki is avidya ka adhar ya adhishthan bhi brahm hi hai. brahm ko apane svaroop ke bare men vismaran ya mithyagyan hota hai tatha usi se prapnch ka abhas hota hai. vachaspatimishr ka mat isase alag hai. vachaspatimishr ke anusar yadyapi avidya brahm ke bare men hai, avidya ka vishay brahm hai, lekin is avidya ka adhar ya adhishthan brahm nahin hai, balki jiv hai. brahm ke sachche svaroop ke bare men jiv men agyan hai, arthath brahm vishayak agyan jiv men rahata hai. is prakar ek tarah se ham kah sakate hain ki vivaranakar ke anusar jiv brahm ko apane hi bare men hone vali vismriti ka phal hai tatha us vismriti ke nash par jiv ka nash nirbhar hai. lekin vachaspatimishr ke anusar jiv agyan se ya mithya gyan se naya utpann nahin hota hai, balki mithya gyan ke ashray ke roop men vah anadikal se is duniya men maujood hai. is prakar jiv aur mithya gyan donon vachaspatimishr ke anusar anadi siddh hote hain.

aisa pratit hota hai ki jiv avidya ka ashray hai tatha jiv anek hain, yah vichar vachaspatimishr ne mndanamishr se apanaya. lekin mndanamishr ka yah bhi mat tha ki jiv mithyakalpana se janm leta hai. mndanamishr ke samane yah samasya thi ki agar mithya kalpana ka ashray jiv hai to us mithya kalpana ki utpatti se pahale jiv ko maujood hona chahie. lekin agar jiv hi mithya kalpana se utpann hota hai to jiv se pahale mithya kalpana honi chahie. is samasya ka samadhan karate hue mndanamishr kahate hain ki maya ya avidya ka svaroop hi moolat: anupapatti hai, isilie maya se prapnch kaise hota hai. isake spashtikaran men bhi anupapatti ana svabhavik hi hai. vachaspatimishr is prakar ka uttar pasnd nahin karate hain. unake anusar yadyapi adhyas se vishayatv ki arthath vishayibhoot atma ke jiv ke svaroop ki utpatti hoti hai tatha vishayatv se adhyas ki utpatti hoti hai, phir bhi isamen anyonyashray jaisa dosh nahin ata hai. jaise bij se ankur ki tatha ankur se naye bij ki utpatti hoti hai, usi prakar jiv se avidya ki tatha avidya se jiv ki utpatti hoti hai. is prakar ki avidya aur jiv ki anadi utpatti parampara manane se ham samasya ka samadhan kar sakate hain.

jiv anek hain tatha ve avidya ke ashray hain, aisa manane se ek aur saval ka javab milata hai. vyavahar men har ek jiv men hone vali avidya alag-alag manani chahie. svabhavik roop se hi, agar ek jiv men ashrit avidya nasht ho jae to vah jiv mukt ho sakata hai. lekin ek jiv ke mukt hone par bhi brahm vishayak poori avidya ka nash nahin hota. isalie ek jiv ke mukt hone se sare jivon ke mukt hone ka prasng upasthit nahin hota. lekin vivaran sampraday ke mat men brahm ko hi avidya ka vishay tatha ashray manane se yah prasng bana rahata hai. yahan par ek prashn uthaya ja sakata hai ki agar har ek jiv men brahm ke bare men hone vala agyan tatha mithya gyan bhinn-bhinn hai to jagat ke bare men jo anek jivon ko ek jaisa gyan hota hai tatha jivon men gyan ka adan-pradan bhi hota hai, vah kaun se adhar par hota hai. is prashn ki charcha vachaspatimishr ne bhamati men nahin ki hai. lekin vachaspatimishr ke snbhavy uttar ke bare men ham do dishaon men soch sakate hain-

