वृंदावनलाल वर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vrindavanalal varma
Vrindavan-Lal-Verma.jpg
poora nam vrindavanalal varma
janm 9 janavari, 1889
janm bhoomi mooranipur, jhansi (uttar pradesh)
mrityu 23 faravari, 1969
abhibhavak ayodhya prasad (pita)
karm bhoomi uttar pradesh
karm-kshetr upanyasakar evn nibndhakar
mukhy rachanaen 'gadh kundar', 'lagan', 'musahib joo', 'kabhi n kabhi', 'jhansi ki rani', 'kachanar' adi.
vishay aitihasik, samajik
bhasha hindi, bundelakhandi
shiksha bi.e.
puraskar-upadhi sahity puraskar, di. lit.
nagarikata bharatiy
adyatan‎
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

vrindavanalal varma (angrezi: Vrindavan Lal Verma, janm: 9 janavari, 1889; mrityu: 23 faravari, 1969) aitihasik upanyasakar evn nibndhakar the. inaka janm mooranipur, jhansi (uttar pradesh) men hua tha. inake pita ka nam ayodhya prasad tha. vrindavanalal varma ji ke vidya-guru svargiy pandit vidyadhar dikshit the.

jivan parichay

vrindavanalal varma ki pauranik tatha aitihasik kathaon ke prati bachapan se hi ruchi thi. inaki prarambhik shiksha bhinn-bhinn sthanon par huee. bi.e. karane ke pashchath inhonne qanoon ki pariksha pas ki aur jhansi men vakalat karane lage. inamen lekhan ki pravritti arambh se hi rahi hai. jab navin shreni men the, tabhi inhonne tin chhote-chhote natak likhakar indiyan pres, prayag ko bheje aur puraskar svaroop 50 rupaye prapt kiye. 'mahatma buddh ka jivan-charit' namak maulik granth tatha sheksapiyar ke 'tempest' ka anuvad bhi inhonne prastut kiya tha.

sahityik jivan

1909 ee. men vrindavanalal varma ji ka 'senapati oodal' namak natak chhapa, jise sarakar ne jabt kar liya. 1920 ee. tak yah chhoti-chhoti kahaniyan likhate rahe. inhonne 1921 se nibandh likhana prarambh kiya. skat ke upanyason ka inhonne svechchhapoorvak adhyayan kiya aur usase ye prabhavit hue. aitihasik upanyas likhane ki prerana inhen skat se hi mili. deshi-videshi any upanyas-sahity ka bhi inhonne yathesht adhyayan kiya.

vrindavanalal varma ji ne sanh 1927 ee. men 'gadh kundar' do mahine men likha. usi varsh 'lagan', 'sngam', 'pratyagat', kundali chakr', 'prem ki bhent' tatha 'hriday ki hilor' bhi likha. 1930 ee. men 'virat ki padmini' likhane ke pashchath kee varshon tak inaka lekhan sthagit raha. inhonne 1939 ee. men dhire-dhire vyngy tatha 1942-44 ee. men 'kabhi n kabhi', 'musahib jri' upanyas likha. 1946 ee. men inaka prasiddh upanyas 'jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee' prakashit hua. tab se inaki kalam avadh roop se chalati rahi. 'jhansi ki rani' ke bad inhonne 'kachanar', 'mriganayani', 'toote kanten', 'ahilyabaee', 'bhuvan vikram', 'achal mera koee' adi upanyason aur 'hnsamayoor', 'poorv ki or', 'lalit vikram', 'rakhi ki laj' adi natakon ka pranayan kiya. 'dabe panv', 'sharanagat', 'kalakar dand' adi kahanisngrah bhi is bich prakashit ho chuke hain.

