वैशेषिक दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parichay

pray: charvaketar sabhi bharatiy darshan moksh prapti ko manav-jivan ka lakshy manate hain. darshan shabd ka samany arth hai- dekhane ka madhyam ya sadhan[1] athava dekhana. sthool padarthon ke sndarbh men jisako drishti[2] kaha jata hai, vahi sookshm padarthon ke sambandh men antardrashti hai. bharatiy chintakon ne darshan shabd ka prayog sthool aur sookshm arthath bhautik aur adhyatmik donon arthon men kiya hai, tathapi jahan any darshanon men adhyatmik chintan par adhik bal diya gaya hai, vahan nyay darshan men praman-mimansa aur vaisheshik darshan men pramukh roop se pramey-mimansa arthat bhautik padarthon ka vishleshan kiya gaya hai. is drishti se vaisheshik darshan ko adhyatmonmukh jigyasa pradhan darshan kaha ja sakata hai. nyay aur vaisheshik darshan pramukh roop se is vicharadhara par ashrit rahe hain ki jagat men jin vastuon ka hamen anubhav hota hai ve sat hain. at: unhonne drishyaman jagath se pare jo samasyaen ya gutthiyan hain, un par vichar kendrit karane ki apeksha drishyaman jagat ko vastavik manakar usaki satta ka vishleshan karana hi adhik upayukt samajha.[3] vastuvadi aur jigyasa pradhan hone ke karan tatha pramey-pradhan vishleshan ke karan vaisheshik darshan vyavaharik ya laukik drishti se bhi bahut mahattvapoorn hai. nyay-vaisheshik ke anusar gyata, gyey aur gyan ki prithakh-prithakh vastu-satta hai, jabaki vedant men yah mana jata hai ki gyata gyanasvaroop hai aur gyey bhi gyan se prithakh nahin hai. nyay aur vaisheshik yadyapi samanatantr hain, phir bhi nyay praman-pradhan darshan hai jabaki vaisheshik pramey-pradhan. isake atirikt any kee snkalpanaon men bhi in donon darshanon ka parthaky hai.

vaisheshik nam ka karan

vaisheshik darshan apane ap men mahattvapoorn hone ke atirikt any darshanon tatha vidyasthanon ke pratipady siddhanton ke gyan aur vishleshan men bhi bahut upakarak hai. kautily ne vaisheshik ka prithakh roop se to ullekh nahin kiya, kintu snbhavat: samanatantr anvikshiki men vaisheshik ka bhi antarbhav manate hue kautily ne yah kaha ki anvikshiki sab vidyaon ka pradip hai.[4]

bharatiy chintan-parampara men nyay, vaisheshik, sankhy, yog, mimansa, vedant prabhriti chh: astik darshanon aur charvak, bauddh, jain in tin nastik darshanon ka apana-apana sthan v mahattv raha hai.

  • sankhy men trividh du:khon ki nivritti ko,
  • yog men chittavritti ke nirodh ko,
  • mimansa men dharm ki jigyasa ko aur
  • vedant men brahm ki jigyasa ko ni:shreyas ka sadhan bataya gaya hai; jabaki vaisheshik men padarthon ke tattvgyanaroopi dharm arthath unake samany aur vishisht roopon ke vishleshan se paralaukik ni:shreyas ke sath-sath ih laukik abhyuday ko bhi sadhy mana gaya hai.[5] any darshanon men pray: gyan ki satta[6] ko siddh man kar usake astitvabodh aur vigyan ko moksh ya ni:shrey ka sadhan bataya gaya hai, kintu vaisheshik men drishyaman vastuon ke sadharmy-vaidharmyamoolak tattvgyan ko sadhy mana gaya hai. is prakar vaisheshik darshan men lokadharmita tatha vaigyanikata se samanvit adhyatmikata parilakshit hoti hai. yahi karan hai ki nyay-vaisheshik ko vyakaran ke saman any shastron ke gyan ka bhi upakarak ya pradip kaha gaya hai.[7]

