विश्व जैव विविधता दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vishv jaiv vividhata divas
vishv jaiv vividhata divas
vivaran 'vishv jaiv vividhata divas' ek antararashtriy parv hai. jaiv vividhata sabhi jivon evn paristhitiki tntron ki vibhinnata evn asamanata ko kaha jata hai.
tithi 22 mee
prarambhakarta snyukt rashtr sngh
paribhasha "dharataliy, mahasagariy evn any jaliy paristhitikiy tntron men upasthit athava usase snbndhit tntron men pae jane vale jivon ke bich vibhinnata jaivavividhata hai."
any janakari vishv ke samriddhatam jaiv vividhata vale 17 deshon men bharat bhi sammilit hai, jinamen vishv ki lagabhag 70 pratishat jaiv vividhata vidyaman hai. vishv ke kul 25 jaiv vividhata ke sakriy kendron men se do kshetr poorvi himalay aur pashchimi ghat, bharat men hai.

vishv jaiv vividhata divas athava vishv jaiv vividhata snrakshan divas (angrezi: International Day for Biological Diversity) prativarsh sampoorn vishv men '22 mee' ko manaya jata hai. yah ek antararashtriy parv hai. ise snyukt rashtr sngh ne prarnbh kiya tha. jaiv vividhata sabhi jivon evn paristhitiki tntron ki vibhinnata evn asamanata ko kaha jata hai. 1992 men brazil ke riyo di jeneriyo men hue jaiv vividhata sammelan ke anusar jaiv vividhata ki paribhasha is prakar haiah- "dharataliy, mahasagariy evn any jaliy paristhitikiy tntron men upasthit athava usase snbndhit tntron men pae jane vale jivon ke bich vibhinnata jaivavividhata hai."[1]

mahattv

jivan men jaiv vividhata ka kafi mahatv hai. hamen ek aise paryavaran ka nirman karana hai, jo jaiv vividhata men samriddh, tikaoo aur arthik gatividhiyon ke lie avasar pradan kar sake. jaiv vividhata ke kami hone se prakritik apada, jaise- badh, sookha aur toofan adi ane ka khatara aur adhik badh jata hai. at: hamare lie jaiv vividhata ka snrakshan bahut zaroori hai. lakhon vishisht jaivik aur kee prajatiyon ke roop men prithvi par jivan upasthit hai aur hamara jivan prakriti ka anupam upahar hai. at: ped-paudhe, anek prakar ke jiv-jntu, mitti, hava, pani, mahasagar, pathar, samudr, nadiyan in sabhi prakriti ki den ka hamen snrakshan karana chahie, kyonki yahi hamare astitv evn vikas ke lie kam ati hai.

prakritik evn paryavaran sntulan banae rakhane men jaiv vividhata ka mahatv dekhate hue hi jaiv vividhata divas ko antararashtriy divas ke roop men manane ka nirnay liya gaya. nairobi men 29 disnbar, 1992 ko hue jaiv vividhata sammelan men yah nirnay liya gaya tha, kintu kee deshon dvara vyavaharik kathinaiyan jahir karane ke karan is din ko 29 mee ki bajay 22 mee ko manane ka nirnay liya gaya. isamen vishesh taur par vanon ki suraksha, snskriti, jivan ke kala shilp, sngit, vastr-bhojan, aushadhiy paudhon ka mahatv adi ko pradarshit karake jaiv vividhata ke mahatv evn usake n hone par hone vale khataron ke bare men jagarook karana hai.[2]

jaiv vividhata ka snrakshan aur usaka tikaoo upayog, paristhitik roop se tikaoo vikas ke liye mahatvapoorn hai. vibhinn prakar ke jivon ki apani alag-alag bhoomika hai, jo prakriti ko sntulit rakhane tatha hamare jivan ki moolabhoot avashyakataon ko poorn karane, tatha satath vikas ke liye snsadhan pradan karane men apana yogadan karati hai. jaiv vividhata ka vanijyik mahatv, bhojan, aushadhiyan, eendhan, audyogik kachcha mal, resham, chamada, oon adi se ham sab parichit hain. isake paristhitiki mahatv ke roop men khady shrrinkhala, mrida ki urvarata ko banaye rakhana, jaivik roop se sadi-gali chijon ka nipatan, bhoo-ksharan ko rokane, registan ka prasar rokane, prakritik saundary ko badhane evn paristhitiki sntulan banaye rakhane men ke roop men dekha ja sakati hai. isake alava jaiv vividhata ka samajik, naitik tatha any pratyaksh evn apratyaksh mahatv hai, jo hamare liye mahatvapoorn hai.[3]

