विक्रम संवत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vikram snvat
nav snvatsar (vikrami)
vivaran 'vikram snvat' atynt prachin snvat hai. bharat ke sanskritik itihas ki drishti se sarvadhik lokapriy rashtriy snvat 'vikram snvat' hi hai.
arambhakarta samrat chndragupt vikramadity
shuruat lagabhag 2,068 varsh yani 57 eesa poorv men chaitr shukl pratipada tithi se
pauranik mahattv puranon ke anusar chaitr mas ke shukl paksh ki pratipada ko brahma ne srishti nirman kiya tha, isalie is pavan tithi ko 'nav snvatsar' parv ke roop men bhi manaya jata hai.
shastriy manyata shastriy manyatanusar chaitr shukl pratipada ki tithi ke din prat: kal snan adi se shuddh hokar hath men gndh, akshat, pushp aur jal lekar om bhoorbhuv: sv: snvatsar- adhipati avahayami poojayami ch is mntr se nav snvatsar ki pooja karani chahie.
vishesh chndragupt vikramadity ne desh ke sampoorn rin ko, chahe vah jis vyakti ka bhi raha ho, svayn chukakar 'vikram snvat' ki shuruat ki thi.
any janakari samrat chndragupt vikramadity ne deshavasiyon ko shakon ke atyachari shasan se mukt kiya tha. usi vijay ki smriti men chaitr mah ke shukl paksh ki pratipada se 'vikram snvat' ka arambh hua tha.

vikram snvat (angrezi: Vikram Samvat) atyant prachin snvat hai. sath hi ye ganit ki drishti se atyant sugam aur sarvatha thik hisab rakhakar nishchit kiye gaye hai. kisi navin 'snvat' ko chalane ki shastriy vidhi yah hai ki jis naresh ko apana snvat chalana ho, use snvat chalane ke din se poorv kam-se-kam apane poore rajy men jitane bhi log kisi ke rini hon, unaka rin apani or se chuka dena chahiye. 'vikram snvat' ka praneta samrat vikramadity ko mana jata hai. kalidas is maharaja ke ek ratn mane jate hain. kahana nahin hoga ki bharat ke bahar is niyam ka kahin palan nahin hua. bharat men bhi mahapurushon ke snvat unake anuyayiyon ne shraddhavash hi chalaye; lekin bharat ka sarvamany snvat 'vikram snvat' hi hai aur maharaj vikramadity ne desh ke sampoorn rin ko, chahe vah jis vyakti ka raha ho, svayn dekar ise chalaya. is snvat ke mahinon ke nam videshi snvaton ki bhanti devata, manushy ya snkhyavachak kritrim nam nahin hain. yahi bat tithi tatha ansh (dinank) ke sambandh men bhi hai, ve bhi soory-chandr ki gati par ashrit hain. saransh yah ki yah snvat apane ang-upangon ke sath poornat: vaigyanik saty par sthit hai. inhen bhi dekhen: pnchang, rashtriy shake evn hijari snvat

shastron v shilalekhon men ullekh

'vikram snvat' ke udbhav evn prayog ke vishay men kuchh kahana kathin hai. yahi bat 'shak snvat' ke vishay men bhi hai. kisi vikramadity raja ke vishay men, jo ee. poo. 57 men tha, sandeh prakat kie ge hain. is snvat ka arambh gujarat men kartik shukl pratipada se (navambar, ee. poo. 58) aur uttari bharat men chaitr krishn pratipada (aprail, ee. poo. 58) se mana jata hai. bita hua vikram varsh eesvi san+57 ke barabar hai. kuchh arambhik shilalekhon men ye varsh krit ke nam se aye hain[1].