advait vedant men brahm ko hi ekamatr sat kaha gaya hai. bauddhon ne sarv shoonyn jaise kathan kiye, sankhyon ne prakriti-purush ke vivek ki bat ki. is prakar in sabane bhautik jagath ke samoohik ya sarvasamany kisi ek tattv ko bhautik jagath se bahar dhoondhane ka prayatn kiya. kintu vaisheshikon ne n keval samagr brahmand ka, apitu pratyek padarth ka tattv usake hi andar dhoondhane ka prayas kiya aur yah bataya ki pratyek vastu ka niji vaishishtray hi usaka tattv ya svaroop hai aur pratyek vastu apane ap men ek satta hai. is mool bhavana ke sath hi vaisheshikon ne drishyaman jagat ki sabhi vastuon ko chh: ya sat vargon men samahit karake vastuvadi drishti se apane mantavy prastut kiye. in chh: ya sat padarthon men sarvapratham dravy ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, kyonki usako hi kendrit karake any padarth apani satta ka bhan karate hain. pahale to vaisheshikon ne chh: hi padarth mane the, par bad men unako yah abhas hua ki vastuon ke bhav ki tarah unaka abhav bhi vastutattv ke niroopan men sahayak hota hai. at: gun, karm samany vishesh ke sath-sath abhav ka bhi vaisheshik padarthon men samavesh kiya gaya. abhipray yah hai ki sabhi 'vastuon ka niji vaishishtray hi unaka svabhav hai' – kya is adhar par hi is shastr ko vaisheshik kaha gaya? is jigyasa ke samadhan ke sndarbh men anek vidvanon ne jo vichar prastut kiye, unaka sar is prakar hai –

  1. vishesh padarth se yukt hone ke karan yah shastr vaisheshik kahalata hai. any darshanon men vishesh ka upadesh vaisa nahin hai jaisa ki isamen hai. vishesh ko svatantr padarth manane ke karan is darshan ki any darshanon se bhinnata hai. vishesh padarth vyavartak hai. at: is shastr ki sngya vaisheshik hai.
  2. vishesh gunon ka uchchhed hi mukti hai, n ki du:kh ka atyantik uchchhed. mukti ka pratipadan charvaketar sabhi darshan karate hain, kintu vishesh gun ko lekar mukti ka pratipadan isi darshan men kiya gaya hai.
  3. vigat: shesh: yatr s vishesh:- is prakar ka vigrah karane par vishesh ka arth 'niravashesh' ho jata hai aur is prakar sabhi padarthon ka chh: ya sat men antarbhav ho jata hai.
  4. 'visheshann vishesh:'—aisa vigrah karane par yah arth ho jata hai ki padarthon ke lakshan- parikshan dvara jo shastr unaka bodh karavaye, vah vaisheshik hai.
  5. is darshan men atma ke bhed tatha usamen rahane vale vishesh gunon ka vyakhyan kiya gaya hai. kapil ne atma ke bhedon ko svikar kiya, kintu unako vishesh gun vala nahin mana. vedant to atma ke bhed aur gunon ko svikar nahin karata. at: atma ke vishesh gun aur bhed svikar karane se is darshan ko vaisheshik kaha jata hai.
  6. anek pashchatty aur bharatiy vidvanon ne vaisheshik ko dipharensiyalist darshan kaha hai, kyonki unaki drishti men yah bhedabuddhi (vaishishtray-vichar) par adharit hone ke karan bhedavadi hai.[8]

vaisheshik shabd ki vyutpatti

vaisheshik shabd ki vyutpatti vibhinn bhashyakaron, tikakaron aur vrittikaron ne apane-apane drishtikon se ki. unamen se kuchh ka yahan ullekh karana aprasngik n hoga.