  1. vachaspatimishr ne anek avidyaon ki charcha karate hue avidyatv samany mana hai tatha sab avidyaon men avidyatv ke saman hone ke karan gyan ka adan-pradan sambhav hota hai, aisa ve manate hain. yahan vachaspati ne nyayadarshan ki sarani apanaee hai.
  2. bhamati ke ek arambhik shlok men vachaspati ne 'avidyadvitay' (do avidyaen) ka nirdesh kiya hai. ye do avidyaen 'moolavidya' tatha 'toolavidya' kahalati hain. moolavidya jivagat anek avidyaon ka (moolavidyaon ka) bij svaroop hain tatha toolavidya har ek jiv men alag alag hai, aisa ham kah sakate hain.

siddhant

advait vedant men prachalit ek vad ke sndarbh men bhi vachaspatimishr ka vishesh sthan hai. jiv ke svaroop ke sndarbh men advait vedant men do siddhant prachalit hain. ek pratibinbavad kahalata hai tatha doosara avachchhedavad. pratibinbavad ke anusar 'jiv avidya men pada hua brahm ka pratibinb jaisa hai. yahan jal men pade soory ke pratibinb ki upama di jati hai. vividh jalashayon men ek hi soory ke anek pratibinb dikhaee dete hain. lekin sab pratibinb soory par avalnbit hain, kinbahuna sooraj se ve alag nahin hain. jis jalashay ka pani sookh jae, usamen sooraj ka pratibinb nahin padega. mano vah pratibinb apane binb men vilin ho jayega, lekin usaka binb par koee asar nahin padega. jiv ki mukti bhi isi tarike se hoti hai. avachchhedavad ke anusar jiv avidya roop upadhi se avachchhinn chaitany hi hai. isaka spashtikaran karate samay 'ghatavachchhinn akash' (ghatakash) ki upama di jati hai. ghat men hone vala akash ya math men hone vala akash mool akash se bhinn nahin hota hai. sirf ghat men hone vala akash ghat se avachchhinn yani maryadit sa lagata hai. vah akash ghat ki maryada men baddh sa mahasoos hota hai. ghat ke toot jane se aisa mahasoos hota hai ki ghatakash mool akash men vilin ho gaya. vastut: ghatakash akash hi tha. baki akash se alag hone ki jo mithya pratiti thi, vah ghat ke toot jane se door ho gayi. jo bhi farq padata hai, vah ghat men hai akash men nahin. usi prakar mukti ke samay jiv, jo vastut: brahm roop hote hue bhi alag-sa pratit hota tha, brahm roop hi hai, yah gyan ho jata hai. sirf avidya ka avachchhed nasht ho jata hai.

in do vadon men se vachaspatimishr avachchhedavad ke prabhavi pratipadak the. yadyapi pratibinbavad tatha avachchhevad donon yah pradarshit karane ke lie prastavit hue ki jiv brahm se alag nahin hai, phir bhi pratibinbavad se 'jiv brahm par ashrit hai', yah bat spasht hoti hai. 'jiv brahm roop hai', yah bat utani spasht nahin hoti, jitani avachchhedavad se spasht hoti hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. doosare kee vidvanon ke anusar bhamati vachaspati ki patni ka nam tha.
  2. lekin koee bhi vaidik ise manyata nahin dega
  3. ling vidhyarthak vaky men kriyapad se joda jane vala pratyay hai. jaise ki 'svargechchhu vyakti ygy kare' isamen 'kare' men rahane vala 'e' pratyay.
  4. isake bare men ek ullekhaniy bat yah mani jati hai ki mndanamishr ne apani 'brahmasiddhi' men sphotavad ka agrahi samarthan kiya hai, lekin usi mndanamishr ke vishvavivek ki tika men vachaspatimishr ne sphotavad ka khndan kiya hai.
  5. yahi mat naiyayikon ne svikrit kiya hai
  6. lohe men bhadakane vali ag se dhuna nahin nikalata hai
  7. dekhie daauktar hasurakar, prishth 145- 149

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