वात्स्यायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vatsyayan vishvavikhyat 'kamasootr' granth ke rachayita the jinaka samay tisari shatabdi ee.poo. mana jata hai. inaka nam 'mallanag' tha, kintu ye apane gotranam ‘vatsyayan’ ke roop men hi vikhyat hue. kamasootr men jin pradeshon ke riti-rivajon ka vishesh ullekh kiya gaya hai, unase yah anuman lagaya jata hai ki, vatsyayan pashchim athava dakshin bharat ke nivasi rahe honge. kamasootr ke antim shlok se yah janakari milati hai ki, vatsyayan brahmachari the. kamasootr kam vishayak vishv ki bejod rachana hai. pnchatntr men inhen 'vaidyakashastrgy' bataya gaya hai. madhusoodan shastri ne kamasootron ko ayurvedashastr ke antargat mana hai. vatsyayan ne prachin bharatiy vicharon ke anuroop, kam ko purusharth mana hai. at: dharm v arth ke sath hi manushy ko kam (purusharth) ki sadhana kar jitendriy banana chahie.

jivan parichay

vachaspatimishr ke anusar vatsyayan nam se prasiddh nyayabhashy ke karta ka asali nam pakshilasvaminh hai, tatha ' vatsyayan' nam pita ke nam se vyutpadit hai. vidyabhooshan ka kahana hai ki vatsyayan ka nam 'dramil' (ya dravid) tha. lekin vidyabhooshan ne dramil nam ki pushti ke lie abhidhan chintamani se jo shlok uddhrit kiya hai, usamen arthashastrakar chanaky, kamasootrakar vatsyayan tatha nyayabhashyakar vatsyayan in tinon men bhed nahin kiya gaya hai.

vatsyayan, gautam ke samakalin ya nikat anuvarti nahin the, balki anumanat:, gautam ke do tin shatakon ke bad hue. jakobi ne yah bat spasht ki hai ki nyayasootr men anuman ka vargikaran karane vala jo sootr hai[1] usake arth ka nirnay karane men vatsyayan ko kathinaee huee thi. isalie vatsyayan ne usake arth nirnay ke bare men kee paryay prastut kie the. isaka arth yah ho sakata hai ki gautam ke samay men anuman ke vargikaran ki jo parampara chali ayi thi, vah gautam ke bad khndit huee, aur vatsyayan tak apane moolaroop men pahunch n saki. is prakar gautam ko agar doosari sadi men bithaya jae, to vatsyayan ka kal chauthi ya panchavi sadi ho sakata hai. vatsyayan ke samay ke bare men vidvanon men charcha jari hai. kee vidvanon ne vatsyayan ka kal chhathi shatabdi nishchit kiya hai, to doosare kee vidvanon ne panchavi sadi. in donon maryadaon ke bich vatsyayan ka kal alag alag vidvanon ne mana hai. uparyukt saboot se vatsyayan ka kal khristottar panchavi sadi ke hi najadik pahunchata hai.

nyayabhashy

vidvanon ne yah spasht kiya hai ki patnjali ke vyakaran mahabhashy se vatsyayan achchhi tarah se parichit the, tatha mahabhashy ki shaili ka prabhav bhi nyayabhashy men drishtigochar hota hai. vindish ne mana hai ki vatsyayan ka yah nyayabhashy poornataya vatsyayan ka [2] nahin hai, balki usi men ek vartik granth chhipa hua hai. yah vartik granth prachin hai aur usaki shaili vyakaran mahabhashy ki shaili men milati hai. hamare samane aj jo nyayabhashy hai, usake rachayita ne upalabdh vartik granth ka apane hi bhashyagranth men samavesh kar diya. vatsyayan ne nyayabhashy likhate hue gautam pranit nyayadarshan ka ek vistrit chitr hamare samane rakha hai. unhonne keval gautam ka anuvad tatha vivaran hi kiya hai, aisi bat nahin hai. vivaran karate karate unhonne nyayadarshan ko age bhi badhaya hai.