  1. achary chandr : vaisheshik vishishtopadeshta.
  2. chandrakant : yadidn vaisheshikn nam shastramarabdhn tatkhalu tantrantarath visheshasyarth- syabhidhanath (chandrakantabhashyamh).
  3. manibhadrasoori: naiyayikebhyo dravyagunadisamagrya vishishtamiti vaisheshikamh (shaddarshanasamuchchay-vritti- pri. 4).
  4. gunaratn: nityadravyavrittayoantya vishesha: evn vaisheshikamh (vinayadibhy: svarthe ikh) tadh vaisheshikn vidanti adhiyate va (tadvaityadhit ityani) vaisheshika: teshamidn vaisheshikamh (shaddarshanasamuchchayavritti).
  5. udayanachary: (k)vishesho vyavachchhed: tattvanishchay: ten vyavaharantityarth: (kiranavali pri. 613), (kh) tattvamanaropitn roopamh. tachch sadharmyavaidharmyabhyamev vivichyate (kiranavali pri. 5)
  6. shridhar : sadharmy-vaidharmyamh ev tattvamh (asyarth: - vaidharmaroopath tattvath utpannn yath shastrn tadev vaisheshikamh) – nyayakandali).
  7. durvekamishr : dravyakunakarmasamanyavisheshasamavayatmake padarthavisheshe vyavaharantiti vaisheshika: (dharmottarapradip:).
  8. adhunik samikshak : udayavir shastri prabhriti adhikatar vidvanon ka bhi yahi vichar hai –kanad ne jin param sookshm prithivyadi bhootatattvon ko jagath ka mool upadan mana hai, unaka nam vishesh hai. at: isi adhar par is shastr ka nam vaisheshik pada.[9]

vaisheshikasootr men vaisheshik shabd keval ek bar prayukt hua hai[10]- jisaka arth hai- visheshata.

uparyukt kathanon par vichar karane ke anantar yahi mat samuchit pratit hota hai ki nity aur anity padarthon ke antim paramanuon men rahane vale aur unako ek doosare se vyavritt karane vale vishesh namak padarth ki udbhavana par adharit hone ke karan is darshan ka nam vaisheshik pada. yogasootr par apane bhashy men vyas ne bhi isi mat ka samarthan kiya hai.[11]

padarth tattv niroopanam

  • raghunath shiromani ne vaisheshik ke sat padarthon ki samiksha ki aur vishesh ke padarthatv ka khandan kiya.

vaisheshik darshan ki tattv mimansa

  • maharshi kanad ne vaisheshikasootr men dravy, gun, karm, samany, vishesh aur samavay namak chh: padarthon ka nirdesh kiya aur prashastapad prabhriti bhashyakaron ne pray: kanad ke mantavy ka anusaran karate hue padarthon ka vishleshan kiya.
  • shivadity (10vin shati) se poorvavarti achary chandramati ke atirikt pray: any sabhi prakhyat vyakhyakaron ne padarthon ki snkhya chh: hi mani, kintu shivadity ne saptapadarthi men kanadokt chh: padarthon men abhav ko bhi jod kar saptapadarthavad ka pravartan karate hue vaisheshik chintan men ek krantikari parivartan kar diya. yadyapi chandramati (6thi shati) ne dashapadarthi (dashapadarthashastr) men kanadasammat chh: padartho men shakti, ashakti, samany-vishesh aur abhav ko jodakar dash padarthon ka ullekh kiya tha, kintu chini anuvad ke roop men upalabdh is granth ka aur isamen pravartit dashapadarthavad ka vaisheshik ke chintan par koee vishesh prabhav nahin pada. han, aisa pratit hota hai ki abhav ke padarthatv par chandramati ke samay se lekar shivadity ke samay tak jo charcha huee, usako manyata dete hue hi shivadity ne abhav ka padarthatv to pratishthapit kar hi diya. kuchh vidvanon ka yah bhi mat hai ki kanad ne arambh men moolat: dravy, gun aur karm ye tin hi padarth mane the. shesh tin ka pravartan bad men hua. adhikatar yahi mat prachalit hai, phir bhi snkshepat: chh: padarthon ka pariganan kanad ne hi kar diya tha.

vaisheshik darshan ka vaishishty

vaisheshik siddhanton ka atiprachinatv pray: sarvasvikrit hai. maharshi kanad dvara rachit vaisheshikasootr men bauddhon ke siddhanton ki samiksha n hone ke karan yah bhi svikar kiya ja sakata hai ki kanad buddh ke poorvavarti hain. jo vidvan kanad ko buddh ka poorvavarti nahin manate, unamen se adhikatar itana to manate hi hain ki kanad doosari shati eesvi poorv se pahale hue honge. snkshepat: sankhyasootrakar kapil aur brahmasootrakar vyas ke atirikt any sabhi astik darshanon ke pravarttakon men se kanad sarvadhik poorvavarti hain. at: vaisheshik darshan ko sankhy aur vedant ke atirikt any sabhi bharatiy darshanon ka poorvavarti manate hue yah kaha ja sakata hai ki keval darshanik chintan ki drishti se hi nahin, apitu atiprachin hone ke karan bhi is darshan ka apana vishisht mahattv hai.