jaiv vividhata vale desh

vishv ke samriddhatam jaiv vividhata vale 17 deshon men bharat bhi sammilit hai, jinamen vishv ki lagabhag 70 pratishat jaiv vividhata vidyaman hai. any 16 desh hain- aaustreliya, kango, medagaskar, dakshin afrika, chin, indoneshiya, maleshiya, papua nyoo gini, philipins, brazil, kolambiya, ikvedor, meksiko, peroo, amerika aur venejuela. snpoorn vishv ka keval 2.4 pratishat bhag hi bharat men hai, lekin yahan vishv ke gyat jiv jntuon ka lagabhag 5 pratishat bhag nivas karata hai. 'bharatiy vanaspati sarvekshan' evn 'bharatiy prani sarvekshan' dvara kiye gaye sarvekshanon ke anusar bharat men lagabhag 49,000 vanaspati prajatiyan evn 89,000 prani prajatiyan paee jati hain. bharat vishv men vanaspati-vividhata ke adhar par dasaven, kshetr simit prajatiyon ke adhar par gyarahaven aur phasalon ke udbhav tatha vividhata ke adhar par chhathaven sthan par hai.

vishv ke kul 25 jaiv vividhata ke sakriy kendron men se do kshetr poorvi himalay aur pashchimi ghat, bharat men hai. jaiv vividhata ke sakriy kshetr vah hain, jahan vibhinn prajatiyon ki samriddhata hai aur ye prajatiyan us kshetr tak simit hain. bharat men 450 prajatiyon ko snkatagrast athava vilupt hone ki kagar par darj kiya gaya hai. lagabhag 150 stanadhari evn 150 pakshiyon ka astitv khatare men hai, aur kiton ki anek prajatiyan vilupt hone ki kagar par hain. ye ankade jaiv vividhata par nirntar badhate khatare ki or snket karate hain. yadi yahi dar bani rahi to varsh 2050 tak ham ek tihaee se jyada jaiv vividhata kho sakate hain. jaiv vividhata ko kee karanon se nukasan ho raha hai. isamen mukhy hai, avas ki kami, avas vikhndan evn pradooshan, prakritik evn manavajany apadayen, jalavayu parivartan, adhunik kheti, janasnkhya vriddhi, shikar aur udyog evn shaharon ka phailav. any karanon men samajik evn arthik badalav, bhoo-upayog parivartan, khady shrrinkhala men ho rahe parivartan, tatha jivon ki prajanan kshamata men kami ityadi hai. jaiv vividhata ka snrakshan karana manavajivan ke astitv ke liye avashyak hai.[3]

prakar

jaiv vividhata se prakriti men maujood jivon aur paristhitikiy tntr ke antarsnbndhon ki janakari milati hai. jaiv vividhata se jiv, prajati evn upayogi paristhitik tntr ke bich apasi snbndh hamen kee mahatvapoorn utpad dete hain, kyonki jin, prajatiyon ke ghatak hain, prajatiyan paristhitik tntr ki. jaiv vividhata tin prakar ki hoti hai-

  1. ek hi prajati ke jivon men hone vali vividhataon ko anuvanshik vividhata.
  2. prajati vividhata, jisamen ek hi prajati ke jiv ek doosare se kafi samanata rakhate hain.
  3. paristhitiki vividhata, jo avas evn jaiv samudaon ke antar ko pradarshit karati hai.