vatsyayan ka yogadan

jis prakar vaisheshik darshan ke bare men ham kah sakate hain ki kanad ke sootron men jo eeshvaravad kahin nahin dikhaee deta hai, vah prashastapad ke bhashy men drishtigochar hota hai, usi prakar nyayadarshan ke bare men jo ham kah sakate hain ki eeshvaravad gautam ke nyayadarshan men kahin bhi spasht nahin hai (balki any kee pramanon se gautam eeshvaravadi nahin the, yah bhi pratit hota hai), lekin vatsyayan ke nyayabhashy men yah spasht hota hai ki vatsyayan ne nyayadarshan ko eeshvaravadi mod diya. vatsyayan ke bad nyayadarshan hamesha eeshvaravadi darshan hi raha hai. nyayasootr [3] ke vatsyayanabhashy men vatsyayan ka yah eeshvaravad spasht hua hai.

pratham yogadan

vatsyayan ke anusar is vivechan men poorvapakshi koee vedanti jaisa hai, jo eeshvar ko upadan karan manata hai. poorvapakshi manata hai ki manushy ke karmon ka phal use hamesha milata hi ho, aisi bat nahin hai, isalie usaka phal paradhin manana chahie. vah phal jisake adhin hai, vahi eeshvar hai. lekin vatsyayan uttarapaksh men kahata hai ki agar phal prapti eeshvar ke adhin hai, to manushy ke prayatn ke bina hi phal mil sakata hai. isalie phal prapti ke lie sirf eeshvar ko hi zimmedar thaharana galat hai. vastut: manushy agar prayatn karega, tabhi eeshvar use phal pradan karega. is prakar phal dene vala eeshvar to manana hi chahie, lekin use upadan karan jaisa samajhana galat hai. eeshvar jivatmaon se alag ek vishesh prakar ki atma hai. vah apt hai, tatha ham sab logon ka pita hai. vah drashta, boddha, sarvgy hai. dharm, gyan tatha samadhi is eeshvar ki snpatti hai. anima, garima adi siddhiyan is eeshvar ka aishvary hai. usamen jo 'dharm' hai, usi se jivatmaon men rahane vale dharm, adharm tatha prithvi adi mahabhoot pravritt hote hain, kriyashil hote hain.

doosara yogadan

vatsyayan ka doosara yogadan yah hai ki vatsyayan ne nyayadarshan men vaisheshik padarthon ka antarbhav karane ka prayas kiya. vatsyayan ke bad vaisheshikon ka sattashastr svikrit karane ki yah parampara bhi nyayadarshan men chal padi. dhire dhire 'nyay-vaisheshik' ek abhinn darshan hi ban gaya. gautam ke nyayasootr men ham dekhate hain ki vaisheshik darshan ka kahin par bhi nirdesh nahin hai. gautam ne apane saulah tatvon ki soochi men pramey tatv ka samavesh kiya tha. lekin yah pramey tatv vaisheshikon ke chh: padarthon se bahut hi bhinn tha. gautam ke prameyon ki soochi mokshopayogi tatvon ki soochi thi, vah 'vishv ke ghatakon ki' soochi ke roop men nahin prastut huee thi. lekin vaishikon ki padarth soochi vishv ke ghatakon ki soochi ke roop men hi prastut ki gee thi. vatsyayan ne gautam ke pramey ki yah vishisht kalpana dhyan men rakhate hue bhi vaisheshikon ki padarth soochi is pramey soochi ke sath jod di, aur kaha ki 'dravy, gun, karm, samany vishesh tatha samavay bhi pramey hain, jo gautamokt pramey se sarvatha alag nahin kie ja sakate. lekin gautamokt prameyon ke yatharth gyan se moksh hoga tatha ayatharthgyan se snsar, isalie gautam ne visheshatath inhin prameyon ka nirdesh kiya hai'. [4]