puraskar v upadhi

vrindavanalal varma ji bharat sarakar, rajy sarakar, uttar pradesh, madhy pradesh rajy ke sahity puraskar tatha dalamiya sahityakar snsad, hindustani akadami, prayag (uttar pradesh) aur nagari pracharini sabha, kashi ke sarvottam puraskaron se sammanit kiye gaye hain. apani sahityik sevaon ke lie vrindavanalal varma ji agara vishvavidyalay dvara di. lit. ki upadhi se sammanit kiye gaye. inaki anek rachanaon ko kendriy evn prantiy rajyon ne puraskrit kiya hai.

kritiyan

mriganayani

vrindavanalal varma ji ki itihas, kala, puratattv, manovigyan, sahity, chitrakala evn moortikala men vishesh ruchi hai. inaki pramukh kritiyan is prakar hai-

natak
  • 'dhire-dhire'
  • 'rakhi ki laj'
  • 'sagun'
  • 'jahandarashah'
  • 'phoolon ki boli'
  • 'bans ki phans'
  • 'kashmir ka kanta'
  • 'hnsamayoor'
  • 'rani lakshmibaee'
  • 'birabal'
  • 'khilaune ki khoj'
  • 'poorv ki or'
  • 'kaner'
  • 'pile hath'
  • 'nilakanth'
  • 'kevat'
  • 'lalit vikram'
  • 'nistar'
  • 'mngalasootr'
  • 'lo bhaee pnchon lo'
  • 'dekhadekhi'
kahani sngrah
  • 'dabe panb'
  • 'medhak ka byah'
  • 'ambapur ke amar vir'
  • 'aitihasik kahaniyan'
  • 'angoothi ka dan'
  • 'sharanagat'
  • 'kalakar ka dand'
  • 'toshi'
nibandh
  • 'hriday ki hilor'
upanyas
  • 'gadh kundar' (1930 ee.)
  • 'lagan', (1928 ee.)
  • 'sngam' (1928 ee.)
  • 'pratyagat' (1927 ee.)
  • 'kundalichakr' (1932 ee.)
  • 'prem ki bhent' (1928 ee.)
  • 'virat ki padmini' (1936 ee)
  • 'musahib joo' (1946 ee.)
  • 'kabhi n kabhi' (1945 ee.)
  • 'jhansi ki rani' (1946 ee.)
  • 'kachanar' (1947 ee.)
  • 'achal mera koee' (1948 ee.)
  • 'madhavaji sindhiya' (1957 ee.)
  • 'toote kanten' (1945 ee.)
  • 'mriganayani' (1950 ee.)
  • 'sona' (1952 ee.)
  • 'amaravel' (1953 ee.)
  • 'bhuvan vikram' (1957 ee.)
  • 'ahilyabaee'.

mukhy upanyas

kachanar

kachanar

'kachanar' upanyas itihas aur parampara par adharit hai. is upanyas ki prishthabhoomi aitihasik hai, ghatanaen bhi saty hain. kintu samay aur sthan men aitihasikata ka agrah nahin hai. isamen ek sadharan nari kachanar ke satat sngharshashil tatha snyamit jivan ka chitran hai. sath hi durvyavasanagrast gusaiyon ki hin dasha ka bhi chitr prastut kiya gaya hai. kathanak ka kendr dhamoni hai, jo ek samay rajagondon ki riyasat thi. kachanar ki kahani ke sath hi rajagondon ki kahani kahane ka bhi lekhak ka uddeshy hai.

mriganayani

'mriganayani' lekhak ki sarvashreshth rachana mani jati hai. isamen 15vin shati ke ant ke gvaliyar rajy ke manasinh tomar tatha unaki rani mriganayani ki katha hai.

any upakathaen

inaki any upakathaen bhi sath men hain, jaise lakhi aur atal ki katha. isamen kathanak, charitr-chitran, desh-kal evn vatavaran ka chitran sab kuchh ek sajag kalatmakata se sampann hua hai. sath hi 15vin shati ki rajanitik paristhiti ka chitran bhi kushalata se kiya gaya hai. 'toote kanten' men ek sadharan jat mohan lal tatha usaki parivarik sthiti ke chitran ke sath prasiddh nartaki noorabaee ke utthan-patanamay jivan ka bhi chitran kiya gaya hai. mohanalal tatha noorabaee ke jivan ke parivarshv men hi 18vin shati ke rajanitik, sanskritik evn samajik jivan ka digdarshan in upanyason men karaya gaya hai.