is tarah jaiv vividhata ki ikaeeyan anuvanshik star se kisi kshetr vishesh ke samuday aur bayom men paee jane vali vividhata tak phaili huee hai. bayom jivamndal ki aisi samudayik eekaee hai, jo sthaliy jalavayu dvara niyntrit hoti hai tatha jisamen nishchit prakar ke jntuon evn vanaspatiyon ki pradhanata hoti hai. jaiv vividhata ka hamare jivan men kafi mahatv hai. aisa paryavaran jo jaiv vividhata men samriddh hai, tikaoo arthik gatividhiyon ke lie, vikalpon ke sabase vrihad avasar pradan karati hai. jaiv vividhata ke hrias se prayah paritntr ki utpadakata kam ho jati hai, jisake karan vibhinn vastuon aur sevaon ko pradan karane snbndhi unaki kshamata bhi kam ho jati hai. jinaka ham lagatar upabhog karate hain. isase paritntr men asthirata ati hai aur prakritik apadaon jaise badh, sookha aur toofan evn manav janit dabavon jaise pradooshan aur jalavayu parivartan se ladane ki kshamata bhi kam ho jati hai.

bharat ki jaiv vividhata

vishv ke barah chinhit mega bayodaivarsiti kendron men se bharat ek hai. vishv ke 18 chinhit bayolajikal hat spat men se bharat men do poorvi himalay aur pashchimi ghat hain. bharat sarakar ne desh bhar men 18 bayosphiyar bhndar sthapit kiye hain jo jiv jntuon ke prakritik bhoo-bhag ki raksha karate hain aur akasar arthik upayogon ke lie sthapit baphar jonon ke sath ek ya jyada rashtriy udyan aur abhyarany ko snrakshit rakhane ka kam karate hain.

jaiv vividhata adhiniyam, 2002

jaivavividhata adhiniyam, 2002 bharat men jaivavividhata ke snrakshan ke lie snsad dvara parit ek snghiy kanoon hai. jo parnparagat jaivik snsadhanon aur gyan ke upayog se hone vale labhon ke saman vitaran ke lie ek tntr pradan karata hai. rashtriy jaiv vividhata pradhikaran (enabie) ki sthapana 2003 men 'jaiv vividhata adhiniyam, 2002' ko lagoo karane ke lie ki gee thi. enabie ek sanvidhik, svayat snstha hai. yah snstha jaivik snsadhanon ke sath-sath unake satat upayog se hone vale labh ki nishpakshata aur saman batavare jaise muddon par bharat sarakar ke lie salahakar aur viniyamak ki bhoomika nibhati hai.

rebij aur giddh

pakshiyon ki drishti se bharat ka sthan duniya ke das pramukh deshon men ata hai. bharatiy up mahadvip men pakshiyon ki 176 prajatiyan paee jati hain. duniya bhar men pae jane vale 1235 prajatiyon ke pakshi bharat men hain, jo vishv ke pakshiyon ka 14 pratishat hai. gndagi saph karane men kaua aur giddh pramukh hain. giddh shaharon hi nahin, jngalon se khatm ho ge. 99 pratishat log nahin janate ki giddhon ke n rahane se hamane kya khoya. 1997 men rebij se poori duniya ke 50 hajar log mar ge. bharat men sabase jyada 30 hajar mare. akhir kyon mare rebij se, ek prashn utha. stenaphort vishv vidyalay ke shodhakartaon ne apane adhyayan men paya ki aisa giddhon ki snkhya men achanak kami ke karan hua. vahin doosari taraph choohon aur kutton ki snkhya men ekaek vriddhi huee. adhyayan men bataya gaya ki pakshiyon ke khatm hone se mrit pashuon ki saphaee, bijon ka prakinan aur paragan bhi kafi had tak prabhavit hua. amerika jaisa desh apane yahan ke chamagadadon ko snrakshit karane men juta pada hai. ab ham sochate hain ki chamagadad to poori tarah bekar hain. magar vaigyanik jagarook kara rahe hain. chamagadad machchharon ke larva khata hai. yah ratrichar paragan karane vala pramukh pakshi hai. ulloo se kya phayada, magar kisan janate hain ki vah kheti ka mitr hai, jisaka mukhy bhojan chooha hai.[4]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. antararashtriy jaiv vividhata divas (hindi) hindi.drishtiias.com. abhigaman tithi: 12 navambar, 2016.
  2. kyon manaya jata hai antararashtriy jaiv vividhata divas (hindi) dothebest.in. abhigaman tithi: 12 navambar, 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 antarrashtriy jaiv vividhata divas - 22 mee, 2014 (hindi) mpinfo.org. abhigaman tithi: 12 navambar, 2016.
  4. antarrashtriy jaiv vividhata divas - 22 mee, 2014 (hindi) mpinfo.org. abhigaman tithi: 12 navambar, 2016.

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