naiyayikon ki moksh kalpana ka vichar karate hue bhi vatsyayan ne vaisheshikon ka hi anusaran kiya hai. 'tadatyantatimokshoapavarg:'- is sootr ki vyakhya karate hue vatsyayan ne spasht roop se kaha hai ki 'atma ko moksh ke samay niratishay nity sukh ka anubhav hota hai, aur is prakar mukt atma sukhi hota hai', aisa kee darshanik manate hain, lekin unake mat ki pushti ke lie koee praman nahin hai. atma men nity sukh hai, lekin usaka snvedan nahin ho raha – yah snbhav nahin hai. agar sukh hai to usaka snvedan bhi avashynbhavahi hai. lekin aisa manane se snsari atma ko bhi nityasukhi manana padega tatha mukt atma aur snsari atma men 'nityasukh' ek kalpanamatr hai. nityasukh ka agar nity anubhav nahin hota to isaka arth hai, nityasukh hai hi nahin. is prakar vatsyayan manate hain ki mokshavastha men atma du:kharahit hota hai, sukhi nahin hota. vaisheshikon ka bhi yahi abhimat hai.

kamasootr ka vibhajan

vatsyayan ke kamasootr sat adhikaranon men vibhajit hain-

  1. samany
  2. sanprayogik
  3. kanyasnprayukt
  4. bharyadhikarik
  5. paradarik
  6. vaishik aur
  7. aupanishadik

vatsyayan ne apane granth men kuchh poorvacharyon ka ullekh kiya hai, jinase yah janakari milati hai ki, sarvapratham nndi ne ek hazar adhyayon ke brihadh kamashastr ki rachana ki, jise age chalakar auddaliki shvetaketu aur babhravy panchal ne kramash: snkshipt roopon men prastut kiya. vatsyayan ka kamasootr inaka adhik snkshipt roop hi hai. kamasootron se tatkalin (1700 varsh poorv ke) samaj ke riti-rivajon ki janakari bhi milati hai. 'kamasootr' par virabhadr krit 'kndarpachoodamani', bhaskaranrisinh krit 'kamasootr-tika' tatha yashodhar krit 'kndarpachoodamani' namak tikaen upalabdh hain.

vatsyayan ka vichar

achary vatsyayan se pahale bhi is vishay par granth likhe gaye the, tatha dharm, arth, kam aur moksh ki kalpana ki ja chuki hai. parantu in sab granthon ko chhodakar keval vatsyayan ke is granth ko hi mahanh shastriy darja prapt hua hai. 1870 ee. men ‘kamasootr’ ka angrezi men anuvad hua. usake bad snsar bhar ke log is granth se parichit ho ge. vatsyayan kahate hain ki, mahilaon ko 64 kalaon men pravin hona chahie. isamen keval khana pakana, sina-pirona aur sej sajana hi nahin, unhen nrity, sngit, adhyayan, rasayan, udyan kala aur kavita karane men bhi maharat hasil honi chahie. unhonne apane mahattvapoorn granth men anek asanon ke sath yah bhi bataya hai ki, kis prakar ki mahila se vivah athava prem karana chahie aur shayanagar ko kaise sajaya jana chahie tatha stri se kaise vyavahar karana chahie. ashchary is bat ka hai ki unhen is prakar ki itani baton ka gyan kaise prapt hua.