aitihasik upanyas

'ahilyabaee' maratha jivan se sambandhit aitihasik upanyas hai. jisamen ek adarsh hindoo nari ahilya baee ki jivan katha ka samavesh hai. 'bhuvan vikram' men uttar vaidikakal ki katha vastu ko kalpana aur aitihasik anveshan ke yog se paryapt jivan roop men upasthit kiya gaya hai. katha ki kendr bhoomi ayodhya hai. ayodhya ke raja romak, rani mamata tatha rajakumar bhuvan isake mukhy patr hain. isamen vaidik snyam, anushasan, achar-vichar, sabhyata adi ka yathesht snyojan hai. 'madhavaji sindhiya' jatil ghatanayukt aitihasik upanyas hai. jisamen 18vin shati ke peshava patel madhavaji sindhiya ka mahanh jivan chitrit hai. is upanyas ke dvara 10vin shati ke bharat ka samajik tatha sanskritik jivan pratyaksh ho jata hai. 'gadh kundar', 'jhansi ki rani', 'virat ki padmini' ke sambandh men vivaran yathasthan drashtavy hain.

samajik upanyas

'lagan', 'sngam', pratyagat', 'prem ki bhent', 'kundalichakr', 'kabhi n kabhi', 'achal mera koee', 'sona', tatha 'amarevel' hain. 'lagan' men premakatha ke sath bundelakhand ke bhare-poore ghar ke do kisanon ki anaban aur manav-sngharsh ka chitran hai. 'sngam' aur 'pratyagat' ka sambandh oonch-nich ki roodhigat bhavana se hai. in upanyason men tatkalin jati-pati ki kathorata, roodhigrastata, dharmandhata adi ka tatha usase utpann arajakata aur patan ka sajiv chitran hai. 'prem ki bhent' prem ke trikon ki ek chhoti-si kahani hai. 'kundalichakr' ki prishthabhoomi men kisanon aur zamindaron ka sngharsh dikhaya gaya hai. 'kabhi n kabhi' mazadooron se sambandhit hai. 'achal mera koee' me uchch madhyam varg aur uchch varg ka chitran hai. 'sona' upanyas ek lokakatha ke adhar par likha gaya hai. 'amaravel' men sahakarita tatha shramadan ke mahattv ko dikhaya gaya hai.

aitihasik natak

'jhansi ki rani', 'hnsamayoor', 'poorv ki or', 'birabal', 'lalit vikram', aur 'jahandarashah' hain. 'jhansi ki rani' men isi nam ki aupanyasik kriti ko natak roop men prastut kiya gaya hai. 'phoolon ki boli' men svarn rasayan dvara prapt karane valon ki moorkhata par vyngy kiya gaya hai. 'hnsamayoor' ka adhar 'prabhakar charit' namak jain granth hai. 'poorv ki or' poorviy dvipon men bharatiy snskriti ke prachar ki katha ka natakiy roop hai. 'birabal' men akabar ke darabari birabal ke un prayatnon ka chitran kiya gaya hai, jinhonne akabar ko mahanh banane men yog diya. 'lalit vikram' ki kathavastu 'bhuvan vikram' upanyas se hi grihit hai. 'jahandarashah' men jahandarashah ke sngharshamay rajanitik jivan ka chitran kiya gaya hai.