vidvan matabhed

vikram snvat ke prarambh ke vishay men bhi vidvanon men matabhed hain. kuchh log eesavi san 78 aur kuchh log eesavi san 544 men isaka prarambh manate hain. farasi grnth 'kalitau dimanah' men pnchatntr ka ek pady 'shashidivakar yorgrahapidanamsh' ka bhav uddhrit hai. vidvanon ne samanyatah 'krit snvat' ko 'vikram snvat' ka poorvavarti mana hai. kintu 'krit' shabd ke prayog ki vyakhya santoshajanak nahin ki ja saki hai. kuchh shilalekhon men maval-gan ka snvat ullikhit hai, jaise- naravarma ka mandasaur shilalekh. 'krit' evn 'malav' snvat ek hi kahe ge hain, kyonki donon poorvi rajasthan evn pashchimi malava men prayog men laye gaye hain. krit ke 282 evn 295 varsh to milate hain, kintu malav snvat ke itane prachin shilalekh nahin milate. yah bhi sambhav hai ki krit nam purana hai aur jab malavon ne use apana liya to vah 'malav-ganamnat' ya 'malav-gan-sthiti' ke nam se pukara jane laga. kintu yah kaha ja sakata hai ki yadi krit evn malav donon bad men ane vale vikram snvat ki or hi snket karate hain, to donon ek sath hi lagabhag ek sau varshon tak prayog men ate rahe, kyonki hamen 480 krit varsh evn 461 malav varsh prapt hote hain.

yah manana kathin hai ki krit snvat ka prayog kritayug ke arambh se hua. yah sambhav hai ki 'krit' ka vahi arth hai jo 'siddh' ka hai, jaise- 'kritant' ka arth hai 'siddhant' aur yah snket karata hai ki yah kuchh logon ki sahamati se pratishthapit hua hai. 8vin evn 9vin shati se vikram snvat ka nam vishisht roop se milata hai. snskrit ke jyoti:shastriy grnthon men yah shak snvat se bhinnata pradarshit karane ke lie yah samanyatah keval snvat nam se prayog kiya gaya hai. 'chaluky vikramadity shashth' ke 'vedarave shilalekh' se pata chalata hai ki raja ne shak snvat ke sthan par 'chaluky vikram snvat' chalaya, jisaka pratham varsh tha - 1076-77 ee..

nav snvatsar

'vikram snvat 2075' ka shubharambh 18 march, san 2018 ko chaitr mah ke shukl paksh ki pratipada se hai. puranon ke anusar chaitr mas ke shukl paksh ki pratipada ko brahma ne srishti nirman kiya tha, isalie is pavan tithi ko nav snvatsar parv ke roop men bhi manaya jata hai. snvatsar-chakr ke anusar soory is ritu men apane rashi-chakr ki pratham rashi mesh men pravesh karata hai. bharatavarsh men vasnt ritu ke avasar par nootan varsh ka arambh manana isalie bhi harshollasapoorn hai, kyonki is ritu men charon or hariyali rahati hai tatha navin patr-pushpon dvara prakriti ka nav shrringar kiya jata hai. log navavarsh ka svagat karane ke lie apane ghar-dvar sajate hain tatha navin vastrabhooshan dharan karake jyotishachary dvara nootan varsh ka snvatsar phal sunate hain.

shastriy manyata ke anusar chaitr shukl pratipada ki tithi ke din prat: kal snan adi ke dvara shuddh hokar hath men gndh, akshat, pushp aur jal lekar om bhoorbhuv: sv: snvatsar- adhipati avahayami poojayami ch is mntr se nav snvatsar ki pooja karani chahie tatha navavarsh ke ashubh phalon ke nivaran hetu brahma ji se prarthana karani chahie ki 'he bhagavan! apaki kripa se mera yah varsh kalyanakari ho aur is snvatsar ke madhy men ane vale sabhi anisht aur vighn shant ho jaen.' nav snvatsar ke din nim ke komal patton aur ritukal ke pushpon ka choorn banakar usamen kali mirch, namak, hing, jira, mishri, imali aur ajavayan milakar khane se rakt vikar adi sharirik rog shant rahate hain aur poore varsh svasthy thik rahata hai.

rashtriy snvat

hindoo narv varsh

bharatavarsh men is samay deshi videshi mool ke anek snvaton ka prachalan hai, kintu bharat ke sanskritik itihas ki drishti se sarvadhik lokapriy rashtriy snvat yadi koee hai to vah 'vikram snvat' hi hai. aj se lagabhag 2,068 varsh yani 57 eesa poorv men bharatavarsh ke pratapi raja vikramadity ne deshavasiyon ko shakon ke atyachari shasan se mukt kiya tha. usi vijay ki smriti men chaitr mah ke shukl paksh ki pratipada tithi se vikram snvat ka bhi arambh hua tha.

naye snvat ki shuruat

prachin kal men naya snvat chalane se pahale vijayi raja ko apane rajy men rahane vale sabhi logon ko rin-mukt karana avashyak hota tha. raja vikramadity ne bhi isi parampara ka palan karate hue apane rajy men rahane vale sabhi nagarikon ka rajyakosh se karz chukaya aur usake bad chaitr shukl pratipada se malavagan ke nam se naya snvat chalaya. bharatiy kalaganana ke anusar vasnt ritu aur chaitr shukl pratipada ki tithi ati prachin kal se srishti prakriya ki bhi puny tithi rahi hai. vasnt ritu men ane vale vasntik 'navaratr' ka prarambh bhi sada isi puny tithi se hota hai. vikramadity ne bharat ki in tamam kalagananaparak sanskritik paramparaon ko dhyan men rakhate hue hi chaitr shukl pratipada ki tithi se hi apane navasnvatsar snvat ko chalane ki parampara shuroo ki thi aur tabhi se samoocha bharat is puny tithi ka prativarsh abhivndan karata hai.

darasal, bharatiy parampara men chakravarti raja vikramadity shaury, parakram tatha prajahitaishi karyon ke lie prasiddh mane jate hain. unhonne 95 shak rajaon ko parajit karake bharat ko videshi rajaon ki dasata se mukt kiya tha. raja vikramadity ke pas ek aisi shaktishali vishal sena thi, jisase videshi akramanakari sada bhayabhit rahate the. gyan-vigyan, sahity, kala snskriti ko vikramadity ne vishesh protsahan diya tha. dhnvntari jaise mahanh vaidy, varahamihir jaise mahanh jyotishi aur kalidas jaise mahanh sahityakar vikramadity ki rajyasabha ke navaratnon men shobha pate the. prajavatsal nitiyon ke phalasvaroop hi vikramadity ne apane rajyakosh se dhan dekar din du:khiyon ko sahookaron ke karz se mukt kiya tha. ek chakravarti samrat hone ke bad bhi vikramadity rajasi aishvary bhog ko tyagakar bhoomi par shayan karate the. ve apane sukh ke lie rajyakosh se dhan nahin lete the.

rashtr ki sanskritik pahachan

pichhale do hazar varshon men anek deshi aur videshi rajaon ne apani samrajyavadi akankshaon ki tushti karane tatha is desh ko rajanitik ddashti se paradhin banane ke prayojan se anek snvaton ko chalaya kintu bharat rashtr ki sanskritik pahachan keval vikrami snvat ke sath hi judi rahi. angrezi shiksha-diksha aur pashchimi snskriti ke prabhav ke karan aj bhale hi sarvatr eesvi snvat ka bolabala ho aur bharatiy tithi-mason ki kal ganana se log anabhigy hote ja rahe hon parntu vastavikata yah bhi hai ki desh ke sanskritik parv-utsav tatha ram, krishn, buddh, mahavir, guru nanak adi mahapurushon ki jayntiyan aj bhi bharatiy kal ganana ke hisab se hi manaee jati hain, eesvi snvat ke anusar nahin. vivah-mundan ka shubh muhoort ho ya shraddh-tarpan adi samajik karyon ka anushthan, ye sab bharatiy pnchang paddhati ke anusar hi kiya jata hai, eesvi sanh ki tithiyon ke anusar nahin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nand-yoop shilalekh men 282 krit varsh; tin yoopon ke maukhari shilalekhon men 295 krit varsh; vijayagadh stambh-abhilekh men 428; mandasaur men 461 tatha gadadhar men 480

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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