vibhinn darshanikon ke anusar

vatsyayan ne anuman praman ka jo vivaran kiya hai, usamen bhi usaki pratibha ki jhalak dikhaee deti hai. gautam ne apane sootron men hetusadhy snbndh ka [5] nirdesh bhi nahin kiya tha. gautam ke anusar shayad anuman sadhy aur drishtant men hone vale sadharmy par avalnbit hua karata tha. vatsyayan ne sirf sadharmy ya vaidharmy par adharit yukti [6] tatha lingalingisnbndh darshan ke adhar par vishesh hetu ki sahayata se kiya jane vala anuman, in donon men spasht bhed dikhane ka prayas kiya. lekin yah bhi yahan dhyan men lena zaroori hai ki vatsyayan ke anusar bhi anuman ek 'prabal samyanuman' anubhoot vishv men dekhe ge snbndh ke adhar par ananubhoot vishv ke bare men kiya jata hai. sarvatrik, sarvakalik vyapti ki kalpana hamen vatsyayan ke bhashy men nahin dikhaee deti. lekin aisa ham kah sakate hain ki is prakar ka snbndh uttarakalin tarkgyon ko sujhane ke lie vatsyayayan ke kal men anukool vatavaran taiyar hua. vatsyayan ke bhashy men jo lingalingisnbndh yani hetu sadhy snbndh charchit hai, usaki aur ek visheshata drashtavy hai. hetu sadhy snbndh ki ham is roop men apeksha rakhate hain ki 'jahan jahan hetu hai, vahan vahan sadhy hai.' jahan jahan hetu nahin hai, vahan vahan sadhy bhi nahin hona chahie- yah apeksha ham nahin rakhate. lekin vatsyayan ne anubhoot vishv men dekhe ge hetu sadhy snbndh ka jo svaroop prastut kiya, usamen donon apekshaen unhonne samavisht kin. isaka parinam yah hua ki do prakar ke suvyabhichar-dosh mane ge-hetu hain, par sadhy nahin, yah ek savyabhichar ki sthiti huee to 'sadhy hai, par hetu nahin hai', yah doosare savyabhichar ki sthiti huee. bad men naiyayik tatha bauddh tarkgyon ne yah spasht roop se mana ki in donon men se pahali sthiti asali savyabhichar ki hai, doosari nahin.

anuman ka vivechan karate samay vatsyayan ne aur ek chamatkarapoorn vichar prakat kiya hai. gautam ne char praman mane the- pratyaksh, anuman, upaman tatha shabd. jab anuman ko shabdon se prakat kiya jata hai to naiyayikon ke anusar vah pnchavayavi vaky ke roop men hota hai. pahale pratigya ki jati hai, yani sadhy ka kathan kiya jata hai. usake bad hetu pradarshit kiya jata hai. usake bad drishtant ka kathan kiya jata hai. usake bad upanay vaky ke sahare drishtant aur paksh men paraspar samarthy ya vaidharmy pratipadit kiya jata hai aur ant men nigaman vaky men sadhy ka nishkarsh ke roop men pun: kathan kiya jata hai. isaka varnan karate samay vatsyayan kahate hain ki in panch avayavon men se pahale char avayavon men char pramanon ka upayog kiya jata hai, tatha panchaven nigaman namak avayav men in charon pramanon ka snkalit nishkarsh nikala jata hai.

pratigyavasy shabd praman hai, kyonki vah apt (anuman) ka yatharth vaky hai. hetu vaky anuman praman hai, jo 'pratyakshapoorvak' hai (gautam ne anuman ko 'tatpoorvak' yani 'pratyakshapoorvak' kaha hai). drishtant vaky pratyaksh praman ka dyotak hai, kyonki drishtant 'drisht', pratyaksh ka vishay hota hai. upanay men drishtant tatha sadhy men hone vala sadharmy ya vaidharmy dikhaya jata hai, isalie upanay upaman praman hi hai aur nigaman men in charon pramanon ke anyony snbndh se nikalane vala nishkarsh hota hai. nigaman se soochit hota hai ki antimat: in sab pramanon ka vishay ek hi hai, aur vah hai sadhy. is sare kathan ka tatpary yah pratit hota hai ki svarthanuman aur pararthanuman men yah ek spasht bhed hai ki svarthanuman yadyapi shuddh yap se anuman hi hai, tathapi is shuddh anuman ke samarthan ke lie shabd jaise any pramanon ka bhi sahara lena zaroori hota hai.