samajik natak

'dhire-dhire' kangres sarakar ke sanh 1937 ee. ke mntrimandal ki sthiti se sambandh rakhata hai. 'rakhi ki laj' men rakhi ki shreshth pratha ko hindoo samaj men banaye rakhane ki bhavana par agrah vyakt kiya gaya hai. 'bans ki phans' kaaulej ke premasambandhi halki manovritti se sambaddh hai. 'pile hath' men aise sudharakon ka chitr hai, jo barat ki purani prathaon ke das hain. 'sagun' men chorabazari ka pardafash kiya gaya hai. 'nilakanth' men vaigyanik tatha adhyatmik donon drishtikonon ke samanvay par bal diya gaya hai. 'kevat' rajanitik dalabandi se sambaddh hai. 'mngalasootr' men ek shikshit ladaki ke sath ek ayogy ladake ke vivah ki kahani hai. 'khilaune ki khoj' men manobal dvara anek samasyaon ke samadhan ka sujhav hai. 'nistar' ka sambangh harijan sudhar se hai. 'dekhadekhi' men doosaron ki dekha-dekhi men samajik parvan par sima se adhik kharche karane ki vritti par vyngy hai.

kahaniyan

'sharanagat', 'kalakar ka dand' adi 7 kahani sngrah prakashit ho chuke hain. jinamen lekhak ki vividh samay men rachit vibhinn prakar ki kahaniyan sngrahit hain.

vicharadhara

vrindavanalal varma ki vicharadhara unake upanyason se spasht gyat ho jati hai. inaki drishti sarvada rashtr ke pun: nirman ki or rahi hai. bharat ke patan ke mool karan roodhi-jarjar samaj ko inhonne apani sabhi prakar ki rachanaon men prayogashala banaya hai tatha samajik kuritiyon ki or ingit kiya hai. ye shram ke mahattv ke prabal poshak hain. varmaji manav jivan ke lie prem ko ek avashyak tattv manate hain. yahi nahin, unake vichar se prem ek sadhana hai, jo sadhak ko samany bhoomi se uthakar uchchata ki or le jati hai. jivan ke prati inaka drishtikon pray: vahi hai, jisaka pratipadan prachin bharatiy snskriti karati hai. inake vichar se manushy ko keval karm karane ka adhikar hai, phal ka nahin.

bhasha-shaili

vrindavanalal varma ji ki bhasha adhikatar patranukool hoti hai. inaki bhasha men bundelakhandi ka put rahata hai. jo upanyason ki kshetriyata ka parichayak hai. varnan jahan bhavapradhan hota hai, vahan bhi inaki shaili adhik alnkaramay n hokar mukhyataya upayukt upama-vidhan se snyukt dikhaee deti hai. mukhyata vrindavanalal varma ji ki shaili varnanatmak hai, jisamen rochakata tatha dharapravahita, donon gun vartaman hain. ye patron ke charitr vishleshan men tatasth rahate hain. patr apane charitr ka parichay ghatanaon, paristhitiyon evn kathopakathan se svayn de dete hain. inake upanyason ki lokapriyata ka yah ek pramukh karan hai.

kritittv

aitihasik upanyasakar ke roop men vrindavanalal varma ka kritittv vishesh mahattv rakhata hai. inamen poorv hindi sahity men aisa koee upanyasakar nahin hua, jisane itani vyapak bhavabhoomi par itihas ko pratishthit karake usake pichhe nihit katha-tattv ko shaktisnlagnata aur antadrishti ke sath sootrabaddh kiya ho. varmaji ke anek upanyason men vastavik itihas ras ki upalabdhi hoti hai. is pushti se ye hindi ke anyatam upanyasakar hain.

sahayak granth

  • vrindavanalal-upanyas aur kala
  • shivakumar mishr
  • vrindavanalal varma-vyaktitv aur krititv
  • padmasinh sharma 'kamalesh'
  • vrindavanalal varma-sahity aur samiksha
  • siyaramasharan prasad

mrityu

aitihasik upanyasakar ke roop men vikhyat vrindavanalal varma ji ka 23 faravari, 1969 ko nidhan ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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