vaisheshik darshan ki achar-mimansa

pray: sabhi darshanon ke akar granthon men gyan mimansa aur tattv mimansa ke sath-sath kisi-n-kisi roop men achar ka vivechan bhi antarnihit rahata hai. dharm, arth, kam, moksh ke samyak vivek ke sath jivan men santulit kary karana hi achar hai. yahi karan hai ki pratyek vivekashil vyakti kabhi-n-kabhi yah sochane ke lie badhy ho jata hai ki jivan kya hai? snsar kya hai? snsar se usaka snyog ya viyog kaise aur kyon hota hai? kya koee aisi shakti hai, jo usaka niyantran kar rahi hai? kya manushy jo kuchh hai usamen vah koee parivartan la sakata hai? vyashti aur samashti men kya antar ya sambandh hai? ek vyakti ka any vyaktiyon ya jagat ke prati kya kartavy hai? ye aur kee any aise prashn hain jo ek or rahasyamayi paralaukikata ko sparsh karate hain. prakarantar se yah kaha ja sakata hai ki jo prayatn-shrinkhala sarthak aur samyakh uddeshy ki poorti ke lie drisht ko adrisht ke sath ya drisht ko drisht ke sath jodati hai, vah laukik kshetr men achar kahalati hai. sabhi bharatiy astik darshanon men achar nahin kiya. at: vaisheshik granthon men yatr-tatr jo katipay snket upalabdh hote hain, unake adhar par hi yah kaha ja sakata hai ki vaisheshikon ka acharaparak drishtikon bhi vedamoolak hi hai.

vaisheshik darshan ki gyan mimansa

gyan (prama) kya hai? gyan aur agyan (aprama) men kya bhed hai? gyan ke sadhan athava nishchayak ghatak kaun hain? in aur isi prakar ke kee any prashnon ke uttar men hi gyan ke svaroop ka kuchh parichay prapt kiya ja sakata hai. gyan apane ap men vastut: ek nirapeksh saty hai, kintu jab usako paribhashit karane ka prayas kiya jata hai to vah vishleshak ki apani simaon ke karan grahyavastha men sapeksh saty ki paridhi men a jata hai. phir bhi bharatiy manyataon ke anusar kanad adi rishi saty ke sakshat drashta hain. at: unhonne jo kaha, vah pray: gyan ka nirapeksh vishleshan hi mana jata hai.

vaisheshik pramukh granth

vaisheshik siddhanton ki parampara atiprachin hai. mahabharat adi granthon men bhi isake tattv upalabdh hote hain. mahatma buddh aur unake anuyayiyon ke kathanon se bhi yah pramanit hota hai ki siddhanton ke roop men vaisheshik ka prachalan 600 ee. se pahale bhi vidyaman tha. maharshi kanad ne vaisheshik sootron ka grnthan kab kiya? isake snbandh men anusandhata vidvan kisi ek tithi par abhi tak sahamat nahin ho paye, kintu ab adhikatar vidvanon ki yah dharana banati ja rahi hai ki kanad mahatma buddh ke poorvavarti the aur siddhant ke roop men to vaisheshik parampara ati prachin kal se hi chali a rahi hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. drishyanteanen iti darshanamh
  2. darshann drishti:
  3. snvidev bhagavati vastoopagame n: pramanamh, nya. va. ta. tika, 2.1.36
  4. pradip: sarvavidyanamupay: sarvakarmanamh. ashray: sarvadharmanan tasmadanvikshiki mata॥ kau. arthashastr
  5. yatoabhyudayani:shreyasasiddhi: s dharm:. vai. soo. 1.1.2
  6. satyn gyanamanantn brahm
  7. kanadn paniniyn ch sarvashastropakarakamh.
  8. a) Dictionaries of Asian Philosphies, IR, P 186
    (b) Encyclopaidia Betannika, Vol, X, P. 327
    (c) The Word Vishesha is derived from Vishesha which means difference and the doctrine is so designated because according to it diversity and not the unity is a root of Universe: Hiriyanna, OIP. P. 225
  9. vai. d. vidyodayabhashy, pri. 19
  10. 1) vai. soo. 10.2.7
  11. yogasootr vyasabhashy, 1.4.9

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