vatsyayan ke avayav

is pnchavayavi ka varnan karate samay vatsyayan ne dashavayavi vaky ka bhi nirdesh kiya hai. vatsyayan ke anusar kee naiyayik in panch avayavon ke alava aur bhi panch avayav manate the, jo the- jigyasa, snshay, shaky prapti prayojan aur snshayavyudas. hainblin ne apane 'fallacies' namak granth men [7] is dashavayavi ka nirdesh karate hue soochit kiya hai ki yah dashavayavi pararthanuman ek snvad ke roop men prastut karata hai-

  • a-(pratigya)- yah parvat agniyukt hai.
  • b-(jigyasa)- kaise.
  • a-(hetu)- kyonki parvat dhoomayukt hai.
  • b-(snshay)- lekin kya isase sadhy siddh hoga.
  • a-(drishtant)- ji han. kyonki im pakashala men bhi dhoom aur vahani ek jagah par dekhate hain.
  • b-(shaky prapti)- han, ab jara sadhy ki snbhavana dikhane lagi.
  • a-(upanay)- aur parvat par to ham dhoom dekh hi rahe hain.
  • b-(prayojan)- ji han, lagata hai, ham uddeshy ki or badh rahe hain.
  • a-(nigaman)- to isalie parvat agniyukt hai.
  • b-(snshayavyudas)- ab mera snshay door ho gaya.

yadyapi hainblin ke is drishtikon men (visheshat: shaky prapti tatha prayojan ke spashtikaran men) asvabhavikata mahasoos hoti hai, phir bhi yah spashtikaran vastavikata ke bahut najadik ata hai. yah spasht hai ki akshapad ka jo nyayasootr granth aj upalabdh hai, usamen kee sootron men bauddhadarshan ke vicharon ki charcha ki gee hai. kee vidvanon ke anusar yah sootr pahale nyayasootr men nahin the, par ve bad men, shayad vatsyayan ke hi samay nyayasootr men pravisht kiye ge. in sootron par bhashy karate hue vatsyayan ne bhi kee muddon par prakash dala hai. madhyamik bauddh manate hain ki hrasv, dirgh adi sapeksh kalpanayen hone se svabhavat: kuchh bhi hrasv ya dirgh nahin hai. is prakar ve kahate hain ki antimat: vastuon ka kuchh svabhav hi nahin hota. is mat ka khndan karate hue vatsyayan kahate hain ki hrasv ki apeksha dirgh hai aur dirgh ki apeksha hrasv hai- yah anyonyashray hoga. agar hrasvatv dirghatv adi svabhavik nahin hai, to saman lambaee ki do vastuen bhi hrasv tatha dirgh kyon n kahi jaen. doosari bat yah hai ki agar do dravy vidyaman hai, tabhi unamen se ek hrasv tatha doosara dirgh ho sakata hai. agar do dravy hain, to donon ka koee n koee svabhav bhi hona chahie. is prakar vatsyayan ne shoonyavad ka khndan karane ka prayas kiya hai. isake sath sath sara gyan mithya hai[8], 'sarv kshanik hai' [9] siddhant bhi, jinaka vatsyayan ne vistrit vivechan tatha khndan kiya hai, bauddhon ke hi siddhant hain. is prakar bauddhon ko pradhan pratipaksh samajhane ki nyay ki parampara shayad vatsyayan se hi shuroo hoti hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (tatvapoorvakn trividh-manumann poorvavath sheshavath namanyatodrishtn ch)
  2. ya kisi ek karta ka
  3. 4.1.19.21
  4. dekhie, nyayabhashy, 1.1.9 sootr sootrapar
  5. lingalingisnbndh ka
  6. jise vatsyayan ne jati ki koti men dal diya
  7. prishth 179
  8. nyayasootr 4.2.24.27
  9. nyayasootr 3.2.11

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah